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of Treaties," published at Calcutta ; but it has been thought that it might be interesting if the collection commenced with the Treaties concluded in January, 1801, although all the Treaties concluded between that date, and March, 1857 (with the exception of the Commercial Treaty of 28th October, 1841), have now ceased to be in force.

The following, then, is a List of the Treaties and other International Engagements which have been entered into between Great Britain and Persia since the 1st January, 1801 :

No.

Page. 1. 1801. January. Political Treaty

1 2. January. Commercial Treaty..

1 3. 1809. 12th March. Preliminary Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. 4 4. 1812. 14th March. Definitive Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.. 5 5. 1814. 25th November. Definitive Treaty of Friendship and Subsidy 6 6. 1828. March-August. Agreement cancelling the Subsidy Articles of the Treaty of 25th November, 1814

7 7. 1841. 28th October. Commercial Treaty

9 (See also Treaty of 4th March, 1857, Art. IX, p. 19.) 8. 1851. August. Convention authorising the detention and search of

Persian Vessels by British and East India Company's
Cruizers, with a view to the suppression of the Slave
Trade ..

12 (Confirmed by Article XIII of the Treaty of 4th March,

1857, but cancelled by Art. IV of the Convention of

2nd March, 1882, p. 42.)
9. 1853. 25th January. Engagement contracted by Persian Govern-

ment towards the British Government, with regard to
Herat..

14

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War was declared by Great Britain against Persia on the 1st November, 1856, and the Treaty of Peace was signed at Paris on the 4th March, 1857.

No.

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Page. 10. *1857. 4th March. Treaty of Peace. Engagement with regard to Herat and Afghanistan, &c.

16 11. 1862. 17th December. Engagement. Telegraph Line. Khanakeen to Bushire, viâ Tehran

23 12. 1865. 23rd November. Telegraph Convention

25 13. *1868. 2nd April. Telegraph Convention

30 *1871. 1st-4th September. Arrangement. Boundary. Persia and Kelat

105 *1872. August. Arrangement. Persia and Afghanistan. Seistan Boundary. British Award

63 14. *1872. 2nd December. Telegraph Convention

32 *1873. 15th May. (Proposed) Amended Arrangement. Boundary. Persia and Kelat

106 15. *1882. 2nd March. Slave Trade Convention..

40 16. 1887. 3rd July. Agreements. Prolongation of Telegraph Con

ventions of 2nd April, 1868, and 2nd December, 1872 43

p. 16.

Those Treaties which are still in force are marked with an
asterisk; but a short abstract of the contents of those which
have expired is also given for convenience of reference under
their respective dates.

In addition to the direct Engagements which Persia has
entered into with this Country, she was also a Signatory, or an
Acceding Party, to the following general International Engage-
ments, to which Great Britain was also a Party :
1865. 17th May. International Telegraph Convention (Paris).

“State Papers,” Vol. LVI, p. 295.
1868. 21st July. International Telegraph Convention (Vienna).

'State Papers," Vol. LIX, p. 322.
11th December. Declaration. Non-use in time of war of Explosive
Projectiles under 400 grammes weight (St. Petersburgh).

“State Papers,” Vol. LVIII,
1872. 14th January. International Telegraph Convention (Rome).

“State Papers," Vol. LXVI, p. 975.
1874. 5th December. Accession to (Geneva) Convention of 22nd August,

1864, respecting the Wounded in Armies in the Field.

“State Papers," Vol. LXX, p. 1168.
1875. 22nd July. International Telegraph Convention (St. Petersburgh).

“State Papers," Vol. LXVI, p. 19.
1877. 18th August. Declaration. Accession of Persia to General Postal

Union Treaty signed at Berne, 9th October, 1874.

“State Papers,” Vol. LXV, p. 13.
1878. 15th August. Accession to Universal Postal Union of 1st June,

1878 (Paris). (“State Papers," Vol. LXIX, p. 210.) (Amended
by Additional Act of 21st March, 1885.)

“State Papers," Vol. LXIX, p. 276.
1880. 3rd November. Exchange of Postal Parcels without declaration of

value (Paris).

“State Papers, Vol. LXXI, p. 356.
1884. 14th March. Protection of Submarine Cables. (Signed by Persian

Plenipotentiary, but not ratified by the Shah.)

“Hertslet's Treaties," Vol. XVII, p. 495.
1885. 21st March. Additional Act to Convention of 1st June, 1878.

(“State Papers,” Vol. LXIX, p. 210.) Universal Postal Union
(Lisbon).

“Hertslet's Treaties," Vol. XVII, pp. 235, 241, 243.
The Shah of Persia has also issued the following Firmans,
&c., granting certain Commercial and other Privileges to Great
Britain and other countries, and for the Suppression of the
Slave Trade :

Page.
1823. July (August). Abolition of Export Duty on Horses

47
1836. 5th May. Permission to British Merchants to trade with

Persia on payment of the same duties as those paid by
Russian Merchants (see also Treaty of 4th March, 1857,
Årt. IX, p. 19)

48
1839. 15th September. Protection of Servants and Dependants of
the British Mission ..

48
1840. April. Ditto, ditto (amended)..

49

A 2

It may also be mentioned that an Understanding was

arrived at between Great Britain and Russia in 1834, with

regard to the maintenance of the INDEPENDENCE and INTEGRITY

of Persia, which was admitted to be in force, by an Exchange

of Notes, in 1838, in 1873, in 1874, and again in 1888 (page

209).

In 1834, an Understanding was also arrived at between Great

Britain and Russia, with regard to the SUCCESSION to the Persian

Throne (page 215).

In March, 1865, an Agreement was arrived at between Great

Britain and Russia respecting a Map of the Turco-Persian

Frontier (page 218).

On the 27th July, 1880, a Protocol was signed between

Great Britain and Russia, fixing the Boundaries between Turkey

and Persia in the Territory of Khotour, in accordance with

Article LX of the Treaty of Berlin of 13th July, 1878 (page 219).

On the 13th December, 1889, Two Orders in Council were

passed, one entitled “The Persia Order in Council, 1889," and
the other “The Persian Coast and Islands Order in Council,
1889." These Orders are too voluminous to find a place in this
collection, but a short abstract of the contents of each of them
is given at pages 193, 199.

A List of the Treaties, &c., which Persia has concluded with
Foreign Countries other than with Great Britain, is given at
page 61; and, as it is stipulated in Article IX of the Treaty of
Peace of 4th March, 1857 (page 19), that “THE HIGH CONTRACTING
PARTIES ENGAGE THAT IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND RECOGNITION
OF CONSULS-GENERAL, CONSULS, VICE-CONSULS, AND CONSULAR
AGENTS, EACH SHALL BE PLACED IN THE DOMINIONS OF THE
OTHER ON THE FOOTING OF THE MOST FAVOURED NATION; AND
THAT THE TREATMENT OF THEIR RESPECTIVE SUBJECTS, AND
THEIR TRADE, SHALL ALSO, IN EVERY RESPECT, BE PLACED ON
THE FOOTING OF THE TREATMENT OF THE SUBJECTS AND COM-
VERCE OF THE MOST FAVOURED NATION,"

FAVOURED NATION," copies of those

Treaties are given, in alphabetical order, preceded by an abstract of their contents.

They are classified again, according to Subjects, in the Index, which will be found at the end of the Volume; so that it can readily be ascertained what Privileges have been conceded by Persia to Foreign Countries, the benefits of which can be enjoyed by Great Britain, in addition to the privileges directly conceded by Persia to British Subjects and their Trade.

In conclusion, I beg to state that this work is not an official publication but purely a Private Undertaking, and that I am personally responsible for the statements which it contains.

EDWARD HERTSLET.

Foreign Office,

1st April, 1891.

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