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in French. The principles applied in the French Exercises are thus made a most convenient and effective auxiliary in the still more advanced and difficult work of translating English into French.

6. GRAMMATICAL "AND IDIOMATIC PRINCIPLES. This division may be employed by means of the references either in connection with the preceding instructions, or, when not thus required, may be applied both as a test of the pupil's previous deductions, and at the same time as an appropriate and impressive review.

The rựles on pronunciation will, it is hoped, be found as complete as possible, and the selection of sentences in the Exercises an improvement on those of many former methods. A few lessons at the beginning are accompanied by questions, merely as an indication how to proceed with the subsequent lessons. The last lesson (the 77th) contains the conjugation of all the irregular verbs in general use, arranged alphabetically. A history of the formation of the French language with the English translation will be found at the end of the Lessons, together with a complete dictionary of all the words used in the different exercises.

The student will observe that many phrases and passages are presented both in French and in English. These are introduced partly to serve as elementary reading lessons, and also in order that the student may be accustomed as soon as possible to make use of some grammatical expressions which have not always terms exactly corresponding to them in English. For instance, the French do not speak of the POTENTIAL Moon, mode potentiel, but of the Subjunctive, SUBJONCTIF, or the Conditional, coNDITIONNEL, as the case may be; they do not speak

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of the PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB, des principales parties d'un verbe, but of the Primitive Tenses of a Verb, DES TEMPS PRIMITIFS D'UN VERBE; nor of the DIRECT OR INDIRECT OBJECTS, des objets directs ou indirects, but rather of the Direct or Indirect Regimens, DES RÉGIMES DIRECTS OU INDIRECTS ; &c.

It will be seen that the book does not contain a Second Part devoted to a systematic re-arrangement of the grammatical facts contained in the several lessons. Such a Second Part is, we believe, seldom used by students, and we have been careful, as far as possible, in the construction of our Lessons to insert together all the facts appertaining to each part of the subject. So the course of our book corresponds very nearly to that which would be adopted in a systematic grammar.

Passages which are printed in small type are intended mainly for the use of advanced pupils, giving them definitions of synonymous terms, explanations of special difficulties, and other matters which may assist them in translating accurately.

While respectfully presenting this work to the public, the authors indulge the hope that it may prove a welcome auxiliary to the acquisition of the French language.

LOUIS A. LANGUELLIER.
H. M. MONSANTO.

NEW YORK, October, 1873.

OF THE

UNIVERSITY

or
CALIFORNIA

INDEX.

The heavy-face figures refer to the Lessons, the light-face figures to the Rules ; as, for
instance, 3. 1-3 denotes Lesson 3, Rules 1-3, &c. When page or section is referred to,
p. or ş is given with the figures.

A.

Âgé and vieux, 27. 2, Obs.
À, in combination with the article (au, Agreement of the verb with its sub-
à la, à l', aux), 3. 1-3; 7. 2. Used

ject, 73.1-7. Subjects joined by et,
to express the passive voice, 27.8;

73. 1. Subjects of different persons,
46. 3. With être, 29. 3. With en-

73.2. Subjects joined by ni, 73.3, 4.
trer, 29.5, Obs. b. Before names of

Subjects joined by ou, 73. 5. Sev-
countries, cities, &c., 33. 5. Verbs

eral subjects not connected by a con-
requiring à before the following in-

junction, 73. 6.

When the subject
finitive, 42.1, Obs.; 67.1, 2. Verbs

is a general collective noun, 73. 7.
requiring à before a noun or a pro-

Aimer, model verb of the 1st regular
noun, 50.7; 67.2; 68. 2. Adjectives

conjugation, 35.
requiring à, 69. 2-4. Prepositions

À l', see à.
followed by à, 70. 1, 8. Governs al-

À la, see a.
ways the infinitive, 70. 2.

Aller, 40.
Accents, acute, grave, and circumflex, Alphabet, same as in English, p. 17.

An and année, 20. 15.
Active verb, 46. 1, Obs. d.

And, not translated in French, 65. 1,
Adjectives, formation of the feminine,

Obs.
11. 1-10.

Of the plural, 2. 10 ; Ans, 27. 2, Obs.
11. 12. Used substantively, 11. 11. Answers in French, 24. 1, Obs.
Agreement with the noun, 11. 12. Any, 6. 1.
Its place before or after the noun, Anybody, 10. 4.
12. 1, 2, 3, 5. Possessive Adjectives, Any one, 10. 4.
15. 1-7. Demonstrative Adjectives, Anything, 10. 4.

17. Indefinite Adjectives, 20. Article, le, la, l', 1. 1-3. Les, 2. 1.
Adverb, generally formed by adding Un, une, 1. 4. Article repeated be-

ment to an adjective, 71. 1. fore each word, 1. 5. Use of the
place, 71. 2. Adjectives used as ad article, 33 ; 49. 2. Omission of the

verbs, 71.3. Adverbial phrases, 71.4. article, 34.
Âge, 27. 2, Obs.

Assez, 14. 4.

p. 19.

Its

Au, see à.

Combien, 14. 4; 27. 2; 39. 2.
Aucun, 9. 1, 4; 20. 1.

Comment, 39. 2, 3.
Aussi and aussi... que, 13. 6, Obs. Comparative, 13. 1. Three irregular
Autant de and autant de ... que de, comparatives, 13. 7. Comparative
14. 1, Obs.

adjectives repeated before every noun,
Autre, 20. 2.

13. 8.
Aux, see à.

Comparisons of quantity, 14. 1.
Auxiliary verbs, 25; 28; 52. 2. Complement, 46. 2.
Avoir, its conjugation, 25. Used idio- Compound consonants, p. 28.

matically instead of être, 26. 1, 2. Compound nouns, 72. Plural of nouns
Its other idiomatic uses, 26. 2, Obs.; composed either of two substantives
27.1-8; 29. 5, Obs. a. Il y a and or of an adjective and substantive,
il est, 30. 2, Obs. b. Preceding an 72. 1. Of two nouns joined by a
other verb, 42.1. Used impersonally, preposition, 72. 2 and Obs. Of nouns
see Y avoir.

composed either of a noun and a verb,

or of a noun and a preposition, or of
B.

a noun and an adverb, 72. 3. Of a

verb and an adverb or a verb and a
Beaucoup, 14. 4.
Bien, 14. 5.

preposition, 72. 4. Compound nouns

written as simple nouns, 72. 4, Obs.

Compound tenses, 5. 2; 6. 7.
C.
Ça, 19. 7.

Compound vowels, p. 20.
Can, 64. 2.

Conditional, its endings, 40. 1. Its
Capital letters, 12. 4.

Sometimes used after
Cardinal numbers, 21. Used instead

the dubitative conjunction si, 56. 6.
of ordinal numbers, 22. 5.

Rendered by should and would,59.3,

Rem. Its formation and use, 60.
Ce, cet, cette, ces, 17. 1; 19. 1, 2, 3,5,8.
Ce, demonstrative adjective and ce, de-Conjunctions and conjunctive phrases
monstrative pronoun, 19. 5, Obs. b.

requiring the subjunctive or the in-
Ceci, 19. 6.

dicative, 63. 1. Requiring always
Cedilla, Introduction, $ 6. 1; L. 19.5.

the subjunctive, 63. 2. List of con-

junctions more generally used, 75.1, 2.
Cela, 19. 6.

Conjunctive Pronouns, 10. 1, 2.
Calui, celle, ceux, celles, 18. 1.

Connaître and savoir, 45. 1, Obs.
Celui-ci, celle-ci, ceux-ci, celles-ci,

Consonants, pp. 24 – 28.
18. 2.

Could, 64. 3.
Celui-là, celle-là, ceux-là, celles-là,
18. 2, 3.

Croire, 44. 3; 65. 5.
Celui qui, 18. 4.

D.
Ce n'est pas que, 62. 5.
Cent, 21. 4, 5.

Dans and en, 24. 4; 29. 5, Obs. b.
Certain, 20.3.

Davantage and plus, 46. 4.
C'est assez que, 62. 7.

Days, 22. 5, $ 3.
C'est bien le moins que, 62. 7. De, indicating possession. 3. 1. Com-
Chaque, 20. 4.

bined with the article, 3. 2, 3. In-
Chez, 10. 3.

dicating the material of an object, 5.1.

use, 55. 1.

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