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any one think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself. 4 But let every one try his own work; and then he will have boasting in himself alone, and not in another. 5 For every one will bear his own burden.

6 Now let him who is taught this doctrine, make him who teacheth partaker in all good things. 7 Be not deceived: God is not deluded: for whatsoever a man soweth, that will he also reap. 8 For he who soweth to his own flesh, from the flesh will reap corruption: but he who soweth to the spirit, from the spirit will reap alonian life. 9 And let us not be weary in well-doing for in due time we shall reap, if we faint not. 10 As we have opportunity, therefore, let us do good to all; but especially to those who are of the household of faith.

11 YE see how large a letter I have written to you with

mine own hand. 12 As many as desire to make a fair show in the flesh, such would compel you to be circumcised, only lest they should be persecuted for the cross of Christ. 13 For neither do they themselves, who are circumcised, keep the law; but they desire to have you circumcised, that they may boast in your flesh. 14 But far be it from me, that I should boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom a world is crucified to me, and I to [the] world. 15 For in Christ Jesus neither is circumcision any thing, nor uncircumcision; but a new creation. 16 And as many as shall walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.


1 PAUL, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, to the saints, and faithful in Christ

17 Henceforth let no one trouble me: for I bear in my body the marks of the [Lord] Jesus. 18 Brethren, the favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.


Jesus, who are in Ephesus: 2 favour be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ.

* The words v Eper, (in Ephesus,) are wanting in one manuscript: they were also wanting in some ancient copies in the time of Basil, in the fourth century. Marcion's copy reads "Laodicea." And though the external evidence is very great in favour of Ephesus, vet Mill, Benson, Paley, and many others think it probable that this letter was addressed by Paul to the Laodiceans, and is alluded to Col. iv. 16. It is indeed hardly possible, that the apostle should have dictated a letter to a society of Christians amongst whom he had resided

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3 BLESSED be the God and own will: 12 that we should be

Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us, with every spiritual blessing in heavenly things, in Christ: 4 according as he chose us, in him, before the foundation of the world, that we might be holy and spotless before him in love: 5 having predestinated us to the adoption of sons, through Jesus Christ, to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, 6 to the praise of his glorious favour, with which 15 WHEREFORE I, also, havhe hath highly favoured us in ing heard of your faith in the the beloved: 7 in whom we Lord Jesus, and love towards have redemption through his all the saints, 16 cease not to blood, even forgiveness of our give thanks for you; making offences, according to the mention of you in my prayers, riches of his favour; 8 in which 17 that the God of our Lord he hath abounded towards us Jesus Christ, the Father of `in all wisdom and prudence; glory, may give you a spirit 9 having made known to us the of wisdom and of revelation, mystery of his will, according in the knowledge of him: 18 to his good pleasure, which he that, the eyes of your mind purposed in himself 10 con- being enlightened, ye may cerning the dispensation of the know what is the hope of his fulness of times, that he would having called you, [and] what gather togethert to himself, in are the glorious riches of his one, all things in Christ, which inheritance among the saints; are in the heavens, and which 19 and what is the exceeding are on the earth, even in him; 11 greatness of his power towards in whom we have also obtained us who believe, according to an inheritance, having been pre- the working of his mighty destinated according to the pur-strength, 20 which he wrought pose of him who worketh all in Christ, when he raised him things after the counsel of his from the dead, and seated him

to the praise of his glory, having first hoped in Christ: 13 in whom ye also, having trusted, (after ye heard the word of truth, the glad tidings of your salvation,) in whom, I say, ye also, having trusted, have been sealed with the holy spirit of promise, 14 (which is the earnest of our inheritance,) to the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of his glory.

three years, without once alluding to that circumstance, or to any of the extraordinary events which bad occurred during his abode in Ephesus. See Acts xix. 2 Cor. i. 8. 1 Cor. xv. 32. Paley's Hor. Paul. p. 242." Im. Ver. note.

By the terms we and us, the apostle often speaks affectionately of the gentiles. See Locke. Their redemption signifies their deliverance from idolatry and vice: this was through the blood of Christ, by whose death the new covenant was ratified. The forgiveness of sin was transferring them from a heathen state, in which they are represented as sinners, to a covenant and privileged state, in which they are said to be justified and holy.

The primary signification of the word avaxɛparalow, which the apostle here uses, is, to sum up an account, or, to reduce many sums to one. See Schleusner.

at his own right hand in the heavenly places;* 21 far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name which is named, not only in this age, but also in that which is coming; 22 and put all things in subjection under his feet, and appointed him head over all things in the church, 23 which is his body, the fulness of him who filleth all in all: CH. II. 1 even you who were dead in offences and sins, 2 in which ye formerly walk-that we should walk. ed, according to the mannert 11 WHEREFORE remember of this world, according to the that ye, formerly gentiles in powerful ruler of the air, and the flesh, (who are called the of the spirit which now work- uncircumcision by that which eth in the sons of disobedience: is called the circumcision in the 3 among whom all of us like- flesh made by hands ;) 12 rewise lived, formerly, in the de- member, I say, that ye [in] that sires of our flesh, fulfilling the time were without Christ, bewill of the flesh, and of our ing aliens from the citizenship minds; and were by nature of Israel, and strangers to the children of anger, even as covenants of promise, having others; 4 but God, who is rich no hope, and without God in in mercy, through his great the world. 13 But now, in love with which he loved us, Christ Jesus, ye, who formerly 5 when we were de in of were far off, are brought near fences, hath given life to us in the blood of Christ.[] also, together with Christ, (by favour ye are saved,) 6 and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in the heavenly places,§ in Christ Je

14 For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; 15 (having abolished, in his flesh,

sus: 7 that in the ages to come, he might show the exceeding riches of his favour, in his kindness towards us as manifested in Christ Jesus.


8 For by favour ye are sav. ed through faith and this salvation is not from yourselves: it is the gift of God; 9 not from works: so that no one can boast. 10 For we are his workmanship, having been created in Christ Jesus to good works, in which God before designed

In the figurative language of the apostle, all who enjoy the light of divine revelation, whether Jews or Christians, are said to dwell in heaven. See ch. ii. 6. See, also, Im. Ver. note. "The state, or condition, of the gentile world." Newcome.

+ Grage.

"As Jews and Christians residing (figuratively) in heaven, are represented as constituting a polity under the government of angels, principalities, and powers, etc. so the unevangelized world are a polity under the government of a fictitious personage called Satan, the ruler of the air. etc. and his angels. This whole imagery is borrowed from the Oriental philosophy, and is not to be taken in a literal sense. See Mr. Lindsey, ubi supra." Im. Ver. note.

As ch. i. 20, it is said that God hath seated Christ at his own right hand in heavenly places, so here it is also said, that God hath raised us up, and made us sit together in heavenly places." Ibid.

"Jews and gentiles are harmoniously united in that dispensation, which is ratified by the death of Christ, and by which the burdensome ritual of Moses was superseded as the apostle asserts more particularly in the following verses." Im. Ver. noté.

the cause of enmity, even the | in other generations, was not law of the commandments con- made known to the sons of men, sisting in ordinances, to make as it hath now been revealed in himself of the two, one new to his holy apostles and proman, thus causing peace; 16 phets in spirit; 6 namely, that and to reconcile both to God, the gentiles should be jointin one body, through the cross, heirs, and a joint-body, and having destroyed by it their en- joint-partakers of [his] promise mity;) 17 and hath come and in Christ, through the gospel; 7 proclaimed the glad tidings of of which I have been made a peace to you who were far off, minister, according to the gift of and to those who were near. that favour of God which hath 18 For through him, we both been bestowed on me, accordhave access, in one spirit to the ing to the mighty working of Father. his power: 8 on me, who am less than the least of all [the saints], this favour hath been bestowed, that I should preach among the gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; 9 and should clearly manifest to all what is the dispensation of being the chief corner-stone; the mystery, which, from the 21 in whom all [the] building, beginning of the ages, was hidbeing fitly framed together, den in God, who hath created groweth to a holy temple in all things: 10 to the intent, that the Lord: 22 in whom ye also the manifold wisdom of God are built together, for a habi- might now be made known, tation of God in the spirit.* through the church, to the principalities and powers in the heavenly places; 11 according to a predisposition of the ages, which he formed in Christ Jesus our Lord; 12 in whom we have freedom of speech, and access with confidence through faith in him: 13 wherefore, I entreat that ye faint not at my afflictions for you, which are your glory): 14 I say, for this cause I bow my knees to the Father [of our Lord Jesus Christ], 15

19 So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; 20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself

CH. III. 1 FOR this cause, I Paul, a prisoner, on account of Jesus Christ for preaching to you gentiles; 2 (since ye have heard the gracious dispensation of God, which is given me towards you; 3 that by revelation, the mystery was made known to me, as I have written before, in few words, 4 by which, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ, 5 which

i. e. for a spiritual hahitation of God.

The apostle's expressions here, and in ver. 4, seem to indicate that the Christians to whom this epistle was addressed, were not personally known to him; and therefore favour the supposition that the epistle was sent to the Laodiceans, and not to the Ephesians.

The words "by Jesus Christ" in the received text, are plainly an interpolation, perhaps a marginal gloss introduced into the text. See Im. Ver. note.

from whom the whole family 7 But on every one of us in heaven and upon earth is favour hath been bestowed acnamed, 16 to grant you, according to the measure of the cording to the riches of his gift of Christ. 8 Wherefore it glory, that ye may be strength- is said, "When he ascended ened with might through his on high, he led captivity capspirit, in the inner man; 17 that tive, [and] gave gifts to men." Christ may dwell in your hearts 9 (Now, this expression, he asthrough faith; so that, being cended, what is it but that he rooted and grounded in love, descended also into the lower ye, 18 with all the saints, may [parts] of the earth? 10 he be able to comprehend what who descended is the same who is the breadth, and length, and also ascended far above all the depth, and height, of this mys- heavens, that he might fill all tery; 19 and to know the things.) 11 And he gave some surpassing love of the know- to be apostles; and some, proledge of Christ, so that ye phets; and some, evangelists; may be filled with all the ful- and some, pastors and teachness of God. ers; 12 for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edification of the body of Christ: 13 till we all come to the same faith in the Son of God, and to the same knowledge of him, to a perfect man, to the measure of the full stature of Christ: 14 that we may be no more children, tossed like waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine, through the sleight of men, and through their craftiness for the purpose of artful deceit; 15 but embracing the truth in love, may grow up in

CH. IV. 1 I THEREFORE, a prisoner in the cause of the Lord, beseech you, that ye walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which ye have been called; 2 with all humility of mind and meekness, with long-suffering, sustaining all things to him who is the one another in love; 3 earn-head, even Christ: 16 from estly endeavouring to preserve whom the whole body, fitly the unity of the spirit in the compacted and connected by bond of peace. 4 There is one every assisting joint, according body and one spirit, even as to the mighty working in the ye have been called in one hope measure of every limb, maketh of your calling; 5 one Lord, the increase of the body to the one faith, one baptism, 6 one edification of itself in love. God and Father of all; who is over all, and through all, and in [us] all.


20 Now to him who is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we can ask or think, according to the power which worketh in us, 21 to him be glory in the church in Christ Jesus, throughout all the generations [of the age] of ages. Amen.

17 THIS I say, therefore, and charge you in the Lord, that ye no more walk as the [other]

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