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reminding you; 14 knowing who will privily bring in destruc

that shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ declared to me. 15 So I will endeavour that ye may always be able, after my decease, to make mention of these things.

tive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord who bought them; bringing on themselves swift destruction. 2 (And many will follow their impurities; on account of whom the way of truth will be evil-spoken of.) 3 And 16 For we did not follow cun- through covetousness they will ningly devised fables, when we make a gain of you by their made known to you the power feigned words: but the condemand appearance of the Lord Je-nation, long since foretold, now sus Christ, but were eye-wit- lingereth not, and their destrucnesses of his majesty. 17 For tion slumbereth not. he received from God the Father honour and glory, when such a voice came to him from the excellent glory," This is my beloved son, in whom I am well-pleased." 18 And this voice which came from heaven, we heard, when we were with him on the holy mountain.

4 For if God spared not the angels who sinned,* but cast them down to tartarus, and delivered them up to chains of darkness to be reserved for condemnation; 5 and spared not the old world, but preserved eight persons, among whom was Noah, a preacher of righteousness, when he brought the flood on the world of ungodly men; 6 and turned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes, and condemned them with an utter overthrow, making them an example to those who should afterward be ungodly; 7 but delivered righteous Lot, who was grieved by the impure behaviour of lawless men: 8 (for that righteous man, while he

19 We have also the word of | prophecy more confirmed; to which ye do well that ye attend, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star rise in your hearts: 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of scripture giveth its own interpretation. 21 For prophecy came not at any time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were mov-dwelt among them seeing and ed by a holy spirit.

CH. II. 1 [BUT there were also false prophets among the Jewish people; as there will be also false teachers among you,

hearing, tormented his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;) 9 so the Lord knoweth how to deliver those who are godly out of trial, and to

"Or, if God spared not the messengers who had sinned, i. e. the spies who were sent to explore the land of Canaan, etc. See Simpson's Essays, p. 205, etc. But, if the common interpretation be admitted, it will not establish the popular doctrine concerning fallen angels. For, 1. The epistle itself is of doubtful authority. 2. From the change of style this is the most doubtful portion of the epistle. 3. By those who admit the genuineness of the epistle, this chapter is supposed to have been a quotation from some ancient apocryphal book, and the apostle might not mean to give authority to the doctrine, but to argue with his readers upon known and allowed principles. See Sherlock's Diss., and Benson, and Doddridge's Introduc tions to this epistle. The epistle of Jude is supposed to allude to, or quote from, the same apocryphal work." Im. Ver. note.

20 For if, having escaped the pollutions of the world, through the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are entangled in them again, and overcome, their last state is worse than their first. 21 For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, having known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered to them. 22 But it hath happened to them according to the true proverb," The dog hath returned to his own vomit; and the sow that had washed herself, to her wallowing in the mire."]

reserve those who are unrighte-| live in error. 19 While they ous to a day of judgment to be promise them freedom, they thempunished: 10 but chiefly those selves are the slaves of corrupwho walk after the flesh with tion: for by whatever any one polluted desires, and despise do- is overcome, by that he is also minion. Presumptuous, and self- enslaved. willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities: 11 whereas angels, who are greater in power and might,* bring not a blaspheming accusation against them [before the Lord.] 12 But these, as brute creatures led by nature, made to be taken and destroyed, blaspheming in things of which they are ignorant, will be destroyed in their corruption of themselves; 13 and will receive the reward of unrighteousness, accounting it pleasure to riot in the day-time; blemishes and spots, rioting in their love-feasts, while they banquet with you; 14 having eyes full of adultery, and which CH. III. 1 THIS second episcannot cease from sin; alluring tle, beloved, I now write to you; the unstable; having a heart ex- in both which I stir up your ercised in covetousness; cursed pure understanding by remindchildren, 15 who have forsaken the ing you; 2 that ye may rememright path, and gone astray, and ber the words formerly spoken followed the way of Balaam the by the holy prophets, and the son of Beor, who loved the re- commandment of us the aposward of unrighteousness, 16 buttles of our Lord and Saviour: 3 received a rebuke for his transgression: the dumb beast of burden speaking with man's voice, forbad the madness of the prophet.

17 These are as wells without

water, and as clouds driven away by a storm; to whom the blackness of darkness is reserved [to the age.] 18 For when they speak very great swelling words of falsehood, they allure, by carnal desires and impurities, those who had nearly escaped from such as

knowing this first, that great scoffers will come in the latter days, walking after their own evil desires, 4 and saying, "Where is the promise of his appearance? for, since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation."

5 For of this they are wilfully ignorant, "that the heavens were made of old by the word of God, and the earth also,

* See the note on ver. 4. Compare also Jude, ver. 9.

vens will be set on fire* and will be dissolved, and the elements will be greatly heated and will melt? 13 Nevertheless, according to his promise, we look for new heavens, and a new earth, in which righteousness will dwell.


which standeth out of the water and in the water: 6 which things being so, the world that then was, having been overflowed with water, was destroyed. 7 But the heavens and the earth which are now, are reserved by his word, and are kept for fire at a day of con- 14 WHEREFORE, beloved, demnation, and of the destruc- since ye look for these things, tion of ungodly men. endeavour to be found by him 8 But, beloved, be not igno-in peace, spotless and rant of this one thing; that one provable: 15 and account that day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. 9 The Lord is not slow concerning his promise, as some count slowness; but is long-suffering towards us, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance. 10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief; in which day, the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will be greatly heated and dissolved, the earth also and the works on it will be burned up.

the long-suffering of our Lord is salvation: as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given him, hath written to you; 16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things: of which things some are hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unsteadfast wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction.

17 Since therefore, beloved, ye know these things before, beware lest ye be led away with the error of the wicked, and. 11 Since therefore all these fall from your own steadfastness. things will be dissolved, what 18 But grow in the favour and kind of persons ought ye to be knowledge of our Lord and Sain all holy behaviour and godli-viour Jesus Christ. To him be ness; 12 looking for and earn- glory, both now and to the day estly desiring the coming of the of the age. [Amen.] day of God, in which the hea

"This in a literal sense is impossible, because the heavens are incombustible. Nor is it reasonable to believe that an event so little countenanced by natural appearances as that of the destruction of the earth by a general conflagration, is the subject of a divine prediction. It is well known that in the language of prophecy great political changes and revolutions are foretold under the symbol of terrible convulsions in the natural world. In this language our Lord foretells the approaching desolation of Jerusalem, Matt. xxiv. 29. And in language precisely similar, borrowed indeed from the prophet Joel, the apostle Peter himself, Acts ii. 31, describes the calamities of the Jewish nation which were then impending. It can hardly admit of a doubt that the sublime language of this context is to be interpreted in a similar manner. The 13th verse is a quotation from Isaiah lxv. 17, where the new heavens and the new earth are universally understood to signify the gospel dispensation. Consequently," the heavens and the earth which are now," ver. 7, must necessarily signify the Jewish dispensation, or the then moral state of the world, which must pass away to make room for the promulgation of the Christian religion. But this revolution cannot take place without producing great changes and convulsions in the political world; which in prophetic language, is expressed by the heavens being on fire, the elements melting, and the earth with the works on it being burned up." Im. Ver. note.



1 CONCERNING the Word of Life, him, who was from the beginning,t whom we have heard, whom we have seen with our eyes, whom we have looked upon, and our hands have handled; 2(for the Life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare to you the life, the aionian life, which was with the Father, and was manifested to us ;) 3 him whom we have seen and heard we declare to you, that ye also may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and with his son Jesus Christ. 4 And these things we write to you, that your joy may be completed.

lowship with each other, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanseth us from all sin.

8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteous. 10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him false, and his word is not in us.

CH. II. 1 My dear children, I write these things to you, that ye may not sin. Yet if any one sin, we have a righteous advocate with the Father, even Jesus Christ: 2 and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world.

5 NOW this is the declaration which we have heard from 3 AND we hereby know that him, and made known to you; we know him, if we keep his that God is light, and in him commandments. 4 He who saith, there is no darkness. 6 If we" I know him," and keepeth say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we speak falsely, and conform not to the truth; 7 but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, God and we have fel

not his commandments, speaketh falsely, and the truth is not in him. 5 But whosoever keepeth his word, the love of God is truly perfected in him: hereby we know that we are in him.

The Word of Life, i. e. Jesus Christ, who is called the Word, Luke i. 2; John i. 1; and the Word of God, Rev. xix. 13. "He was the divinely inspired teacher of the doctrine of a future life. The attentive reader will observe the resemblance between the introduction to the Epistle and that to the Gospel of John, which mutually illustrate and explain each other, and are a presumptive proof that both were written by the same author." Im. Ver. note.

T Not from the beginning of time, but from the beginning of our Saviour's ministry. See John i. 1, and the note there.

Or: "That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked on, and our hands have handled, as concerning the Word of Life." Newcome.

§ that which, Gr. and Newcome.

6 He who saith that he abideth | and ye have overcome the evil in him, ought himself so to walk propensity. as he walked.

15 Love not the world, nor the things which are in the world. If any one love the world, the love of the Father is not in him; 16 for all that is in the world, (the desire of the flesh, and the desire of the eyes, and the pride of life,) is not of the Father, but is of the world. 17 And the world pass

7 Beloved, I write not a new commandment to you, but an old commandment which ye had from the beginning: the old commandment is the word which ye have heard [from the beginning]. 8 Again, a new commandment I write to you: which thing is true in him and in you also for the darkness is pass-eth away, and the desire [of it]: ing away, and the true light now shineth.

9" He who saith that he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness until now. 10 He who loveth his brother, abideth in the light, and he hath no cause of stumbling. 11 But he who hateth his brother, is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because the darkness hath blinded his eyes."

12 I write to you, dear children, because your sins are forgiven you on account of his name. 13 I write to you, fathers, because ye have known him who was from the beginning. I write to you, young men, because ye have overcome the evil propensity.* I write to you, children, because ye have known the Father. 14 I have written to you, fathers, because ye have known him who was from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in

but he that doth the will of God abideth to the age.

18 Little children, the latter hour is come: and as ye have heard that antichrist will come, so even now there are many antichrists; by which we know that the latter hour is come. 19 They went out from us, but they were not of us for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out that it might be made manifest that all are not of us. 20 But ye have an unction from the holy spirit and know all things.

21 I write not to you because ye know not the truth: but because ye know it, and that no falsehood is of the truth. 22 Who speaketh falsely, but he who denied that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, who │denieth the Father and the Son. 23 Whosoever denieth the Son, hath not the Father: but he who acknowledgeth the Son, hath also acknowledged the Father. 24 Let that [therefore] abide in you, which ye



q. d. you have subdued vicious habits and inclinations. Or, you have triumphed over persecution.

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