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the church: whom if thou con- and casteth them out of the duct on their journey in a man-church. ner worthy of God, thou wilt do well; 7 for they went forth for the name of Christ, taking nothing from the gentiles. 8 We ought therefore to receive such; that we may be fellowlabourers for the truth.

11 Beloved, imitate not that which is evil, but that which is good. He who doth good, is of God, but he who doth evil, hath not seen God.

12 Demetrius hath a good testimony from all men, and from the truth itself: and we also bear him testimony; and ye know that our testimony is true.

9 I WOULD have written to the church but Diotrephes, who loveth to have the pre-eminence among them, receiveth us not. 10 Wherefore, if I come, I will call to remembrance his deeds which he doth, tattling against us with evil words and not content herewith, he receiveth not the brethren himself, and forbiddeth those who would, the friends by name.

13 I HAD many things to write; yet I will not write to thee with ink and pen: 14 but I hope that I shall shortly see thee, when we shall speak face to face. 15 Peace be to thee. Our friends salute thee. Salute


1 JUDE, a servant of Jesus | should earnestly contend for Christ, and brother of James, the faith which was once delivto those who have been sancti-ered to the saints.

fied in God the Father, and pre- 4 For some men have crept in served and called in Jesus Christ: 2 mercy, and peace, and love be multiplied to you.

3 Beloved, while I gave all diligence to write to you of the common salvation, it became necessary for me to write to you, and exhort you, that yel

privily, who were before, of old, set forth for this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the favour of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only sovereign, and our Lord Jesus Christ.

5 Now I desire to remind

"This epistle is one of those books the genuineness of which was disputed in the primitive ages, and which therefore, as Dr. Lardner well observes, "ought not to be alledged as affording alone sufficient proof of any doctrine." Grotius ascribes it to a bishop of Jerusalem in the reign of Adrian: but it is commonly believed to have been written by Judas, otherwise called Lebbeus and Thaddeus, the son of Alpheus, the brother of James the less, and first cousin to our Lord. The design of the epistle is to guard its readers against the errors and the crimes of the Gnostics. He is thought to have made quotations from the same apocryphal work which is referred to in the second epistle of Peter; which epistle Dr. Benson conjectures to have been consulted by him while he was writing his own. The epistle of Jude has as little evidence, either external or internal, in its favour, as any book of the New Testament." Im. Ver. note.

12 These are blemishes in your love-feasts, when they banquet with you, feeding themselves without restraint: clouds without water, carried aside by winds; trees whose fruit withereth, barren, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; 13 raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom the blackness of darkness is reserved to the age.

you, who once knew this, that | have gone in the way of Cain, the Lord, having saved his and rushed after the error of people out of the land of Egypt, Balaam for reward, and destroyafterward destroyed those who ed themselves by gainsaying believed not. 6 And the mes-like Korah. sengers who kept not their first state, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in unseent chains, under darkness, to the judgment of the great day. 7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them, which in a manner like to these had habitually committed fornication, and gone after other flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of aionian fire. 8 In like manner also these dreamers defile the flesh, set at nought dominion, and speak evil of dignities. 9 Yet Michael the archangel, when, contending with the impostor, he disputed about the body of Moses, did not attempt to bring against him a reviling accusation, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." 10 But these blaspheme what they do not understand: but what they know naturally, as brute creatures, in these things they corrupt themselves. 11 Alas for them! because they

14 Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied even concerning these, saying, "Behold, the Lord cometh with his holy myriads of angels, 15 to execute judgment upon all, and to convict all the ungodly [among them] of all their [ungodly] deeds which they have committed, and of all the hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."

16 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own evil desires: and their mouth speaketh very swelling

"Or, the messengers who watched not duly over their own principality, but deserted their proper habitation, he kept with unknown chains under darkness (punished them with judicial blindness of mind) to the judgment of a great day, i. e. when they were destroyed by a plague.' Alluding to the falsehood and punishment of the spies. Numbers xiv. See Simpson's Essays, p. 210. Perhaps, however, the writer may refer to some fanciful account of a fall of angels contained in the apocryphal book which lay before him, without meaning to vouch for that fact any more than for the incident mentioned ver. 9. He might introduce it merely to illustrate his argument. At any rate, a fact so important is not to be admitted upon such precarious evidence."

Ver. note.


+ Gr. aïdios, which most Lexicon-writers derive from at, ever, or always: but it may have the same etymology as ans, hades, which they derive from a negative, and dev, to see, and therefore it signifies invisible, unseen, unknown. See Rom. i. 20, where the same word is rendered eternal, after the common version; but, even there, unknown would perhaps have been equally as admissible. See also Scarlett's translation, note on the place.

This is another quotation from some ancient apocryphal book; for the authenticity of which, however, the writer is not to be supposed to vouch.

words, and they respect the persons of men for the sake of gain. 17 But, beloved, remember ye the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; 18 how they told you that there should be scoffers in the last time, walking after their own ungodly desires. 19 These are they who separate [themselves], mere animal men, not having the spirit.

20 BUT ye, beloved, building up yourselves in your most holy faith, praying in a holy spirit, 21 keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy

of our Lord Jesus Christ to aionian life. 22 And on some have pity, making a difference: 23 and save others with fear, snatching them out of the fire; hating even the garment defiled by the flesh.

24 NOW to him who is able to keep you from falling, and to present you spotless before his glory with exceeding joy; 25 to the only God, our Saviour, through Jesus Christ, our Lord, be glory [and] majesty, dominion and power, as before all time, so now, and throughout all ages. Amen.



1 THE Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave to him, that he might show to his ser

vants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it, through his messenger, to his servant John: 2


"The Apocalypse or Revelation of Jesus Christ, is one of those books, the genuineness and authority of which, as Eusebius informs us, was. by some, called in question. It has, however, been almost universally received in modern times. As a book of prophecy, the evidence of its divine authority must chiefly rest upon the perceived accomplishment of the predictions which it contains: so that it may be regarded as in a considerable degree independent of external evidence. In this, however, in the estimation of many learned men, it is far from being deficient. Sir Isaac Newton says, (Observ. on Apoc, p. 249,) “I do not find any other book of the New Testament so strongly attested, or commented upon so early as this." Priestley (Notes, vol. iv. p. 573,) says, he thinks it impossible for any intelligent and candid persons to peruse it without being convinced that, "considering the age in which it appeared, none but a person divinely inspired could have written it." See also Mr. Tower's observations and extracts respecting the authenticity of the Apocalypse, in his learned Illustrations of Prophecy, vol. i. ch. iii. Mr. Evanson has even endeavoured to prove that the apostle Paul alludes and thus bears testimony to the authenticity of this book in some of his epistles. See Evanson's Reflections upon the state of Religion, p. 39-42. Some learned men, however, who have even admitted the divine authority of the Apocalypse, have expressed a doubt whether this book was written by John the apostle and evangelist. The arguments of Dionysius, a disciple of Origen, and an eminently learned and pious bishop of Alexandria, in the third century, are contained in a large extract from a treatise of Dionysius in the seventh book of Euse bius's Ecclesiastical History. They are thus abridged by Dr. Lardner: "Dionysius's objections are five in number. 1. That the evangelist John has not named himself, either in his gospel or in his catholic epistle, but the writer of the Revelation names himself more than once. 2. That though the writer of the Revelation calls himself John, he has not shown us that he is the apostle of that name. 3. That the Revelation doth not mention the catholic epistle, nor that epistle the Revelation. 4. That there is a great agreement in sentiment, expression, and manner,

who hath thus testified of the word of God, and of the testimony given to Jesus Christ, even whatever things he saw. 3 Happy is he who readeth, and those who hear, the words of this prophecy, and keep the things written in it for the time is near.

4 JOHN to the seven churches in Asia; favour be to you, and peace, from him who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven spirits which [are] before his throne; 5 and from Jesus Christ who is the faithful witness, the first-born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth to him who loveth us, and hath washed us from our sins in his own blood, 6 and hath made us a kingdom of priests to his God and Father; to him be glory and dominion to the ages of ages. Amen.

7 Behold, he will come with clouds; and every eye will see him, and those also who pierced him; and all the tribes of the earth will lament because of him. Even so, Amen. 8" I am Alpha and Omega,"* saith the Lord God, who is, who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.

9 I John, your brother and companion in the affliction, and kingdom, and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the island which is called Patmos, for the word of God, and [for] the testimony of Jesus [Christ]. 10 I was in the spirit, on the Lord's day; and heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet, 11 saying, "What thou seest, write in a book, and send it to the seven churches; to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."

12 And I turned to see whence the voice came which spake to me: and, when I had turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; 13 and in the midst of the [seven] candlesticks, one like the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the feet, and girt about his breast with a golden girdle. 14 And his head, and his hair were white, as white wool, or snow and his eyes were as a flame of fire; 15 and his feet like fine brass, as if they had been purified in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters: 16 and he had in his right hand seven stars and out of his mouth

between St. John's gospel and epistle, but the Revelation is quite different in all these respects, without any resemblance or similitude. 5. That the Greek of the gospel and epistle is pure and correct, but that of the Revelation has barbarims and solecisms. Dionysius's own opinion is, that the Revelation was written by some holy and inspired person named John, but who that John was he does not know: he might be John the Elder, said to have resided for some time at Ephesus, in Asia." Dr. Lardner, having examined the arguments of Dionysius at large, and stated the opinions of other learned men, concludes with his usual candour, "I must acknowledge that the Revelation, when compared with the apostle's unquestioned writings, has an unlike ness not easy to be accounted for." Lardner's Works. vol. iii. p. 130. The principal authors who have attempted the interpretation of this difficult prophecy are Joseph Mede, Sir Isaac Newton, Waple, Daubuz, Vitringa, Lowman, Bp. Newton. See also Mr. Tower's Illust. of Prophecy, Abp. Newcome's and Dr. Priestley's Notes upon the Scriptures, and Evanson's Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christendom in the 19th Century." Im. Ver. note.

* Gr. To A nas To : the Alpha and the Omega: i. e. the first and the last letter of the Greek alphabet; equivalent to the beginning and the end.

whence thou art fallen, and reform, and do thy first works: or else I will come to thee [quickly], and will remove thy candlestick out of its place,

went a sharp two-edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. 17 And, having seen him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he put his right hand upon me, say-unless thou reform. 6 But this ing, "Fear not: I am the first, praise thou hast, that thou and the last; 18 and he who hatest the deeds of the Nicollived, and became dead; and, aitans, which I also hate.' 7 behold, I live to the ages of He who hath an ear, let him the ages, and have the keys of hear what the spirit saith to death and of hades.* the churches. To him who overcometh I will give to eat from the fruit of the tree of life which is in the paradise of my God.

19 Write therefore the things which thou hast seen, and the things which now are, and the things which are about to occur. 20 As to the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and as to the seven golden candlesticks; the seven stars are the messengers of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.

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8" AND to the messenger of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, who was dead, and is alive: 9 I know thy [works, and] affliction, and poverty, (yet thou art rich,) and the blasphemy of those who say that they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of the adversary.† 10 Fear none of those things which thou art about to suffer. Behold, the impostor is about to cast some of you into prison, that ye may be proved; and ye will have affliction for ten days. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give to thee the crown of life,' 11 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches. He who overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death.

CH. II. 1 "TO the messenger of the church in Ephesus write; These things saith he who holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks: 2 I know thy works, and [thy] labour, and thy patience, and that thou canst not bear those who are evil: and thou hast tried those who say that they are apostles, and are not; and hast found them false: 3 and hast patience, and hast borne much for the sake of my name, and hast not fainted. 4 Nevertheless I have 12" AND to the messenger something against thee, because of the church in Pergamus thou hast relinquished thy first write: These things saith he love. 5 Remember therefore who hath the sharp two-edged

i. e. the grave, or the place of the dead: literally, the unseen or hidden place.
Jewish adversaries of the gospel, see ch. iii. 9.

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