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those of this great master. How much then is it to be regretted, that hitherto they have been in the hands of but a few practitioners. This perhaps, has proceeded not more from the enormous and incommodious size of the work, than from: the high price at which all the former editions of it have been fold. An attempt, therefore, to reduce the price, without detracting froin the utility of this work, is at least highly laudable.

It cannot, however, be alledged that in the prefenť edition this end has been completely obtained. It must be acknowledged, that in some particulars, at least, it is inferior to others, in a larger scale. In giving a representation of minute parts the same degree of accuracy was unattainable, with fo great a reduction of the fize, as has here taken place. For in this edition of the work eaeli plate is little larger than those in the folio edition of Euftachius published by Albinus.

But if from this circumitance the present edition be in fome measure inferior to the original, it may be observed, that the editor has also made several other changes from which his work has at least suffered nothing.

In the large editions, the landscapes on the back ground added nothing either to the accuracy or elegance of the plates. And, however much, they may have encreased the fabour of the artist, they could in no degree tend to the information of the anatomist. On the contrary, from their being omitted, the attention of the observer is wholly bound to those objects which alone nierit it.

It is with confiderable advantage also, that in the present edition the same characters are employed in the explanation as on the plates intended for references, which was not formerly the case. And from the accurate manner in which every letter is cut, as well as froin avoiding entirely the use of the Greek alphabet, the connexion berween the plates and explanation may be traced with much greater facility than before. To this, it must also be added, that from the outlines being engraved in a bolder stile, the expreffion of the different parts is rendered more diftinét and apparent. Thus feveral circumstances which formerly tended to embarrass the young student of anatomy, are now fuccefsfully obviated.

All these particulars, however would afford room but for a faint recommendation of this edition, were not the shaded plates, on which there are no references, engraved in such a manner as to do great credit to the artist. Throughout the whole, his genius and attention are equally conspicuous. The Atriking and lively representation which they afford, will stand the test of comparison with the most elegant anatomical engraving which the present age has produced, and will prove a lasting monument of the abilities of the engraver. 5

There

There is indeed one circumstance, which may be considered as a defect in the present edition, when compared with that which was published at London. To the London edition were added, from the work of other anatomists, plates of the blood vessels which had no place in the original of Albinus. That just representations of the blood vessels would make an important addition to those of the bones and muscles, 'no man will deny. Yet the inaccuracy of the originals from which the editors of the London editions have taken their copies, renders the edition which they have made but of little importance. And this edition may be considered as having fuffered nothing froin the omission.

The present artist however, could not perhaps employ his time with more advantage to the public than by presenting them with plates of the blood vessels copied from those of Baron Halle and of Dr. Waltheres, present Professor of anatomy at Berlin, whose admirable representations are not less correct than they are elegant and beautiful. And if he be directed in his choice, by the justly celebrated anatomist to whom he has inscribed the present plates, the whole taken together will form a work which ought to be in the poffeffion of every medical practitioner, and lover of anatomy who does not chuse to go to the expence of purchasing all the originals.

Art. II). Titus Livius's Roman History, translated into English,

and illustrated with notes, critical, historical, and geographical : for the use of Students in humanity. By William Gordon, author of the Universal Accomptant. 12mo. 55. sewed. Smith, Glafgcw. Elliot, Edinburgh. Robinsons, London. ' HE reputation of Livy is so great, that many of the

ablest criticks have assigned to him the first rank among historianis. The grandeur of his ideas, the extent of his views, the charm of his manner, and the splendour of his diction, have been all juftly extolled ; and must secure to him the admiration of the most distant pofterity. It is a result of his merit, that no decent translation of his history has yet been offered to the public.. And, indeed, an adequate version of his work is an undertaking which is never to be hoped for. The task of trans* lation is generally confined to inferior men. Writers of genius esteem themselves superior to it; and when individuals have original ideas to communicate to the public, they would doubtless misapply their labour, and waste their time, if they should condescend to transcribe and to interpret the writings of other men.

With respect to Mr. Gordon, it fills us with amazement, that he should have been so great an enemy to himself as to L4

have

have even thought of a translation of Livv. He appears to be very moderately skilled in the Latin tongue ; and if he had actuallv understood all the words in his author, his capacity would not have permitted bim, to take in and comprehend his sentiments. The vanity of his enterprize, and the poverty of his execution are prominent and palpable. They place him in a light, of all others, the most humiliating, and expose him not only to negleet, but to contempt: : It must ever be a strong objection to a tranflictor of Livy, that he is but slenderly acquainted with the Roman tongue. It is, however, a charge againit him ftill more indefenfible, that he has been able to acquire no mattery in the language which he speaks, and in which he affects to compofe. This charge notwithstanding, applies fally to Mr. Gordon. In fact, he does not know the nature and spirit of the Englith language. His taste is mean”; his sentences approach to no dignity; and his manner is without elegance. He is exactly the reverse of Livy. - To dwell upon a publication like the present, would be improper; and, it would be wrong to omit it altogether. For a juit reprobation of such books has this advantage, that it represses the crude and petulant efforts of illiterate pedagogues. But while it is our duty to characterise literary performances with a proper freedom, candour requires, that we should furnith specimens, from which our readers may forma: judgments for themselves of their merit. Of the present work, the following extract may be sufficient, and the reader is requested to turn to the splendid original which it fo cruelly degrades.

Once more the Vejentes resumed their operations against the Fabii, without any new preparations; nor did they content themelves with ravaging the country, or making sudden incursions,

but sometimes ineasured their swords in pitched battles,' upon fair ground. This one Ronan family, frequently carried off the victory from a people, who were, at that time, the most opulent of all the Etrurian nations. By this the Vejentes at first, thought themfelves disgraced and highly affronted ; and, in confequence, formed a design of laying ambuscades for their intrepid enemy; and rejoiced to find, that the forwardness of the Fabii, increased with their repeated victories.

• Wherefore, herds of cattle were frequently driven out in the way of foraging parties, as if they had lighted on them by chance; and by the flight of the perfants, vait tracts of lands seemed to be abandoned. Parties of soldiers were also sent out to chastise the ravagers, who retreated oftener through a pretended, than a real fear.

By this time, the Fabii held the enemy in such sovereign con tempt, that they did not imagine, they could stand againit their vic. torious arms, let the occafioti, or ground be ever fo advantageous. Tläied with these hopes, and seeing fome herds of cattle grazing in and pain, at a confiderable dilance from Cremera, although they

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were' guarded by some small parties of the enemy, they run from the fort to carry them off. Thinking themselves ficure, they ha? passed tlieambuih laid for them on both fides of the way, and had dilper ed in partuit of the cattle, itraggling throus! the fielding which they always do upon an alarm ; the eveny suddenly quitting their lurking places, appeared all at once, in front and in rear, and en every fide,

• At first they raised a terrible nout, and then poured in a volley of darts upon them from every quarter,

The Etrurians came closer together, till the Fabii were totally surrounded, by one trong uniform body of armed men, and the more they were pressed by the enemy, they were obliged to contract their own circle in proportior; which at once discovered their weakness, and the enemy's vaft fiperiority in print of numbers, when their ranks were crouded into to narrow a ipaceThen giving orer an tack, which they made with equal vigour on all sides, they direted all their force to otte point. Thither, drawing up in a wedge, by the wight of their bodies, and the points of their swords, they opened a paffage for themselves, that led by an easy afecnt to the side of a hill, where they first halted.

"As soon as the advantage of the ground had given them leisure to reļpire, and recover from the Shock of fo great a surprise, they beat back the aflailants ; and by the convenience of their post, small as their party was, were getting the better of them, when thie Vea jentes, by fetching a compais, pof fied themselves of the top of the hill. Thus the enemy became again fuperior. The Fabii were all killed to a man, and the fort raken. It is universally admitted, that three hundred and fix fell there ; anıl, that there only remained a youth of about fourteen years of age, as a stock to the Fabian family, which, in future times, was to be the prop and stay of the Roman people, both by their countel and their sword upon the icoit trying occations.

* This disaster happened in the confulship of C. Horatius and T. Mensnius.

The fatter was immediately difparched to chastite the intolence of the Etruriws, which their victory had created ; but he was defeated, and the Janiculuso tkin. Morcover, is the city was in want of provisions, and the Etrurians already on this side the Tiber, the city would certainly have undergone a tiegs, Kad not the consul Horatius been rrcalled from the expedition against the Volici. So clore to the walls of Rome was this mir brought, that the first battle was fought at the temple of Hope, mint no advantage on eitlier fide, and the second at the gate there : although the Romans could boast of no great advantage, yet that ene gagement gave them new spirit, and encouraged them to behave better in every future action.

• A. Virginius and Sp. Servilius, fucceeded as confuls; after the check the Vejentes received in the last engagement, they deelined coming to another : but they plundered the country ; and from the fort Janiculuin, they made incursions lipon the Ponan lands all around. Neither the farmers, por their caitle, were any where safe. But they were at lait taken in the fame trap they had taid for the Fabii : for, pursuing fome cattle, which had been sent out on purpose to decoy them, they fell headlong into the ambuscade; their numbers only served to increase the fau_hter. Their extra4

Vagant

vagant resentment for this loss, laid the foundation of a inuch greater : for, palling the Tibet in the night, they attempted to itorm the camp of Servilius-the consul. But there they met with so warm a reception, that after a prodigious Slaughter, with great difficulty they got back to the Janiculum.

The conful immediately crossed the river, and fortified his camp at the foot of the hill. Early next morning, a little flushed with his success the day before, or rather impelled by the want of provisions, to take the shorteit course, however dangerous, to procure them, he inconfiderately led his army up the hill to the enemy's camp, where he received a

more shameful repulse, than he had given the day before: but his colleague came up and saved both him and his army. Between the two armies, a dreadful havock was made among the Etrurians, as they were endeavouring to escape, first from the one, and then from the other. Thus by a fortunate imprudent step, the war with the Vejentes got a finishing stroke.

Upon the return of peace, provisions became cheaper in the city; for they had corn from Campania : and their being now no apprehensions of future scarcity, the citizens brought out what they had concealed and hoarded up. Peace and plenty foon produced diffipation; and now when they had no disturbance abroad, they began to revive their old contentions at home.

· The tribunes set the populace in a ferment, by their favourite topic, the Agrarian law. They inflamed them against the senators, in the oppolition; and in this, they not only pointed at the whole body, but at individuals also. Q. Confidius and T. Genucius, who revived the plea of the Agrarian law at this time, cited T. Menenius to take his trial. He was charged with the loss of the garrison at Cremera, when his camp lay but a small distance from it. They condemned him, although the fathers had intereited themselves, no less for him, than they had done for Coriolanus, and the popularity of his father Agrippa, not yet totally forgot. The tribunes restricted his punishment to a fine; for, though they had sentenced him to die, after his condemnation, they only fined him in two thousand asses of brass. This coit him his life ; for, it is faid, that that being unable to bear the disgrace, and the grief it occafioned, he foon fell a victim to a diftemper, brought on him by it.

. Another senator, Sp. Servilius, was also impeached, immediately on the expiring of his office, in the confulfhip of C. Naurius and Publius Valerius ; the tribunes L. Cædicius and T. Statius, having, in the beginning of the year, appointed him a day for his trial. He did not, like Menenius, hy himself, or the fathers, descend to make mean supplications to the people; but confiding in his own innocence and personal interest, he boldly opposed himself to all the attacks of the tribunes.

• The charge against him, was the action with the Etrurians at the Janiculum. But, being a man of a daring spirit, he was as intrepid before their tribunal, as he used to be on a day of action, confuting in a bold speech, both tribunes and commons, upbraiding them with the condemnation and death of Menenius, by the good offices of whose father, the populace were brought back to the city, and enjoyed these laws and those magiftrates, the ministers now of

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