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their illiberal profecutions; and thus by his bold and determined behaviour, outbraved the danger. The testimony of his colleague Virginius too had its own weight, as he generously shared with him the honour of the success : but what turned the scale entirely in his favour, was their shame for the sentence they passed on Menenius, so much was their disposition changed upon refle&tion.'

It is to be observed, that Mr. Gordon in the volumes before us, has only presented the public with the first fix books of Lívy. 'He threatens, however, to give more ; and if his perseverance is equal to the opinion he seems to entertain of his abilites, he may probably proceed to the conclufion of his undertaking. It is fomewhat remarkable, that two Scotchmen of the name of Gordon fhould have presumed to lacerate and mangle two authors of antiquity of the higheft capacity and genius. We allude, to the culprit now before us, and to Mr. Thomas Gordon, the translator of Tacitus.

ART.IV. Memoirs of the Baron de Tott. Containing the State of

the Turkish Empire and the Crimea, during the late War with Rollia. With numerous Anecdotes, Facts, and Observations, on th, Manners and Customs of the Turks and Tarters. Translated from the French, 2 vols. 8vo. 1os. 6d. boards. Robinson. 1785.

(Concluded from the Review for Auguft.) TH HE Baron, in his fecond part, begins with an ac,

count of his journey to the Crimea, whether he was fent by the Duke de Choiseul, as Resident to the Cham of the Tartars. The picture he there draws of Turkish despotism, and Moldavian degradation is beyond the conception of a Briton. It merits our utmost attention, as every little circumstance is detailed ; and the whole together ex. cites more, horror and deteftation than could be inspired by the strongest reafoning, or the most forcible eloquence. Ifa Turk withes to have any of his wants fupplied, he begins by knocking the Moldavian down.

Refiftance is never thought of, and would be fatal. And indeed, fo far has the habit of slavery degraded the latter, under the level of man, that, according to the author, he seems incapable of being influenced by any thing, except this “ hattering”. argument. The reader will find this strongly exemplified in the second part of the first volume, in a dialogue between the Baron, his conductor Ali Aga, and the mayor of a Moldavian village. Yet this spaniel-like disposition is accompanied by a pride and vanity equally ridiculous and oftentatious, among the higher ranks of this wretched nation. How much, and how frequently they must be mortified by the insolence of Turkish power will be best con.. ceived from the conduct of Ali Aga, at Yasli, the capital of Moldavia. The reader will observe that this Turk was.

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only an inferior domestic of an inferior Pacha; and was sent with Mr. de Tott, as a kind of courier and guide.

• While I was admiring the filly pride with which he twelled, Ali Aga entered and deranged everything by his presence. His free manner of treating the Moldavian pealants has been before remarked, but I imagined his prerogatives and importance would have been lei, fened at Yalli. This however, was a fresh wrong I did him; I faw him appear with a fine robe, a grave carriage, and a commınding tone. He seemed a courtier, who, capable of becoming Vilir, and creating Princes of Moldavia, thought himself already their fuperior. In this spirit; he began by treating the Governor of the town very cavalierly, because the Master of the Horle had not fent the attendants neceflary to conduct him to the audience of the Prince. In vain, did the Governor alledge this neglect was no fault of his. You are one as bad as the other, replied Ali Aga, but I will work a reform. Happily the desired attendance appeared : it confiited of a horse, properly caparisoned, and four of the Prince's Tchoadar's to accompany Whoin? The Tchoadar of the Pacha of Kotchim ; who was himself only a Pacha of the second order. But there are no degrees in rank between a Turk and a Greek; the first is every thing, the second nothing.'

Quitting Moldavia, the Baron proceeds through the country of the Noguais Tartars, in general a vast and melancholy plain, intersected by deep vallies, to Bactecheseray, the re fidence of the Cham. His observations in this route are entertaining and judicious; the face of the country is de fcribed; and we are brought acquainted with the customs, manners, commerce, &c. of the inhabitants, as far as cir cumstances would permit him to examine then. The following extract will present the reader with a delineation of manners very different from those of Europe.

• We arrived before noon at the firit valley, and while the Mira za enquired for those whose office it was to procure us fresh horles, I approached a group of Noguais assembled round a dead horse they had just skinned. A young man about eighteen, who was naked; had the hide of the aniinal thrown over his shoulders. A woman who performed the office of taylor, with great dexterity, then began by cutting the back of this new dress, following with her fciffars the round of the neck, the fall of the fhoulders, the semi-circle which formed the sleeve, and the side of the habit which was intended to reach below the knee. There was no necessity to sustain a kind of stuff, which by its humidity, naturally adhered to the skin of the youth. The female leather-cutter proceeded, with equal ease, to form the two fore-flaps and the cuffs; which operation ended our almost-man, who served as a mould, crouched on his hams, while the pieces were stitched together ; fo that, in less than two hours, he had a good brown bay coat, which only wanted to be tanned by continual exercise. This seemed to be his first care ; for I saw him leap lightly on the bare back of a horse, to go and join his compapions, who were busy in collecting the horses we wanted, and of which we had not yet enough by far.'

The predominant feature in the Noguais character is. avarice, of which the author gives the following instances,

• No people are more abitemious; millet and mare's milk are their habitual food, and yet they are exceedingly carnivorous. A Noguais might wager that he would eat a whole sheep and gain his bet, without danger of indigestion. But their appetites are restrained by their avarice, which is so great, that they generally debar themfelves of every thing they can sell. If any accident kills one of their cattle, they then only regale upon his flelli; and this not unless they find it time enough to bleed the dead animal. They follow this preçept of Mahomet, likewise, with respect to beasts that are distem, pered : they carefully observe each stage of the disease, that they may seize the moment, when their avarice condemned to lose the value of the beast, their appetite may still afford them fome consolation, by killing it an intant before its natural death.

« The fairs of Balta, and others established on their frontiers, are the emporiums to which they annually bring their immense flocks and herds. The corn they grow in such abundance, finds a ready vent by the Black Sea, as well as their fleeces, whether they confiit of the whole produce of their flocks or only the pelades. To these objects of commerce are added some bad hides, and great quantity of hare skins.

“Thefe different articles, united, annually procure the Tartars considerable sums, which they only receive in ducats of gold, Dutch or Venetian; but the use they make of these annihilates every idea of wealth, which such numerical enormity presents. Constantly augmenting, without turning any part of their store into circulation, åvarice teizes and engluts these treasures, while the plains in which they are buried affords not the least indication or guide to future research. The numerous Noguais who have died, without telling their secret, have already occalioned the loss of vast sums ; hence it may be presumed these people are persuaded, that were they forced to abandon their country, they might leave their money without lofing their property. In fact

, it would be the fame to them at five hundred leagues distance, since they only poffeís it in idea : but this idea is to po:verful among them, and fo delightful, that a Tartar is frequently known to icize the object 'he covets for the fole pleasure of enjoying it a moment. Soon obliged to restore it, he is likewise obliged to pay a considerable fine; but he has had his wish and is satisfied. The avarice of a Tartar never stays to calcu: late eventual loss, but enjoys the mo:nentary gain.'

After a journey of nine hundred and thirty leagues, Mr. de Tott arrives at the place of his deftination, where, after being obliged to become architect, joiner, turner, white-smith, &c. he finds himself at last lodged with toleable comfort. He is well received by the Chain MackfoodGueray, is admitted to his parties, and amuses him with fire-works and electricity. Having entertained us with the

ccremonial

ceremonial of the court, and some account of the chief ministers and courtiers, he proceeds to give a 1ketch of the natural history of the country, its extent, population, go, vernment. For what he has said on these subjects we mutt refer the reader to the work. Mr. de Tott favours the opinion which now begins, to gain ground, viz. that the high lands of Tartary were the firit inhabited spot on our globe, the source of population, religion, arts, and sciences. Wc have to regret, that he did not fucceed in purchasing the Tar, tar manuscript, containing the history of that extraordinary people; we thould then have been better acquainted with a nation of which we know but little, and concerning which, from every motive that ought to excite laudable curiosity, information of every kind is highly desirable. Twelve hundred pounds offered by the author for this manuscript were refused, and circumstances deprived him of time to obtain extracts. Now that the Criinea is under the dominion of Russia, this interesting work may probably make its appearance.

The troubles in Poland, and the disputes of the Porte with Rusia, produced a revolution in the Crimea; Mack, food-Gueray was deposed, Krim-Gueray fucceeded him, and the Tartars took the field with two hundred thousand men, We are here presented with all the horrors of a Tartar campaign amidst frost and snow. Such was the severity of tho weather, that more than three thousand men and thirty thousand horses perished in one day by the cold.

Krin. Gueray, is represented as a man of understanding, and humanity, softening as much as pofsible the rigours of war, and endeavouring to preserve order and discipline among his troops. The severity he was obliged to exercise for this purpose will best appear from the following extract, which at the same time affords us an instance of rugged firmness, and blind fubmiffion almost unparalleled. A Noguai Tartar was caught marauding in a Polish village, contrary to orders, and brought before the Cham.

• Interrogated by his Sovereign, the culprit confeffed his fault, allowed he knew with what rigour it was forbidden, pleaded nothing in his favour, asked no pity, endeavoured to interest no one in his behalf, but coolly waited his sentence, without discovering either timidity or pride

'Let him alight, and be tied to a hörse's tail : there let him be. dragged till he expires; and let a crier accompany him to inform the army why he is thus punished.

• The Cham pronounced this fentence, and the Noguai, without replying, quitted his horse, and went to the Seimens, by whom he was to be tied.

! Neither

" Neither cord nor thong was to be found, and while they were in search of fome, I ventured a word in his behalf.

Krim-Gueray made no answer, but by impatiently commanding them to make use of a bow-string. They objected that it was too short. Let him put his head through the bow bent, faid he. The Noguai obeyed, followed the horseman who dragged him, but not able to go fast enough, fell, and escaped from the hold.

A new prder from the prince remedied the accident. Let him hold the bow with his hands, cried he, and the culprit immediately crossing his arms, this sentence was performed! A fentence which condemned the malefactor to be his own executioner, and which, without doubt, is an instance of the most extraordinary submission It surpasses all that has been related, most strange, concerning the blind obedience paid to the orders of the old man of the mountain.

After a fatiguing campaign the Cham arrives at Bender ; where he is poisoned by a Greek chymist, probably employed by the Grand Visir. His behaviour in his last moments, proves that a Tartar inay behold his end approach with all the philosophic composure of Socrates himself.

• He pointed to the papers that surrounded him. Behold, said he, my last labour, to you (Mr. de Tott) I have devoted my last moment. But foon perceiving that all my efforts could not fubdue the grief by which I was overwhelmed-Let us part, said he ; your sensibility is catching, and I wish to go to sleep more gaily. He then made a sign to fix musicians, at the farther end of the aparta ment, to begin their concert; and I learnt an hour after, that this unfortunate Prince had just expired to the sound of inftruinents.'

The death of the Cham induces the author to go to Conftantinople, where he arrives after having visited the new Tartar prince at Seray, in Romelia; which province is an appanage of the Zinguisian family, bestowed upon it by the Grand Seignor, In this route, he followed the tract of the Turkish army, which had just preceded him. The description he gives of the enormities committed by this disorderly and brutal people excite horror and detestation. He in forms us, that ravage, desolation, and murder inarked their steps to the very walls of Conftantinople.

The second volume and third part of this work opens with the display of the standard of Mahomet, &c. a ridiculous ceremony, called by the Turks alay, the triumph. The war with the Russians gave occasion to this absurd exhibition, which concluded with deeds of the most atrocious cruelty, Christians of every age and sex were dragged by the hair, and murdered by the fanatic multitude, because they had profaned by their presence tne holy standard of the prophet! A series of blunders are then related, occasioned by ignorance, venality, and a want of exertion in government, which altogether exceed conception.

Numerous armies take the field only to be defeated, to perish by famine and every kind of

mismanagement,

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