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music, and dancing, engross no small portion of their leisure: they have an ear for music, and a graceful activity in dancing, far beyond the dismal fcrapings, and aukward caperings of an English May-day, or a country wake.--A negro knows the hours of his work, and what is expected from him; and he is fenfibie, also, that if he performs his duty with alacrity, he is in no danger of correction, or an other punishınent.--He is fo far from dreading the expences of children, that he has every inducement to wish for a numerous family, and, consequently, enjoys the pleasures of a husband, and a father, without alloy. The terrors of sickness and pain are mitigated by the reflection, that he is certain of having pro. per advice and allistance, as well as necessary care and attendance, He has none of the pinching rigours of inclement seasons to combat with, but palles his whole life in a climate congenial to his constitution, and where a conitant, and luxuriant vegetation, enfures him a return for such cultivation as he chutes to beítow on his own little plantations, Nor has he the least reason to look forward, with . anxiety, towards the approach of old age, and infirmities ; being sure, that when totally pait the lightest labour, his regular allowance will be continued to him, in addition to the attentions paid hinn by his own descendants.'
The judicious reader will readily conclude that the bright colouring of this picture is in proportion to the gloom which this anonymous writer throws over the condition of the labouring class of people in Great Britain.
Our author succeeds better in detecting the imperfections and inconsistencies of Mr. Ramsay, than in proving the liappiness of the Naves in the West-Indies. " I must beg leare to observe, that it appears a little extraordinary, that during the author's residence of twenty years in the colonies it never occurred to him to favour the world with the ebulitions of his philanthropy before so Jate a period; buto perhaps in those days, his views and expectations were confined within the tropics, as he lived in social intimacy and near relation with the very men whom he so lavishly abuses."
Our author animadverts on his opponent for ufing the term advancement, when it is obvious that he means the freedom of flaves, which he thinks muft involve in it the ruin of individuals, But here it is just to remark, that Mr. Ramsay's plan does not suppose simultaneous, but the gradual abolition of slavery;
The great secret, says Mr. Rimfav, of the Moravian millionary, is, to contract an incimacy with rhem; to enter into their " little interests; to hcar patiently their doubts and complaints; to “ condescend to their weakness and igaorance; to lead them on + slowly and gently: to exhort them antectionately; to avoid care
fully magifterial thrcatnings and command:i.” By thefer incans, “ favs our anthor, they have introduced decency among their peo* ples and no mean degree of religious knowledge, a fobriety in
« their 56 their carriage, a sensibility in their manner, a diligence and faith< fulness in their stations,&c."-And by the same means, I may safely repeat, fays our author, " that our resident established ministers " would be able to do as much ; nor would they meet with a single
planter absurd enough to obitruct to defireable and valuable an * iimprovement among his flaves."
Mr. Ramsay, on the subject of his own tenderness towards his faves says, that they were well “ clothed, and plentifully
fed ; their employment, which was only the common work of a * private family, was barely sufficient for the exercise necessary to
preserve their health. There was more than a sufficient nuinber “ of them. In short, they were plump, healthy, and in spirits,
They were not punished for one fault in ten they committed, and never with severity. They were carefully attended when fick,
Nothing was at any time required of thein, but what was necessary b6 and much within their ability.”.
**All this, says our author, may be strictly true, for any thing I know to the contrary:- I cannot, however, refrain from remarking, that two or three fucccding paffages in his book give no small room to fufpect, that his amiable milkiness of nature was occafonaily' subject to be accidulated, and that sometimes at least, he was driven to the same ditugreeable necessity with his neighbours. In page 169 for exam. ple, he confeffcs “ he has been obliged to send three negroes off the
itland for theft and running away, that he inight not be under
the necessity of punishing with severity.”—That is, his fcruples, though they prevented his inflicting fevere punishment with his own hands, did not extend to hinder the unfortunate victims of his disa pleasure from being most cruelly treated by other people In page 246, Mr. Ramsay gives an account of one of his slaves, “ who was
to cunning that he was hardly ever able to find an opportunity of “ correcting hiin, he therefore turned him out of the family to « have him taught a trade;" by which means, in all probability, he fubjected him to the unmerciful discipline of a negro, or mulatto task-master, who are, of all tyrants, the most unfeeling and despotic.
But the inoit extraordinary passage of this kind occurs in page 247-Take it in Mr. Ramsay's own words :-" There is another “lad who could stand, without flinching, to be cut in pieces with the
whip, and not utter a groan. A whipping was a triumph instead “ of a punishment to him. I was obliged to overlook the most noto*** rious faults or afect generously to pardon them, rather than pre• tend to correct them, &c."-In the next page the author also acknowledges he had another boy," who could stand, with the fullen 6 air of a stoic, to receive the severest correction."~I shall make no .comment on the forgoing passages, but leave the reader to coinpare them with the quotation immediately preceding them.-Indeed! indeed! Mr. Ramsay, after all we can fay for ourselves, the very best of us are but men!'
Our author, in an appendix produceś, from a book lately published in the West-Indies many proofs, of the harthncís
* Notwithstanding all which he confeffes (page 170) that “ he s pofiched not a single lave on whom he could place dependence."
and peevishness of Mr. Ramsay's temper, of his cruel treat, ment of his faves, of his avarice, and of his great neglect of his duty as a clergyman. Notwithstanding all these, it may still be true that the slaves in our colonies suffer great seves rities, and that a relaxation of these, and mild treatment, with eir instruction in the Christian religion, would not only be great humanity but also good policy. And as our author, for mottos to his book, has applied fome texts of fcripture, by way of censure, t to Mr. Ramsay, so we Thall apply one in his juftification. “ Some indeed preach Chrift (i. e. the gospel of Christ) even of envy and ftrifeWliąt then? whether in pretence or in truth, Christ is preached ; and I therein do rejoice, yea I will rejoice. Epift. Paul. Phillipp. 1. 15-18."
If Mr. Ramsay pleads for the instruction and manumiflion of slaves through strife, we ought to respect the doctrines of mercy even in the mouths of the unmerciful.
ART. XIV. Letters concerning the Trade and Manufactures of Ire
land, principally fo far as the same relate to the making Iron in this Kingdom, and the Manufacture and export of Iron Wares, In which certain Facts and Arguments set out by Lord Sheffield in his Observations on the Trade and present, state of Ireland are examined. By Sir Lucius O‘Brien Bart. With a Letter from Mr, William Gibbons of Bristol, to Sir Lucius O'Brien Bart, and his Answer. To which is added, the Resolutions of England and Ire, land relative to a Commercial Intercourse between the two Kinga
doms.' 8vo. 25, Stockdale, 1785. IN this long title page we meet with something that looks
like the art of a bookseller. Firít, we are given to understand that this pamphlet contains more letters than one, a series of letters by Sir Lucius O'Brien; and secondly, that Sir Lucius wrote a letter beside in anfwer to one from Mr. Gib bons: whereas in fact this is the only letter of Sir Lucius O'Brien's with which we are presented.
Sir Lucius, in this letter, having traced back the proceed: ings of the English House of Commons respecting the Irish manufactures of iron and steel, which he confiders as just and liberal, declares his opinion “ that the whole export of Ireland in iron and iron manufactures, under their various des nominations, has been and probably ever will continue to
# The texts quoted against Mr. Ramsay are, " Who art thou that judgest another man's servant ? Romans xv. 3.
Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking be put away from you, with alt matice, Ephef. iv. 31.
" Wherefore if I come, I will remember the deeds which he doth, prating againg us with malicious words, ii. Epistle John. v. 10.
be an object too minute for national observation, if the refent alarm had not swelled it into some degree of fignificance" It is to prove and illustrate the truth of this, that is Sir Lų. cius's object in his letter to Mr. Gibbons. He writes with elegance and spirit; displays great variety and extent of knowledge, and certainly refutes some of the arguments of Lord Sheffield the great advocate for a rigid adherence to the navigation laws. Sir Lucius makes fome animated digreffions to the injaftice and impolicy too of the monopolizing fpirit of England, and endeavours to thew that there may be competition between England and Ireland without injury to either.
' It may now be asked, he says, in conclusion, if this be exactly as I have stated it; if there is no probability that Ireland will ever become the successful rival of England in the iron trade, --whence all this anxiety upon the subject, and wherefore this pamphlet of fo many pages? I will answer directly : I saw an alarming jealousy şising between these two kingdoms ; I thought there were some men in Britain who confidered Ireland on all occasions, as a capable and willing opponent, who, unless strongly coerced, must in the end carry away the greater part of her manufactures; and that in this country, also, there were many who thought they could well perceive, that though the legislature of Britain had lately emancipated pur conftitution and our trade, yet the manufacturing part of the people still feemed to claim the right of reftraining, of taxing, of legiflating for us, just as might suit their private convenience.--I felt the powerful, though I am persuaded unintended effect of Lord Sheffield's publications, (at leait through this country) in exciting and confirming this jealousy, and I confess, I trembled when I looked back on scenes just passed away on the other side of the Atlantic.
Fraternas Acies, Alternaque Bella profanis decertata Odiis. And I wished, while yet it was not too late, that my poor endea. vours might be employed in counteracting these greatest of calamities. You, Sir, (from motives of reciprocality and affection I admit) have thought fit to appeal to me on a part of this subject, and have thereby afforded me an opportunity of delivering so far my opinions, which I have with the greater freedom, as they have not been taken up upon the spur of the present occafion, but which appear to have been conceived, and uniformly acted up to for more than seven years, and as fuch, I may hope they will be considered impartial.
"The closer England and Ireland become connected, the more easy, no doubt, will be the intercourse, more of our nobility and gentry, more of our ingenious and refined artists will probably go to your country. In the coarser branches, which depend on cheapneis of living, where lefs capital and less ingenuity are required, (if froin local advantages such works can be better carried on in Irelanc) many of them probably will be established here. But, in a short time, if there be an increase of inhabitants and of trade, these will raise the price of labour and of provisions. And taxes will, I fear, not be wanting in any part of the British dominions, fo foon as there shall be found a capability of paying them—and thus things still will preferve their natural level.
• In the mean time, I cannot see how the success of one country, on one side of the narrow channel between these islands, can injure another on the other side, more than how the property of Yorkthire is to be affected by that of Lancashire, or your trade annihilaed by the continuance of the Carron Company.
* Our empire, I fear, has already powerful enemies on the Continent ; let us not weaken ourselves by internal division, let every part rather be itrengthened, and all united in affection ; let us be true to one another, and Britain, I trut,, inay yet be confident against the world in arms, and this Sir, is the warmest wish of
Your very obedient,
LUCIUS O'BRIEN. Sir Lucius does not sure how the prosperity of Ireland can injure that of England, any more than the prosperity of one English county injures that of another. Were the legitiature of England also the legislature of Ireland, were the kingdoms united by one political head, this wouid be juit reasoning. But lays our author, “ let us be true to one another."
Melläges of love said an English patriot, in the reign of a prince wlio began to invade the constitution, never comes into Parliament. Messages of love, we say on this occasion, do not unite separate kingdoms. It will be a difficult matter indeed to maintain the absolute independence of both kingdoms, and at the same time to unite them in permanent concord, and co-operation for the common interests of both. 6. Let us be true to one another,” is the language of humanity, of justice, and of true policy on an enlarged and abstracted feale, and it might, by a citizen of the world, be properly addressed to all nations on earthi, would they, as they ought, consider one another as brethren. But all nations are more or less in å state of hoftility to one another. Natural antipathies unfortunately set all the maxims of found morality, which, could they all agree, would also be found to be those of sound policy, at defiance.
Art. XV. A new Experimental Inquiry, into the Nature and
Qualities of the Cheltenham later, &c. by A. Fothergill, M. D).
F. R.S. &c. 8vo. Is. 64. Taylor, Bath. CHELTENHAM has lately become a fashionable watering
place during the fummer, and the numbers that now rifort there for the reftoration of their health, together with the little knowledge which preceeding writers upon mineral waters appear to have of the properties of this spring, render the investigation in these pages both useful and ne. cessary.