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by his 'eloquence confirmed those who had embraced this opinion, and earnestly pleaded " that the government might be considered as

a theocracy wherein the Lord was judge, law-giver, and king ; " that the laws which he gave Israel might be adopted, so far as they “ were of moral and perpetual equity; that the people mnight be “ considered as God's people, in covenant with him; that none but

persons of approved piery and eminent gifts should be chosen ru“ lers, that ministers fhould be consulted in all matters of religion ; " and that the magistrate should have a superintending and coercive

power over the churches.” At the delire of the court he compiled a systein of laws founded chiefly on the laws of Mofes, which was considered by the legitlative body as the general standard ; though they never forinally adopted it, and in some instances varied from it.' He gives the following view of an Indian war.

' The Indians were seldom or never seen before they did execution. They appeared not in the open field, nor gave proofs of a truly masculine courage ; but did their exploits by surprize, chiefly in the morning, keeping themselves hid behind logs and bushes, near the paths in the woods, or the fences contiguous to the doors of houses; and their lurking holes could be known only by the report of their guns, which was indeed but feeble, as they were sparing of ainmunition, and as near as possible to their object before they fired. They rarely affaulted an house unless they knew there would be but little resistance, and it has been afterwards known that they have lain in ambush for days together, watching the motions of the people at their work, without daring to discover themselves. One of their chiefs who had got a woman's riding-hood among his plunder would put it on, in an evening, and walk into the streets of Portsinouth, looking into the windows of houses, and listening to the conversation of the people.

* Their cruelty was chiefly exercised upon children, and such aged, infirin, or corpulent perfons, as could not bear the hardships ofa journey through the wilderness. If they took a woman far advanced in pregnancy their knives were plunged into her bowels. An infant when it became troublełome had its brains dashed out against the next tree or stone. Sometimes to torinent the wretched mother, they would whip and beat the child till almost dead, or hold it under water till its breath was just gone, and then throw it to her to comfort and quiet it. If the mother could not readily still its weeping, the hatchet was buried in its skull. A captive wearied with his burden laid on his shoulders was often sent to rest the same way. one proved refractory, or was known to have been instrumental of the death of an Indian, or related to one who had been so, he was tortured with a lingering punishinent, generally at the stake, while the other captives were insulted with the fight of his miseries. Sometimes a fire would be kindled and a threatening given out against one or more, though there was no intention of facrificing then, only to make sport of their terrors. The young

Indians often signalize their cruelty in treating captives in humanly out of sight of the elder, and when inquiry was made into the matter, the insulted cap

If any


tive must either be silent, or put

the best face on it, to prevent worse treatment for the future. If a captive appeared fad and dejected he was sure to meet with insult; but if he could sing and dance and laugh with his masters, he was caressed as a brother. They had a strong averfion to negroes, and generally killed them when they fell into their hands.

• Famine was a common attendant on these doleful captivities; the Indians when they caught any game devoured it all at one fitting, and then girding themselves round the waste, travelled withQut suítenance till chance threw more in their way. The captives, unused to such canine repasts and abstinences, could not support the surfeit of the one nor the craving of the other. A change of mafters, though it sometimes proved a relief from misery, yet rendered the prospect of a return to their home more diftant. If an Indian had lost a relative, a prisoner bought for a gun, a hatchet, or a few skins, must supply the place of the deceased, and be the father, brother, or son of the purchaser; and those who could accommodate themselves to such barbarous adoption, were treated with the same kindness as the persons in whole place they were substituted. A fale among the French at Canada was the most happy event to a captive, especially if he became a servant in a family, though sometimes even there a prison was their lot, till opportunity presented for their redemption : while the priests employed every seducing art to pervert them to the popish religion, and induce them to abandon their country. These circumstances, joined with the more obvious hardships of travelling half naked and barefoot through pathless desarts, over craggy mountains and deep swamps, through frost, rain, and snow, exposed by day and night to the inclemency of the weather, and in fummer to the venomous stings of those numberless insects with which the woods abound; the restless anxiety of mind, the retrospect of past scenes of pleasure, the remembrance of distant friends, the bereavements experienced at the beginning or during the progress of the captivity, and the daily apprehension of death, either by famine or the savage enemy; these were the horrors of an Indian captivity.

On the other hand it must be acknowledged, that there have been instances of justice, generosity and tenderness during these wars, which would have done honour to a civilized people. A kindness thewn to an Indian, was sjemembered as long as an injury; and perfons have had their lives spared for acts of humanity done to the ancestors of those Indians into whose hands they have fallen. They would sometimes 66

carry children on their arms and fhoulders, feed " their prisoners with the best of their provision, and pinch them* selves rather than their captives should want food.” When fick or wounded they would afford them proper means for their recovery, which they were very well able to do by their knowledge of simples. In thus preserving the lives and health of their prisoners, they doubt less had a view of gain. But the most remarkably favourable cir. cumstance in an Indian captivity, was their decent behaviour to women. I have never read, nor heard, nor could find by enquiry, ENG. REVIEW, Oct. 1785. R


that any woman who fell into their hands was ever treated with the lealt immodesty ; bir testimonies to the contrary are very frequent. Whether this negative virtue is to be ascribed to a natural frigidity of constitution, let philosophers enquire : the fact is certain ; and it was a most happy circumstance for our female captives, that in the midst of all their distresses, they had no reafon to fear from a lavage foe, the perpetration of a crime, which has too frequently disgraced not only the personal but the national character of those who make large pretences to civilization and huinanity.'

It is to be observed of our author, that he is a man of liberality, moderation, and candour. His folicitude to obtain information appears to have been great ; and he does not confine himfelf to à bare enumeration of facts. : He endeavours to delineate the characters, interests, and passions of the personages who figure in the scenes he describes; and to catch the features of the times in which they lived. The feeds of literary excellence are already fown among the Americans ; and having humbled us by their arms, they are about to contend with us in science and letters.

ART. III. The Life of the Rev. Isaac Watts, D. D. By Sa

muel Johnson, L. L. D. with Notes containing Animadversions and Additions. To which are subjoined, a distinguishing Feature of the Doctor's Character, omitted by his Biographers ; an authentic Account of his last Sentiments on the Trinity; and a Copy of a Manuscript of his never before published.' 8vo. 25. 6d.

Rivington, 1785 We had occafion in our last number, to express our

sentiments of the moral and religious character of Dr. Samuel Johnson. If the hero before us were not exempt from some of those defects and imperfections, which we discovered in his biographer, this ought not to be a matter of wonder. Dr. Johnson, by his situation in life, by the connexions he naturally formed with men of various profefsions and sentiments, and by the perfect independency which is usually felt by a man of philosophy and retirement, had every advantage which could be desired from breaking away from the shackles of education and rising superior to the empire of prejudice. Dr. Watts, on the contrary, led nearly the whole term of his life among people exactly of the same description as those from whom he received the impressions of his infancy, he was excluded by his habits from any miscellaneous and very comprehensive circle of acquaintance, and his profeffion cannot be without its influence, upon every man, but especially upon a man of mildness and timidity, to retain him in those fentiments from which he has already derived a share of applause. If virtue is to be estimated by a certain generosity and dignity of mind, by a noble disdain for every thing pufillanimous, humiliating, and tirnid, and an independency and energy of foul that look into the sublimest subjects (as Mr. Pitt would say) without blinking them, much regard will not be paid to the pretenfions either of Dr. Johnson or Dr. Watts. If acts of beneficence and charity are to be the standard, we are inclined to believe that both of them will stand deservedly high. But if, in the last place, a fcrupulous regularity of conduct, and a minute attention to every thing that may be supposed to belong either to morals or piety, are to turn the balance, we hefitate not to affirm, that the non-conforinift will be entitled to an uncontested pre-eminence.

The article which may probably attract more attention than any other in the present publication, is the authentic account of the Doctor's last sentiments on the Trinity. In this promise of the title page, we are, however, presented with a specimen of authorship, fince no new information is produced respecting this contested fact, but the editor confines himself to some reasonings on the evidence already before the public. From a general retrospect of the whole, we have endeavoured to make up our opinion, and we are inclined to believe that it ought to be granted, of whatever value be that conceffion, that Dr. Watt's fentiments did undergo fome alteration previous to his decease. The opinion of the Doctor which was professed and maintained by him during the greater part of his life, was, that the supreme intelligence was striétly and properly one mind, that this mind, in a certain modification was intimately connected with the person of Jesus, and that the inferior and individual foul of the author of our religion was the being employed by the first cause, as his instrument in the creation of the universe. The reasoning of the editor in order to prove that Dr. Watts retained this opinion to the laft, is almost wholly derived from one source, the persevering and laborious attention which the Dr. had employed from his earliest youth upon the subject, and the late publication of some of those pieces in which the above sentimentisconfirmed, not more than two years before his decease. On the other hand, it is is well known, that certain papers which Dr. Watts left behind him upon this question were suppressed by his executors, and an address to the Deity was by him prefixed to these papers, expressive of the greatest hesitation and uncertainty. Dr. Gibbons, the historian of Dr. Watts, who was undoubtedly fufficiently inclined to support the orthoR 2


dox cause, preserved the most inflexible filence respecting
the contents of these papers, though urged to a disclosure
from various quarters. And, which is the principal direct.
evidence, the monthly review has affirmed, uncontradicted,
in a volume for the year 1782, that the writer was informed
by a Mr. Merrival, a diffenting minister of the city of Exe-, -
ter, that Dr. Lardner afirmed from his own knowledge,
that the imputed alteration of sentiment was real. These
arguments though by no means fo fatisfactory as to remove
all thadow of a doubt, do at least incline the balance to the
heretical fide

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ART. IV. A Political Inquiry into the Consequences of inclosing

waste Lands, and the Causes of the present high Price of Butchers Meat. Being the Sentiments of a Society of Farmers in

-thire, 2s. 6d. Davis, 1785. THE

HE editor, after fome very just strictures on the writ

ings of lawyers, plıysicians, private gentlemen, and many, who have no local habitation or name, on the subject of agriculture; and after making observations concerning the difadvantages all must labour under, who attempt farming without being bred farmers, informs us, that his thoughts submitted (he means published) for the general good in a political light, viz. as information to the legislature, not as infructions to farmers how to manage their lands. He confiders those thop-keepers, who, on the strength of fome ideas picked up from writers on agriculture, leave their businefs in town, and become farmers, as so many knights errant, whose madness whoever should expofe, would, in his opinion, perform as essential a service to bis country, as Cervantes did to the Spanish nation by the publication of Don Quixote He adviles gentlemen not to undertake farms for the fake of profit: and supports the advice he gives by very plausible arguments

• I have been led, says he, into this train of thinking more particuJarly on account of the late recommendations for the sale of his Majesty's forests, &c. in order that they may be inclosed and cultivated : on a supposition that it would be of great benefit to the nation, in two points of view ;--in the first place, that it would bring a great fum of money into the Exchequer; and secondly, that the future produce of those lands, when cultivated, would produce much additional riches to the nation--an idea which I have reprobated, as often as I have heard it advanced.'

The generally received opinion, on the subject of cultivation, is, “ that the greater quantities and more valuable product the ground in any country is made to yield, the more beneficial it is rendered to the nation at large--that therefore

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