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ART. XII. The History of the Wars in Scotland, from the Battle

of the Grampian Hills in the year 85, to the Battle of Culloden in the year 1746. By John Lawrie, A. M. 12mo. 35.

fewed. Sold by the Author at Edinburgh. THIS collection of battles is a proof of the gallant and

warlike spirit of the Scottish nation; and its elevation of old, forms a striking contrast to the dejection in which it has remained for some years. America has displayed fully its consequence, and Ireland has begun a contest which from the feebleness of our ítatesmen, may terminate in its difunion from Great Britain. The Scots, on the contrary, preserve the silence which is characteristic of despotism. The gentlemen are merely idle, or engaged in frivolous diflipations. The nobility, without vigour, have lost their independence. The house of Arniston affumes a supreme Tway. Its nod is the law. In the present humiliating situation of the Scots, this performance may have the effect to recal to them the glory of their ancestors ; and in some measure to rouse them from the unhappy lethargy into which they have fallen.

With respect to Mr. Lawrie he is not to be considered as an author. He is properly a collector. The battles which he holds out to view, he gives in the precise words of the Scottish historians. Of consequence there is nothing new in his publication. As to himself he is intitled only to the praise of labour. We are not sorry, however, to have perused his collection ; and for the entertainment of our readers, we shall lay before them the battles of Otterburn and Culloden.

' Anno 1388. July 21, Otterburn. A truce between Scots land and England, from June 1386 to May 1387, being no sooner expired, than the war broke out with fresh fury. The Earls of Fife and Douglas ravaged Northumberland and Weltmorland, and the new created Earl of Nithfdale destroyed a party of 3000 English, killing 200, and taking 500 prisoners.

'Lord Douglas and the Earl of Fite having successfully invaded Ireland, defeated the Irish militia at Dundalk, lent hoine fifteen ships loaded with the spoils of Carlingford, which they plundered, then failing to the Isle of Man, at that time belonging to the Mona tague family, the professed enemies to the Scots, and having laid it waste, they returned with their spoils to Scotland, and landed Dear Lochrian, Thele fuccefles encouraged King Robert to make higher attempts. He called his parliament together at Aberdeen, where a double invasion of England was resolved on. Two armies were raised, each consisting of 15,000 ren; the one commanded by the Earls of Fife, Monteith, Douglas lord of Galway, and Alexander Lindsay; the other by the Earls of Douglas, March,


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Crawford and Murray. Both armies rendezvoused at Jedburgh, where they parted. That under the Earl of Fife entered by the west marches into Cumberland, and that under Douglas and Víarck fell directly into Northumberland, which was laid waste, and both armies, according to concert, joined within ten miles of Newcastle. All the north of England was thrown into the most dreadful conIternation by this invasion. Newcattle was defended by the Earl of Northumberland, whose age and infirmities disabled him from taking the field; but his place was more than supplied by his sons Ralph and Henry; the latter being well known by the name of Hotspur, which he obtained from his fiery difpofition. The town was gar. risoned by the flower of the Engiish nobility and gentry, as well as the inhabitants of the adjacent counties, who had fled thither for refuge, Douglas to distinguish himself, had selected 2000 foot and 300 horse out of the two armies, and encamped on the north fide of the town, with a view (as the Scots fav) to storm it next day, In the mean time he received a challenge from the Hotspur Piercy to fight him hand to hand with sharp ground spears in view of both armies, Douglas accepted the challenge. The combatants met. Piercy was unhorsed in the first encounter, and forced to take refuge within the gate of the town, from whence Douglas brought off his lance. But he and his men were foiled in their attempt to storm the town, for the besieged were far more numerous than the assailants, therefore in the night he decamped. Piercy breathing revenge, pursued and overtook them at Otterburn. According to the continuator of Fordun, the principal division of the Scots army under the Earl of Fife had taken a different rout from that under Douglas, who, with the Earls of March and Murray, were unarmed, and preparing to fit down to supper, when they had intelligence of the approach of the enemy. The Scotch army in an instant was under arms; but such was their confufion, that the Earl of Douglas in his hurry forgot his cuirass. Both leaders encouraged their men by the most animating speeches, and both parties waited for the rising of the moon, which happened that night to be unusually bright. The battle being joined upon the moon's appearance, the Scots at firit gave way, but being rallied by Douglas, who fought with a battle ax, and reinforced by Patrick Hepburn, his son and attendants, tho English were routed, though greatly superior in numbers : but the brave Earl of Douglas, being mortally wounded, was carried to his tent, where he expired in the morning. His precaution was such, that his misfortune was concealed from his men, who, think. ing themselves invincible under his command, totally routed the English, of whom 1200 were killed on the spot, and 100 persons of distinction, (ainong whom were the two Piercies) were made prifoners by Keith, then marshal of Scotland. The chief of the other English were Robert Ogle, Thomas Halberk, John Lilburn, William Wandclutie, Robert Heron, the Baron of Hilton, John Colvil, and Patrick Lovel, knights, whose ransoms brought large fums of money into Scotland.

“Such was the famous battle of Otterburn, which is universally allowed to have been the best fought of any in that age ; and it

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is commonly believed, that the celebrated poem of Cheviot Chace (supposed to be composed by one Barry, and published by Bowmaker, the continuator of Fordun) is founded upon it. As a further confirmation of this, I had the honour lately to be in company with an English physician, who has been upon the spot where the battle was fought, and told me that the people of the neighbourhood mention it with the most politive assurance ; and the tradition has been handed down from father to son, that the above bat tle is that called Cheviot Chace by the poet.'

2. Anno 1746, April 16. Culloden. In the beginning of April the Duke of Cumberland began his march from Aberdeen ; and on the 12th passed the deep and rapid river Spey, without opposition from the rebels, though a confiderable number of them appeared on the opposite side. Why they did not difpute the patfage is not eafily accounted for: but indeed from this instance of neglect, and their fubsequent conduct, we may conclude they were under a total infatuation. His royal highness proceeded to Nairn, where he received intelligence that the enemy had marched from Inverness to Culloden, about the ditance of nine miles from the royal army, with an intention to give him battle. On the 16th of April, the duke having made the proper disposition, decamped from Nairn early in the morning, and after a march of nine miles, perceived the highlanders drawn up in order of battle, to the number of 5000 men, in 13 divisions, supplied with fome pieces of artillery: The royal army, which was much more numerous, the duke imnediately formed into three lines, disposed in excellent order ; and about one o'clock in the afternoon the cannonading began. The prince's artillery was ill served, and did very little execution, but that of the king's troops made a dreadful havoc among the enemy. Impatient of this fire their front line advanced to the attack, and about 500 of the clans charged the duke's left wing, with their usual impetuosity. One regiment was disordered by the weight of this column ; but two battalions advancing from the second line, sustaived the first, and foon put a stop to their career, by a severe fire that killed a number. At the same time the dragoons under Halley and the Argyleshire militia pulled down a park wall that covered their right flank, and, falling in among them sword in hand, compleated their contufion. The French picquets on their leit did not fire a shot; but stood inactive during the engagement, and afterwards surrendered themselves prisoners of war. An entire body of the clans marched off the field in order, with their pipes playing the rest were route.I with great flaughter, and their prince was with reluctance prevailed upon to retire. In less than thirty minutes they were totally defeatcel, and the field covered with the Nain. The road, as far as Inverness, was strewed with dead bodies; and a great number of people, who, from motives of curiofity; had come to see the battle, were sacrificed to the undistinguishing vengeance of the victors. About 200 rebels were flain in the field and in the pursuit. The Earl of Kilmarnock was taken, and in a sew days after Lord Balmarino surrendered himself to one of the detached parties. The glory of the victory was fullied by the barbarity of the soldiers. They had been provoked by their former

disgracet disgraces to the most favage thirst of revenge. Not contented with the blood which was so profusely shed in the heat of the action, they traversed the fields after the battle, and massacred those miserable wretches who lay maimed and expiring. Nay, soine officers acted a part in this cruel scene of assassination; the triumph of low illiberal minds, uninstructed by sentiment, untinctured by humanity. The vanquished adventurer forded the river Nels, and reached Aird with a few horse, where he conferred with old Lord Lovat: then he dismissed his followers, and wandered about, a wretched and folitary fugitive among the itles and mountains for the space of five months; during which, he underwent such a series of dangers, hardthips, and iniseries, as another person never outlived. Thus in one short hour all his hope vanished, and the rebellion was en. tirely extinguithed.'

It is remarkable that Mr. Lawrie has contented himself with mere transcriptions from the Scottish historians. As an editor, he ought, doubtless, to have furnished some notes and illustrations. He ought, at least, to have pointed out the differences between historians with regard to particular battles; and to have produced materials for ascertaining the truth. The most illiteral pupil of the most illiterate school. master in the kingdom could have atchieved what he has done.

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Art. XIII. An Elay on Punctuation, Addressed to Sir Clifton

Wintringham. 25. 6d. Walter, 1785. WE

E have read with much pleasure this elegant little pam

phlet, which exhibits many specimens of taste and just criticism. We cannot, however, ageee with the learned writer in every particular. Though, in all points of consequence, his rules of punctuation seem to be just, and to rectify many errors which are but too prevalent, yet we think that in some instances, his commas are inserted without occasion. But these, being arbitrary, are of little import, for as he says himself, “ regard must be paid to the < length of those clauses, which form a compounded sen

tence, and are supposed to require the insertion of a com

ma: When the clauses are short, and closely connected, * the point may be omnited." The sense, we apprehend, is more to be attended to in punctuation, than the found; and indeed it would be as superfluous, as it would be troublesome, to put a comma at every part of a sentence; where a good reader, either tu poveca gratia, or for some other reason, may choose to make a pause. The author's illustration of the impropriety of using a note of interrogation in certain fentences which have not the interrogatory form, is particularly useful, because this is a shameful fault, and yet too frequently committed, even by good writers,


Let us be allowed, with all humility, to propose ani emendation of his criticism upon the dath, and consequently the suspension of voice, which he tells us Mr. Garrick used to insert as mark'd in the following line :

Draw, archers! draw!--your arrows to the hed! The author commends the pause at the repetition of the Word, draw; and says: - The ardour and impetuosity of “ Richard is more naturally and forcibly expressed, by this “ division of the sentence, than by the regular pronuncia “ tion of the words, in their grammatical connection.”

We, on the contrary, apprehend that this division of the sentence, interrupts the sense, without adding in the least to the rapidity with which it ought to be spoken. This interruption should be avoided, as much as possible, by every speaker or actor ; and therefore we thould prefer the following mode of punctuating, and consequently of pronouncing the sentence

Draw, archers !-draw your arrows to the head! The latter part thould be spoken with much impetuosity, and with a rapid elevation of the voice from the first to the last word, which will give the passage all its force, without interrupting the sense. If we mistake not we have heard our immortal Roscius speak the line in both these ways with equal effect, but with more propriety in the latter mode.


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ART. XIV. An Answer to David Hume and others, on the Subject

of Liberty and Nicfit, Providence and a future State. 8vo. 2s
Hookham, 1785
HE writer of this answer complains that Dr. Beattie,

“ instead of refuting, never met Mr. Hume in argu

ment; that he had citabliihed an arbitrary tribunal of ** his own erection, and tried his adversary by laws with " which he was unacquainted.”—“ Now, says he, as I “ had ever decmed it to be the first law of argumentation,

that the Respondent should shew a fallacy either in the
premises or the conclusions of his antagonist, I was

vastly disappointed at perceiving that Dr. Beattie had * neglected the system of Hume, and had, by declamations “ attempted to prejudice mankind against it, as containing “ doctrines pernicious to Society.”

Dr. Beattie is too acute a logician not to know that in controverting any doctrine or opinion, he must attack either the premises or the conclusion of the argument, or fyllogismi on which it is founded. Accordingly, Dr. Beattie has


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