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ftrengthen and support the navy of France in case of war. Thus it is expected that the commerce and marine of boch France and Holz land will be protected, increased, and exalted far above those of England. Now, granting that by a strict union between these ma. ritime powers, the power and grandeur of both should be increaled in equal proportian with a rapidity equal to their most fanguine withes, and that the naval force of France should far overmatch that of Enge land, the Dutch themselves must be governed in that event, by the will of the preponderating power, and they would find at lạit, that they had blindly laboured for their own destruction. The French have a very happy address in operating on the passions of aristocracies. The muhitude in any state, however paradoxical ir may appear, arc fincerely attached to the true interests of a state, because they have very little either to lose or gain by any political revolution. It is im. poffibie by bribes, or hopes, or flatteries to footh and cajole millions of men, who have a natural aftachment to their country, and who, for the most part, are instructed by common sense to know its true interests But the nobles, the heads of factions, leading men in provinces and towns : these are attended to by courts, carefled, fattered, corrupted. They are of consequence enough to be made the objects of bribery and adulation. Hopes are ipfused into them of obtaining fame particular advantages and honours. Patriotism gives way to self-interest, and often to mere vanity ; to the meie pleasure of being regarded with complacency, and treated with par. hicular marks of diftinction by a great monarch. The princes of the earth are taught by experience that men inherit this weakness, and they are accordingly very affiduous in their endeavours to allure to their courts all on whom they will to practise. The French agreeably to these obfervations, by the power of money and address, have long had powerful influence among the Swiss Cantons, and the aristocratical faction in Holland. In the contest between Charles of Aus ftria and Philip of Bourbon, in the beginning of the present century, for the succession to the Spanish Crown, the Spanish people, and at

firft a great part of the nobility were very favourably inclined to the Austrian ; and fo also were those of Naples which then, as now, depended on Spain. But it is incredible how soon the arts of the French Court and nation gained upon the affections of both the Neapolitans and Spaniards. Ar that period too, the money and the blandishments of the French King made ħim å great favourite with many of the nobility of Portugal at the very time when their King and nation were emne barked in the confederacy against him. In fhort, the French havę been accustomed to seek, and with success too, the agrandizement of their monarchy as much by the arts of urbanity, intrigue and cora ruption, as by arms. At the present monient, their success in estaba lifting the independence of North America has put them into very goodhumour; and still keeping the prosperity of the nation in view and the glory of the grand monarch, they are more gallant if possible, and polite than ever. But in their gallantry and politenefs, there is at bottom a very confiderable infufion of infidiousness and even infolence. They run

about from one court to another bowing to the very ground, and smiling inward satisfaction and outward respect,

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" You see, they feein to say, how the power and glory of France is visibly displayed in every quarter of the world: the raifes and de presses nations at her pleasure. Yet such is her moderation and hus, manity that she rather chuses to flourish by the arts of peace, than to Mew unneceffarily how formidable she is in war. Make therefore a league offensive and defensive with a naiion so great, fo benevolent, and iuft. Receive her commodities and she will receive yours on equal terms!" In the mean time while France hattens to acquire commercial and political advantages by negociation, the takes care to provide a most powerful fleet for her protection. The French fleet is now as Itrong as that of England. Ships of war are nevertheless building at Breit, Toulon, Rochfort, Marseilles, St. Maloes, Havre de Grace, Bayonne, Bourdeaux, and Rochelle. Will the moderation of France last for ever? or rather do not these things seem to say to her neighbours, “Be ye also ready."

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SPAIN.

The pacific and humane disposition, as well as the occonomical {pirit of the present age, have extended themselves at last to the animal creation, and given fome rest and respite to the bulls of Spain, His Catholic Majesty has issued an edict prohibiting bull-feaits, ex cept in certain limited cases in which the profits arising from them are to be appropriated to patriotic and

pious purposes. Surely the Count of Madrid have forgotten that." The Lord takes not any delight in the blood of Bulls."

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B A R BA RY. As the other nations of the world are very anxious and industria bus to improve and extend their respective trade, fo the Corfairs of Barbary are in like manner, and with equal success, bufily employed in extending theirs. In an age when every thing is reduced to arithinetical calculation, and great Emperors and Commercial States settle their differences by pecuniary balances; the Algerines and other Corfairs have an opportunity, of which they avail themselves, to drive à very lucrative predatory trade. And as politicians občerve: that in a commercial view, the prosperity of one country is the prof perity of another, so the flourishing commerce of other nations, givcs a plenteous harvest to the Moors. Never at fany period liave the pia racies of those barbarians been carried to a greater height, and they seem still to be increasing. The English flag alone they respect. The power and bravery of the English displayed before their eyes on the opposite shores of Valencia, in the late defence of Gibraltar, feeins to have inspired their corsairs with an esteem for the Englith, and with a proportionable contempt of their enemies. The corfairs of Barbary have above all, been careful to revenge the cause of England on the Americans.

A ME R I C A. There is scarcely an American vessel that escapes their rapacity in the Mediterranean. The Americans have neither money to bribe

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the Barbarians, nor power to repel their attaeks. This these pi rates well know, and therefore have no mercy on them. It is a contoia. cion to Britain under her mortification for the loss of America, that she has not lost any reputation with barbarous nations. The Moors still respect her flag, but fall with redoubled fury upon the commerce of her enemies. · The Indians too, have no longer any dread of their neighbours, the white men who have withdrawn themselves from the protection of the great King. The calumet of peace is smoked out and they now deem it time to dig up the hatchet... It is discovered that the Indian nations are not too much reduced in numbers, not fo nearly extirpated as some caleulators had imagined. New region's inhabited by Savages are discovered, and other unknown territories are yet to be explored.

As civilized nations extend humanity and refinement over neigh. bouring favages, fo, it would seem that there is a power of affimilation in savage maniers, by which men who have lived in civilized society are transformed into their likeness, Sailors, deserters from the European armies : back settlers on the Indian frontiers of the Ame.. rican provinces, emigrants from Europe, who found themselves uns der the name of indented servants, actual laves; thefe have many of thein renounced the comforts and the pains of civilized life, and without the instructions of Rousseau, have voluntarily returned to the condition of the prifca gens mortalium, and spend their time with fim. plicity and ease among the Indians. Many unhappy men also, who have been compelled to fee from American persecution, have taken refuge among the favages.

These Europeans and Americans, temper the extreme indolence and improvidence of the Indianis, and teach them in fome degree to provide against the various evils incident to their fituation. They also, by that influence which is the result of superior knowledges acquire an authority in their councils, and give lome degree of rey gularity and defign to their enterprizes. Their schemes are now grander and more comprehensive than they have ever been: their confederacies more extensive; their attacks more formidable. Whole nations of those favages united, by the intrigues probably of red men who have just cause of hatred and revenge, threaten war against the Americans. An Indian chief, of European extraction and edus cation, is at this moment in the British capital, has been presented to the King, and received, as is said, some private audiences of the Minister. This Chief will no doubt be surprized to find so young a Senator advising the Indian warriors to light up again the calumet of peace ; and begins perhaps to suspect that the Great King is less formidable than he had been taught to imagine : for ideas of war and revenge predominate, no doubt, in the mind of this European Indian over those of finance and commeree. . But what can we do? Xe have buried the hatchet too deep to dig it up on any sudden emere gency: we worship now the caluinet of peace. But, after all, it is not probable that the dehortation of our ministry from war will either be thought so sincere, or, if it fhould, that it will be so powerful, as tọ lull the awakened ardour of the favages into their usual lleep,

of indolence. The Americans are therefore at this moment exposed to the devastations and carnage of perhaps an hundred thoufand Barbarians, sudden in their incurfions, inhuman in their conquests, and rapid in their retreat. Thus our laté Colonists are harraffed by cruel enemies, both by sea and land, while civilized and trading nations are shy of giving them credit, and domestic diffentions and difcontent defy the power of Congress, and menacé a long continuance of anarchy and confufion. But the Americans are in pofleffion of rich foil, extensive territory, great and spacious navigable rivers, ideas of liberty, severity of manners in the Northern provinces, and advancement of knowledge: circumstances which must at laft prevail over every present discouragement, and exalt them fooner or later to a first rank among the nations.

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...GREAT BRITAIN..

The world is busy about commerce and commercial treaties, and the British cabinet is not idle. The activity of their minds, and doubtless, indolence is nut among the number of their faults, is now diverted from Ireland, where it did mischief, and employed in negotiations with foreign courts ; and chiefly with France. It is indeed very much to be wished that the two first nations in the world would lay aside those narrow and impolitic jealousies of trade, and open their ports freely to one another for the reception of fuck are ticles as are the natural produce of each: (for the navigation laws, Britain must still support,) on such terms as are neceffary for the finances or revenues of both countries. Let the French open their vineyards to us, and let us open to them our pastures. If our fashionable gentlemen and ladies are delighted with the fineries of

France, " let them fave them; if the ladies and gendemen of France Sare enamoured of English carriages, and other furniture, let them also have them.-If there should be a decline in any branch of mynufacture in either kingdom at first, the general mass of industry would Toon find a level for itself in both, and flow in the inoft na. tural, which will also be found, in the long run, the most profite able channels. Here is one general maxim which ought to be the the polar star to the English negociators for treaties of commerce, and which we would earnestly recommend to their attention: that alnost in all treaties of commerce, that party has the advantage “ who poffeffes the greatest capital, credit, industry, and invention ; and, what is necessary to these, the readiest and most extensive markets,” It should by no means be our object to stand debating and bargaining about trifles : our principal object should be in the prefent juncture, whatever treaties we wish to make, to make them with expedition ; left our rivals in trade should get before us, and conclude treaties with one another to exclude us from their ports. Let us open without much hesitation, but with the reservations above specified, our ports to all nations : let them only in return open theirs to us.But in some instances, the advice we now offer to the British statesmen is too late.-Mr. Eden, appointed negotiator

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at Paris, has justly acquired reputation for great kņowledge in trade, and the ininiter's choice and Mr. Eden's acceptance of his employment, is equally honourable to both parties. That-one should say, I will not serve my country honestly, unless the men I like be also employed in the other political departments; has ever appeared to us an illiberal and barefaced avdwal of party zeal and a spirit of face tion. Respecting Mr. Eden, let' him guard against something in his difpolition like a propensity to subtlety, quibble, and minutenels, where, these are of no great importance.--Let him, as we have already observed, keep a steady eye on great objects : let him not 'be ambitious of displaying refinement and address, and what he does, let him do quickly.

IRELAND.

Is now freed, very fortunately, from our solicitations, and left të fleep off her bad humours, in a state of repose.

* Commuunleations for the ENGLISH REVIEW. are rea quested to be sent to Mr. MURRAY, No. 32, Fleet-street, London ; where Subscribers for this Monthly Performance, are desired to give in their Names.

*** Title and Contents to Vol. VI. of the ENGLISH REVIEW will be given in our next.

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