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" CIRCE.”—The Pall Mall Gazette a short The following advertisement has appeared in time ago had an article showing that a novel the Times and other papers : called “Circe,” published in Belgravia, contained plagiaries from a French source. A day or two

THE MARTIN TUPPER TESTIMONIAL. later the same journal published a letter, pur- It is proposed to give to Mr. Martin F. Tupper, porting to be from Miss Braddon, which offered

Now at length,

A Testimonial in acknowledgment of his services to repurchase at cost price all numbers of

To Literature and Religion ; Belgravia which contained any part of the novel And as many of his friends in question! Miss Braddon writes to inform us

Both in America and in the Colonies,

No less than in the British Isles, that this letter is a forgery. Are we returning Might like to join in such recognition of honour to the vile practises of days gone by-of the To the Author of “ Proverbial Philosophy," extinct Age and Satirist ? The other day a

This announcement is made public.

The form of the Testimonial journal called the Tomahawk contained a simi

Will be determined by its amount: larly forged letter from Mr. Cole : has the Pall

Probably the simplest form is best. Mall fallen to the level of the Tomahawk ? In. A List of Subscribers will appear in due course. famous fabrications of this kind are not to be

Meanwhile contributions will be thankfully received, &c. tolerated. In the present case, if Miss Braddon This has been improved upon by the Spectator had been absent from home, there is an obvious possibility of commercial loss. It is our con- Come ye gleaners of pearls, for which our Tupper dived temporary's duty to discover and punish the deep, forger.--Globe.

And wrenched from the oysters of Meditation and in the

sullen waters of Oblivion; Upon the appearance of this, a writer in Public

Genuine pearls, not paste, from genuine beds of oysters, Opinion remarks, that “the letter in the Pal Then flung forth again on strings of his own spinningMall Gazette bearing the signature of Miss

Strings which Tupper spun at the spinning-wheel of

Wisdom; Braddon may have been a forgery, but the fact

Turning the spindle of Thought with the muscular leg of remains uncontradicted, that .Circe' is a gross power, and impudent plagiarism from the French novel

Come, give a tithe of their cost to the great pearl-diver, • Dalila.' The latter part of the above para.


Many in Australasia, and many more in Erin, graph is chiefly remarkable for its flippant vul- Some in hardy Scotia, and thousands in merrie England, garity and one-sidedness, and deserves no seri. Only a few in Wales, for the Eisteddfodd does not know ous consideration. We must express regret,


But some in the Isle of Man, and more in the Isle of however, that Miss Braddon has had the misfor. Thanet, tune to meet with such sorry advocacy, Still

All these wear the pearls which the minstrel-diver gave

them! the question presses itself, who and where is

Give him back a tithe of the cost of those pearls of Babington White? The attempt to divert at- Wisdom : tention from the theft that has been committed Give it in postage-stamps, or better, in post-office orders, by getting up a discussion about a forged letter Or cheque crossed to Herries and Co., to account of the will not be successful. If White does not shortly


N.B. The Testimonial's form will probably be as simple, appear on the scene to vindicate his ingenious As the Bard's own simple taste, namely, paid in cash to but suspicious conduct there will be only one

his order. conjecture—that he is a myth, as we have The following has since been issued :throughout the controversy suspected.

TIS ANNOUNCED THUS EARLY THAT, The Early English Text Society has issued the in accordance with the expressed wish of several first part of “The Vision of Piers Plowman" of subscribers and others (including the person chiefly inte William Langland, one of the most precious

rested) there will be no published list of the contributions

to this fund. After some months, to give time to Amerelics remaining of our fourteenth century litera- rica and the Colonies, the account will be closed. Meanture. The text has been carefully edited by the while, subscriptions continue to be reccived by the Hon. Rev. Walter W. Skeat; the work will be com

Treasurer. pleted in four volumes. Also another volume,

Mr. George Augustus Henry Sala, the well. ‘Manipulus Vocabulorum," a Rhyming Diction

known special correspondent of the Daily Tels ary of the English language, by Peter Levins,

graph, and author of “How I Tamed Mrs.

Cruiser," “ Twice Round the Clock," and first published in 1570, the first rhyming dictionary in the language. This has been edited for

other books, appeared in the Bankruptcy Court the Society by Mr. 8. B. Wheatley. Under the

on the 18th, on his own petition. He ascribes auspices of the Society, Bishop Percy's folio

his bankruptcy, to his heavy travelling expenses,

and insufficiency of income. His debts are manuscript volume of Ballads is being reprinted. The first part of Vol. 2, and Part 2, completing

stated at £2,659; and among his creditors are Vol. 4, have just been issued. A small number

the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph, £500 ;

Mr. Daniel Pratt, of Bolt Court, Fleet Street, only have been printed, and we would recommend all collectors of ballads, and all who are curious

newspaper proprietor, £800; and the “ Friend

in-Need” Insurance Office, £854. The bank. in these matters, to secure a copy forth with. Messrs. Trübner are the publishers for the

rupt, in answer to the usual questions, stated Society.

that he had no property of any description, no

book debts, no books; and that his life was in. A volume of Songs by the Poet Laureate, with sured, the policy being held by a creditor. After accompaniments by Mr. Arthur Sullivan, and

the appointment of an accountant as trade illustrations by John Millais, is in preparation.

assignee, protection was granted till the next Messrs. Rivingtons have added to their Catena sitting. Classicorum, Thirteen Satires of Juvenal, with George Brown, a well-known reporter, who notes and an excellent biographical and critical for more than twenty years has been employed on Introduction, by Mr. G. A. Simcox.

“ Three

the London press, was lately stricken with paraSatires have been altogether omitted, as not lysis, and incapacitated from ever again pursuing required, in the Oxford examinations, which his profession. Under these circumstances, an proceed on the creditable hypothesis, that all appeal is made to his friends and the public for candidates for pass or honours either possess, or subscriptions to put his wife in some small way cultivate the temper to which such reading is as of business. Subscriptions may be forwarded to painful as it ought to be.'

the office of Lloyl's Newspaper, Salisbury Square.

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Unless we are much mistaken in our surmise, immediately thereupon take up that which ! we may venture to predict that the newest been discarded, as it might mislead the publ of the magazines, St. Pauls, will be one but after the lapse of a reasonable time it m of the most successful of modern literary ven- be done. Thus, in Paris, in 1834, the Co tures. It possesses all the elements of success, Royale sanctioned the publication of a jour. and if the editor, Mr. Anthony Trollope, and under the title of the Gazette de Santé, whi the proprietors, Messrs. Virtue, continue to another journal had formerly worn, but whi show the same good judgment and liberality as it had for seven months discarded. Our reade they exhibit in their first number, there can be will readily call to mind the Literary Gazet no doubt as to the verdict of the public. When and other cases here, in which the old propra the Cornhill was commenced, it was problemati- tors never dreamed of opposing their successo cal whether the readers were sufficiently nume. in the title; and if they had, we presume tha rous to warrant the experiment of giving a half- as in the present case, they would have been ab crown magazine for a shilling; but sixty thousand to show no injury or loss, and therefore cou parchasers settled that question, London Society, claim no damages ; nor could they prevent ti Temple Bar, Miss Braddon’s Belgravia, Tinsley's, issue or sale of the new publication. and others, have made known the fact that readers are to be found for really good publica

The Sunday Magazine commences tions at a shilling a month. St. Pauls differs volume with the October part, and in the pro from any of those named; for, while it will at- gramme presents a very tempting list of subject tract large numbers of readers by its novel of by writers of note :-"The Seaboard Parish," b “Phineas Phinn,” by the editor, and “All for the Author of “The Annals of a Quiet Neigh Greed,” by the Baroness Blaze de Bury, that bourhood ;”. “Sunday Songs from Denmark, which in most contemporaries is padding,

translated by Gilbert Tait; “Old Testamen bere supplied by matter for thoughtful people ;

Characters. No. 1. Hannah the Matron,” by th there is no padding; all is sound, solid mates Editor; “Musings in a Yorkshire Valley":rial The Introduction, by the editor, is modest, glimpse of Haworth, with illustrations of Char i but at the same time confident of success, the

lotte Bronte's home and church ; “The Occupa confidence being that of a man who has accil- tions of a Retired Life," by Edward Garrett sately measured his resources and the work he “ The Flight of Birds,” by the Duke of Argyll has to do. This is followed by a political article,

A Peep into a Westphalian Parsonage," by " The Leap in the Dark ;” another, “The Ethics

Summer Tourist; “ Pictures from Church Hisof Trades' Unions ;" “ The Present Condition tory,” by Dr. Islay Burns ; “On Saving Know and Prospects of the Turf ;” an Essay on "Sove- ledge," addressed to Young Men, by Dr. Guthrie reignty," and another on “ Taste;

with com

“The Christian Life, in Verse,” and “The Three mencements of the two tales named. There is no

Great Feasts of Israel ;" with an abundance of poetry : the editor is wise in excluding that

woodcut illustrations. which is usually so called in magazines. The

Good Words for September contains an article editor says, “If a poet will send us poetry it

from the pen of Mr. Strahan, the publisher, upon shall certainly be used.” How much is implied by this! The first number will secure a very

Mr. Charles Knight, tracing his early life and high place in public estimation; and if this posi

works, contrasting. him with Perthes, and tion can be maintained for a few succeeding

glancing at his various efforts to improve his fellow men.

The article is illustrated with a numbers, the success of St. Pauls will be accomplished.

very good portrait of the veteran bookseller, who

is now in his 78th year. A second article is St. Pauls has already had the fortune, or promised on the same subject. misfortune, to get into the Court of Chancery. Some few years ago, it seems that a Mr. Ransom A new volume of the Quiver is commenced issued a penny paper of the same name. This with the new part. A pretty, coloured print of met with little success, and after a few months

Reynolds' "'Strawberry Girl," is given in addition was given up, and even its very existence had

to the usual woodcut illustrations. “To be Found been forgotten till Messrs. Virtue's advertise- Out," a monologue, by William Duthie, is one of ment appeared; then Mr. Ransom woke up

the short articles, which may be commended to and made a claim, but he met with no attention.

the notice of any juvenile assistant suspected of Messrs. Virtue proceeded with their publication,

pilfering propensities. Mr. Ransom's solicitors thereupon served Messrs. Doré's BIBLE.- Messrs. Cassell have sent out Smith & Son, Simpkin, Whittaker, Kent, and a notice to the trade that an opportunity is now Longmans with notice of legal proceedings, if afforded them of having the whole work bound they sold any copies ; but on Messrs. Virtue giving those houses an indemnity, the sale pro

together in two volumes, upon terms which will

put monthly subscribers in possession of the enceeded. It appears strange that there exists no

tire work, handsomely bound, at a cost correlegal precedent or decision settling the law on

spoding in amount to that which the complete the subject ; but although it must frequently work will reach as issued in monthly wrappers. have happened that new periodicals have taken the names and titles of those which are defunct,

Subscribers will thus be gainers to the extent of no one has before this ever questioned the right.

the binding. The law appears to be, that the title of a THE SPEAKER'S COMMENTARY.

This great mnagazine or newspaper may be continued for work on the canon of Scripture is, it appears, in any number of years and carry a copyright abeyance. Five writers undertook the Penta. with it; thus, the names of the Gentleman's or teuch; one has relinquished his work altogether, Blackwood & Magazines are copyright, and any

on account of “ill health ;' another is “ too illos one issuing new works with those names would to revise his portion ; a third has been a bishop be guilty of piracy; but any one who thinks for three years; of the fourth and fifth we have proper may take up the title of Parker's, the no account. Readers will probably be reminded Imperial, the Saturday, the Penny, or any of a passage in a certain book, which says, other defunct magazine, with impunity. If a " then began they with one accord to make magazine should chan it

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Dore's VIVIEN AND GUINEVERE. — The pic- barkation of Vivien and Merlin" on the sands of torial monument M. Doré has expressed his Brittany is almost equal to it in effective beauty. intention of raising to Mr. Tennyson, and to his The forms of the sheer perpendicular cliff of own powers, is nearing its completion.


mountain-limestone that faces them; the atmo. instalment we had last Christmas in “Elainc," sphere by which they are surrounded ; the very whetted the appetite, and created a desire for manner in which the waves are breaking--are

We have now to congratulate the Messrs. rendered not only with local fidelity, but are felt Moxon on the completion of another portion of to harmonize in an extraordinary way with the M. Doré's work. The volume to be issued next situation represented iv the text. The last scene, Christmas, comprises Vivien” and “Guin- again, in which Merlin, over-talked and overevere," and we have no doubt will meet with worn, has yielded, told her all the charm, and even greater success than its predecessor. The slept, is most dramatically represented, and forms text is now before us, together with the artists' an appropriate termination to the weird story. proofs, and photographs from the original draw. As we have said, the artist sometimes exhibits ings ; and our examination has convinced us censurable carelessness. In the illustrations to that, however highly the former volume is prized, "Guinevere" there is occasional departure from the present transcends it in several respects. local truth. For instance, the incident entitled We are disposed to agree with the publishers “The Parting,” and that other, “ The Dawn of that the drawings are superior to those which Love,” in which the lovers are represented by were given in "Elaine, as well in poetic the poet as riding under groves that looked a imagination as in dramatic effect. Not tbat the paradise of blossom, are not true to nature, and artist has altered in any respect his peculiar remind us more of what we think Eastern scenes manner. None of his old resources are exhausted; to be, than of our own England. Even here, none seem to be failing. Doré is still Doré. He however, especially in the latter picture, that har. still exhibits vigour where vigour is necessary ; mony we have observed between the human pashe is still refined where refinement is in place ; sions of the various personages and the natural and, it must be confessed, he is still careless scenery by which they are surrounded is tery diswhere carelessness is a vice. The illustrations are tinctly preserved. To the lovers, trees, fruits, eighteen in number, and differ much from each flowers, birds and sky, undoubtedly partook of other as regards subject matter, treatment, and the their own feelings, and are consequently repredegree of their value, both as interpreters of the sented not as they were in reality; but as they ap. text and as to their intrinsic excellence as drawings peared to the imagination of the two at the time. Some are figure-subjects, and depend for their In “The Cloister Scene," even, when the archi. success upon the ability which has been displayed tecture and the mural decorations are utterly at by the artist in exhibiting human emotion; some fault, —the genius of the artist saves him from are effective simply as delineations of natural failure. He is desirous of being effective, --and is scenery; whilst some furnish noteworthy ex- This is his essential characteristic. In none of ainples of that wonderful Salvator-like power the drawings, indeed, is theeffect ever weak or possessed by M. Doré of complementing the scattered. M. Doré, perhaps, as much as any purely personal interest by natural scenery. In living artist, has the power of concentration, and all, however, there is something to admire. The of carrying the eye to where, had the scene effect of light and shade; the revelation made of presented itself in reality, it would have been vast and desolate space; the dexterity and facility fixed by the beholder himself. of handling displayed in each-are as notice. It would be invidious to select any of the able as they ever were in M. Doré. But, as we engravings for special commendation. All the have hinted, what most strikes us in him is that gentlemen who have been engaged, have done faculty he possesses in an eminent degree, of their work in a way highly creditable to their harmonizing, or it may be of contrasting, in profession. In more than one instance, they animate nature, and even vegetable forms, with seem to have improved upon the original draw. the temporary situation of the personages that ings. The photographs, too, are splendid ex. figure in the story. The opening scene of amples of the art, and will serve to show readers "Vivien' will serve as an illustration of our how our best English engravers are able to remeaning. Here we see the utmost congruity prodnce the most famous artist of the day. between the human agents and the forms of OLD BALLADS. --Mr. Lilly requests us to state nature. Vivien, stolen from Arthur's court, is that he has prepared a sixteen-page detailed pro. at Merlin's feet. They are in the woods of

spectus and catalogue of the old ballads mentioned Broceliande. A storm is coming on, but the in the last BOOKSELLER, and that copies may be winds have not yet begun to rise. This is had gratis by the country trade through their accurately and admirably represented by the London agents. artist. The oak, too, at whose feet they are ALMANACKS.— The first that has come to hand reposing-huge and old—assumes dignity and for 1868 is “Thorley's Illustrated Farmers'," a importance. To the observer (and not by mere showy work got up for the especial purpose of force of prospective kuowledge derived from the puffing Thorley's Cattle Food, and glorifying the poet's words, but by its natural forms) the tree successful maker of it, whose portrait is given appears to be a partaker in what is transacting - just preceding that of an ox- both appear to be to have become a personage--and seems, indeed, in a thriving condition. Next we have a pretty to anticipate the time when it will be a little gem— "Rimmel's Perfuned "--containing dominant actor in the scene. The branches and the Seven Ages of Man, printed in chromo-lithoground-roots extend themselves in undefined, but grapb. Lastly, Cassell's “Ilustrated," the monstrous semi-human shapes, and add greatly cheapest and most elegant of all the pictorial to the effect intended to be created. All is in calendars ; the illuminated cover is one of the keeping with the story as we have it. Atogether, most successful pieces of colour printing that we the artist has, in this scene, placed a most titting have seen. Among the illustrations are a set of portal to the fair mansion he has erected for original woodents representing the “Birds of Christmas guests. And what is most observable the Year," and a large double-page engraving, in this, the earliest drawing, is to be seen with containing portraits of the Royal Family of equal clearness in several others. “The disem- Prussia.

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loss of power, removed this stamp duty, and NOTES ON THE UNSTAMPED PRESS.

penny newspapers became more plentiful than “I am conscientiously persuaded,” says Mr. T.

before. In 17:25, however, when Bolingbroke reC. Hansard, the well-known printer of Pater- appeared in the political arena as the formidable noster Row, “that a perfectly free press is as

opponent of Walpole, these duties were again essential to our existence and welfare as a free enforced, and several cheap journals were in conand independent state, as the freedom of the air sequence discontinued. Shortly afterwards, a we breathe is to the life and vigour of our duty of threehalfpence a pound was placed on all frames." This was written about the year 1832, printing paper, and a tax of one shilling levieil a time when the freedom of the press, however

on each ailvertisement appearing in any news-much it was lauded and desired, was but very paper, pamphlet, or other publication in 1761, imperfectly understood. When the history of the stamp duty upon newspapers was raised to the English newspaper comes to be thoroughly one penny, with a discount of two per cent. on written, it will be seen that the English Govern- every thousand stamps paid for in one transaction, ment-whether Whig or Tory, Conservative or

On the 28th of May, 1776, the stamp duty was Liberal -- has always endeavoured to restrict

raised by Lord North, the prime minister, and control the expression of opinion in the

from a penny to threehalfpence a copy, with a public journals. Whatever its politics, the discount as before. The average price of the party in office was consistent in its opposition newspaper to the public was then threepence. to the press. From the birth of the first News- On August 12, 1789, the duty was again raised; paper to the date of the last Libel Act, journalists this tiine from three-halfpence to twopence per have been invariably discouraged and looked upon

copy, with a discount of four per cent. per with suspicion ; and the greater the talent and thousand ; the public paying the advance in an influence of newspapers, the more thorough and

increase of from a penny to three halfpence on excessive have been the efforts for their repres- each copy of their journals. About this time, also, sion. Wise men have endeavoured, time out of the advertisement duty was increased to three mind, to dissuade governments and parliaments shillings and sixpence for each announcement. from interfering with the liberty of the press and

In 1815, the stamp duty on newspapers was attempting by force to restrain opinion ; but finally advanced to its highest rate, namely, always without immediate success. Neverthe- fourpence per copy, with a discount of twenty less, the press has grown with the growth of per cent. The retail price of the English news. liberty; and free inquiry has made its way, paper gradually rose, in consequence of these despite all “arbitrary, oppressive, and tyran.

accumulated imposts, to sevenpence, eightpence, nous" laws. The “liberty of unlicensed print

and more, according to the market price of paper, ing," for which Milton contended, has been wrung

the size of the sheet, and the increase or other. little by little, and bit by bit, from unwilling

wise in its circulation. At the same time, the and suspicious governments, till, in our day, duty payable on pamphlets, for one whole newspapers may be said to be practically free; sheet, in Svo or any lesser size, was made 3s. and nothing remains to make them absolutely free for each sheet issued; and an Act of Parliament but the removal of a few useless and nearly obso. was passed for “the better collection and malete acts respecting registration and the finding nagement of the stamp duties on pamphlets, of securities.

almanacks, and newspapers, in England and If we glance at the newspaper legislation of the

Ireland." This “better collection and managelast century, we shall find that continued efforts ment” meant more thorough restriction and were made to restrict the press. Every reader more complete repression, so far as concerned of the life of Daniel Defoe knows how long and the expression of political opinion. Meanwhile, painful was his contest with the Parliament; the duty on almanacks had risen, by successive how he wrote pamphlet after pamphlet, and ex

steps, from

opence per copy, in 1781, to one piated his “ high crimes and misdemeanours" in shilling and threepence, in 1834, in which year the prison and on the pillory. Even Sir Richard duty was estimated at £25,000, and the number Steele was expelled from Parliament in 1713, for of advertisements, at one shilling and sixpence having written in the columns of the Englishman each, in public journals, had risen to 1,110,000. something distasteful to the Government; and The duty on advertisements had been reduced in scarcely a session passed without some journalist the previous year (1833) from three shillings and being cited to the bar and sent to Newgate. sixpence to eighteenpence in England, and one Weary at last of persecuting individual writers, shilling in Ireland. In the year after the reducthe House of Commons hit upon the notable

tion of the duty-namely, from January 4, 1833, expedient of restricting newspapers by means of to January 4, 1834-the sum paid to the Extaxation. The first stamp duty came into opera.

chequer for advertisements was £83, 250, an tion on the 12th of August, 1712. It was enacted,

increase of £2,285 over the receipts of the previous that "for every pamphlet or paper contained in twelve months, when the duty was more than half a sheet or lesser piece of paper so printed,

double ! the sum of one halfpenny sterling; and for every

Concurrently with all this, there was a consuch pamphlet or paper being larger than half a stant and irritating persecution carried on against sheet, and not exceeding one whole sheet, so the press, by means of actions for libel, &c.; and printed, a duty after the rate of one penny ster

scarcely a public writer, editor, publisher, or ling for every sheet printed thereof," should be speaker, but felt the severity of the laws, and paid.

suffered in purse or person for his boldness in This enactment was received by the journalists speaking his mind, and proclaiming the right of of the day with expressions of irony and con- the people to the privilege of unlicensed printing. tempt. Addison predicted that newspapers

About this time-1832-3—there were about would be incapable of standing against it; and thirty or forty penny or twopenny publications Swift, writing to Stella, says, that “all Grub issued in London, without the stamp and in de. Street was dead and gone." Numerous journals fiance of the law. Many of them were low and were at once discontinued ; but, for some reason scurrilous, blasphemous and frivolous--almost or other, Bolingbroke, just previous to the death the necessary consequence of the enactments of Queen Anne, in 1714, and inet hofono


But they contained news, and hence they were he did, perhaps, more than any man of his time. greedily purchased by the people, to whom a He had the satisfaction, however, of knowing paper at sevenpence or eightpence was practically that the stamp acts, and other imposts which out of reach.

prevented the free circulation of newspapers, As a counterpoise to this mischievous litera- were doomed; for, in little more than a year ture, Lord Brougham and the “ Society for the after his decease-namely, on the 15th of Sep. Diffusionof L geful Knowledge” started the Penny tember, 1836-—the duty on newspapers was re. Magazine, and Messrs. Chambers, of Edinburgh, duced from fourpence a copy to a penny ; which issued their world-known Journal and Informa- duty remained till its compulsory use was finally tion for the People. To Mr. Limbird, however, abolished in 1855 –the advertisement duty hay. who is still living, and in business in the Strand ing been discontinued in 1853. Our readers -belongs the honour of first popnlarising cheap know what a weight of influence was brought to literature. In 1825, he brought out the Mirror, bear upon the Cabinet before the abolition of and other cheap weekly publications. Others the stamp duty on newspapers, except for postal sent forth the Guide to Knowledge, the Saturday purposes, took place; and what an amount of Magazine, the Parterre, the Casket, the Family writing and speaking were necessary in order to Herald, and similar serials, containing much accomplish it, and the subsequent abolition of useful and entertaining reading. Most of these the paper duty. were illustrated with wood engravings, some of To return, however, to the unstamped papers. which--strange as it may sound-have been kept The years 1834, 1835, and 1836 were eventful in use in the cheap periodicals to this day. The to the proprietors of the most notable of them. Casket was published by Mr. William Strange, Prosecutions against the projectors, publishers, who is still alive, and in business in Amen and vendors of unstamped papers were of weekly Corner, Paternoster Row.

occurrence. Hetherington was convicted over and The “unstamped press'

soon became a for- over again, for selling the Twopenny Dispatch, midable rival to its stamped and high-priced the Poor Man's Guardian, and other unstamped competitors. In the T'imes, the Chronicle, the journals ; Cleave* was convicted in penalties of Post, the Herald, and the other daily papers at 2500 for selling various numbers of the Weekly that period, we find frequent references to the Police Gazette; in like manner, Watson, and Government prosecutions against the proprietors Cousins were repeatedly summoned for similar and vendors of what it was then the fashion to offences against the stamp acts, and as repeatedly term the “selitious press.” But prosecution fined or imprisoned. Nor were the prosecutions did not deter such men as Hetherington, confined to the metropolis. Mr. Abel Heywood, Carlile, and Cleave, from issuing their penny the eminent bookseller and newsvendor, of Manand twopenny broadsheets of news and criticism. chester who has lived to become alderman and The more active the Government became in mayor of his native city-was repeatedly mulcted attempting to suppress the unstamped papers, in fines for selling unstamped papers, and once, the more determined seemed their promoters to at least, imprisoned. Poor and struggling men, resist all its attempts. If Hetherington was women, and innocent little boys, were brought fined one week for issuing a Twopenny Dispatch, continually before the magistrates for infringehe would puzzle the Somerset House authorities ments of the law, and imprisoned when they the next week by bringing out a Penny T'imer. were unable to pay the fines. Above five Various ingenious devices were employed to de- hundred suffered from first to last for selling ceive and mislead the officers employed by the unstamped papers; and so great a nuisance did Government. Many of the unstamped papers

the informations become, that the magistrates were printed in Crane Court, Fleet Street; and openly complained of the severity of the law, there, on their several days of publication,

and often inflicted merely nominal punishments. would watch the officers of Mr. Tilsley, the The records of Somerset House at this period Somerset House solicitor, ready to seize them abound in notices of similar cou victions. We immediately they came from the press. But the have been favoured by Mr. Tilsley, of the Inland printers were quite equal to the emergency. Revenue Office, son of the gentleman mentioned They would make up sham parcels of waste above, with a sight of these records; and it is papers and send them out, with an ostentatious very curious to note how many familiar names we show of secrecy. The officers—simple fellows meet in connection with these press prosecutions. enough, though they were called “Government For instance, there is Mr. Î'homas Lyttleton spies, “Somerset House myrmidons,” and Holt, † the original projector of the Weekly other opprobrious names, in the unstamped

Chronicle-which still exists as an obscure ad. papers-duly took possession of the parcels, after vocate of Insurance Offices ; Mr. D. B. Cousins, à decent show of resistance by their bearers, proprietor of the London Free Press, the Cosmowhile the real newspapers intended for sale to politan, the Weekly Herald, and other unstamped the public were sent flying by thousands down papers. Mr. Cousins, who still carries on the a shoot in Fleur-de-Lys Court, and thence distri- business of a printer in the Strand, also pubbuted, in the course of the next hour or two, all lished a newspaper on cotton cloth, presuming over the town. Fleur-de-Lys Court was swallowed that the act, i William IV., cap. \17, freed up in the enlargement of Fetter Lane a few years cotton goods from taxation. But the authorities afterwards, though even now a ruinous house stopped its issue, and ultimately nearly ruined exists to mark the site of the famous shoot. its proprietor. Then we find Mr. John Watson,

As early as 1801, William Cobbett had started Cleave had passed several of his early years in a daily newspaper called the Porcupine, but it America. He was a genial, warın-hearted and intelligent had no very long life, and was succeeded by the

man; he had been a Republican, but the gradual ameliowell-known Political Register, which, for more

ration of the laws softened down his extreme opinions.

A slight brogue indicated that he was either a native of than thirty years, was the organ of this singular Ireland, or had passed some years in that country. man's opinions. In this publication Cobbett

+ This gentleman is now, we believe, connected with the continually urged the Government to abolish or

Birmingham Press. At the time of the Railway mania, amend the press laws; but up to his death, in

in 1845, he started the Iron Times, a paper which is said to

have produced a profit of a thousand pounds & week; but 1835, he was unsuccessful in the object of his

it soon collapsed. We wish Mr. Holt could be induced to agitation. His whole life was intimately con.

write his autobiography; it would be a work of great

inte est, and would in itself be a history of the cheap nected with the press, for the freedom of which

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