Romance Languages: A Historical Introduction
Ti Alkire and Carol Rosen trace the changes that led from colloquial Latin to five major Romance languages, those which ultimately became national or transnational languages: Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian. Trends in spoken Latin altered or dismantled older categories in phonology and morphology, while the regional varieties of speech, evolving under diverse influences, formed new grammatical patterns, each creating its own internal regularities. Documentary sources for spoken Latin show the beginnings of this process, which comes to full fruition in the medieval emergence of written Romance languages. This book newly distills the facts into an appealing program of study, including exercises, and makes the difficult issues clear, taking well motivated and sometimes innovative stands. It provides not only an essential guide for those new to the topic, but also a reliable compendium for the specialist.
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1 The evolution of stressed vowels
2 Early changes in syllable structure and consonants
3 Consonant weakening and strengthening
4 New palatal consonants
raising yod effects and nasalization
the present indicative
8 Noun and adjective morphology
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allomorphy analogical Appendix Probi arhizotonic auxiliary becomes blocked syllables cânta cantar Chart clitic clusters cultismos dative deletes derive diphthongs endings epenthesis examples feminine free syllable French Portuguese Romanian front vowel future geminate high mid ĭlla ĭllī imperfect subjunctive infectum infinitive intervocalic Italian Spanish French Latin Italian Spanish Latin Old lenition low mid masculine metaphony mid vowels Modern French morphology nasal consonant neuter Old French Old Italian Old Spanish original outcomes palatal palatal consonants paradigm passato remoto passé simple past participle pattern perfectum stem periphrastic pluperfect present indicative present subjunctive primary diphthong reflexes regular sound change rhizotonic forms Romance languages Romanian second plural short forms sigmatic sound change Spanish French Portuguese spelling stem vowel stem-final stressed vowel strong perfects subjunctive suffix survive syncope thematic vowel third declension third plural third singular today’s unstressed variants velar verbs weak perfects word-final word-initial words