How Capitalism Was Built: The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia

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Cambridge University Press, 2013 - 423 pages
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Anders Åslund is known to make bold predictions that initially arouse controversy but soon become common wisdom. In his book Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform (1989), he foresaw the collapse of the Soviet political and economic system. When others saw little but chaos, he depicted the success of Russia's market transformation in How Russia Became a Market Economy (1995). After Russia's financial crisis of 1998, although most observers declared the market economic experiment a failure, Åslund foresaw market economic success (Building Capitalism, 2002). In How Capitalism Was Built, Second Edition, he asks - and answers in depth for the twenty-one countries he investigates: • Why did communism collapse? • Why did Russia not choose gradual reforms like China did? • Wherein lies the relative success of postcommunist transformation? • How did the oligarchs arise and decline vis-...-vis authoritarian leaders? Anyone who wants to understand the often confusing postcommunist dramas and to obtain an early insight into the future will find this intellectually stimulating book useful. The second edition includes updates to each chapter as well as new chapters on the impact of the global financial crisis and the European Union on the region.
 

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Table des matières

Overview of the Arguments of This Book
4
Communism and Its Demise
14
Radical Reform versus Gradualism
36
From Slump to Recovery and Boom
65
The Creation of a Market Economy
92
Development EBRD transition index 19902007
95
Gas and Coal
108
From Hyperinflation to Financial Stability
115
The Economic Role of Oligarchs
201
Speed and Legitimacy of Property Rights
211
Life and Health
221
Education Adjusting to Demand
227
Three Alternative Social Models
237
The Political Economy of Policy Reform
248
The Politics of Oligarchy
258
Colored Revolutions
264

Radical Fiscal Adjustment Was Key
123
Currency Board or Free Float
133
Dramas of Financial Stabilization
141
The Russian Financial Crash of 1998
147
Major Lessons from Postcommunist Stabilization
159
Differing Aims of Privatization
166
If Started Swiftly Done
176
Privatization of Land Real Estate and Housing
186
From Crime Toward Law
283
The Bane of Transition
292
The Importance ofthe European Union
301
The Global Financial Crisis 20072012
326
A World Transformed
358
Bibliography
367
Index
401
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À propos de l'auteur (2013)

Anders Aslund is a leading specialist on postcommunist economic transformation with more than 35 years of experience in the field. The author of eleven books, he has also worked as an economic advisor to the Russian, Ukrainian and Kyrgyz governments. Dr Aslund joined the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington DC as a senior fellow in 2006. Before that he was the Director of the Russian and Eurasian Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He teaches at Georgetown University. He earned his PhD from Oxford University. He was born in Sweden and served as a Swedish diplomat.

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