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86. Describe the war of Sparta against Elis.
90. Who restored the walls of Athens?
Agesilaus, and his Asiatic campaign.
The death of Lysander, and retirement of Pausanias.
91. Describe the last two years of the Corinthian War,
94. Describe the war in Bœotia and the western seas.
The character and tactics of Epaminondas.
108. Who succeeded Philip as head of the Grecian armies?
109. How long was Athens the leading state of Greece? 110. What two periods of Spartan supremacy?
111. Length of the Theban supremacy?
112. What was an Olympiad?
The consequences to Sparta of the battle of Leuctra.
The ambition of the Arcadians.
The intervention of the Persians.
The last campaign of Agesilaus.
The second period of Athenian greatness, and Social War.
The advance of Philip of Macedon.
The results of the battle of Chæronea.
216, 217. 218. 219–221.
227, 229, 230. 232. 233, 234. 235-240, 244-246. 236.
243. 247. 248.
HISTORY OF THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE AND THE KINGDOMS FORMED FROM IT, UNTIL THEIR CONQUEST BY THE ROMANS.
FIRST PERIOD. From the Rise of the Monarchy to the Death of Alexander the Great, about B. C. 700-323.
1. THE Kingdom of Macedon, lying north of Thessaly and east of Illyricum, was of little importance before the reign of Philip II., whose aggressions ended the independent history of Greece. (See Book III, ?? 248-254.) In 507 B. C., Amyntas I. submitted to Darius Hystaspes; and fifteen years later, in the first expedition of Mardonius, the country became a mere province of the Persian empire, the native kings governing as tributaries. After Xerxes' retreat, B. C. 480, Macedonia became free again, and began to push eastward along the northern coast of the Ægean. Here it met two rivals: the new Thracian kingdom of Sitalces upon its eastern frontier, and the Athenian power in the Greek cities of the Chalcidian peninsulas.
2. When Athens was prostrated by her Sicilian disasters, the short but brilliant reign of Ar'chela'us I. (B. C. 413-399) laid the foundation of Macedonian greatness. He improved his country by roads, strengthened it by forts, and introduced a better discipline into the army. His death was followed by forty years of great tumult, a continued scene of plots and assassinations, to recount which would only confuse without profiting the student. When Perdiccas III. died in battle, he left an infant son, Amyntas, under the regency of his brother Philip. At least five other princes claimed the crown; the victorious Illyrians occupied the western provinces, and Thrace and Pæo ́nia were ready to absorb the eastern.
3. Philip overcame all these perils with admirable spirit and ability. He made himself king instead of his nephew, defeated the Illyrians, and took advantage of the Social War to seize Amphipolis, Pydna, and Potidæa. He pushed the Macedonian boundary eastward as far as the Nestus, and built the town of Philip'pi for the protection of the gold mines. These (201)
had fallen into neglect during the wars of Athens, but under his improved management they soon yielded a yearly revenue of a thousand talents ($1,250,000).
4. Philip, in his youth, had spent three years in Thebes, where he had studied the tactics of Epaminondas, as well as the language, character, and politics of the Greeks. On coming to power, he devoted unwearied attention to the drilling of his army, until it far surpassed that of any Hellenic state. No less skilled in diplomacy than in military science, he knew how to take advantage of the rivalries in Greece, and the corruptibility of all parties, to play off one against the other, and so render himself supreme. His rapid movements made him seem to be in many places at the same moment, and no circumstance which either threatened or favored his interests escaped his eye.
5. The Olynthian War ended with the capture of thirty-two cities in Chalcidice; the Sacred War made Philip master of Phocis and head of the Amphictyonic League. In eastern Thrace, the Athenians found aid in the Persians, who were already alarmed by the rapid rise of the Macedonian power, and Perin'thus and Byzantium were thus saved for a time. Philip was victorious (B. C. 339) against a Scythian prince of what is now Bulgaʼria; and though he was defeated and wounded on his return, in a battle with the Triballi, his plots went on with uninterrupted success. The Second Sacred War gave him supremacy in central Greece, and the victory at Charonea prostrated all remaining opposition. The Congress at Corinth (B. C. 337) acknowledged his headship, and appointed him to lead the Greek forces against Persia. The advanced guard of the Macedonian army was already in Asia, when Philip was assassinated, during the festivities attending the marriage of his daughter, B. C. 336.
6. In the midst of Philip's early victories, he had heard of the birth of his son Alexander at Pella. He wrote immediately to his friend Aristotle,* expressing his joy that the young prince was born during the life of the philosopher to whom he could most gladly commit his education. On the same day that Alexander was born, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus was burnt to the ground. The priests and soothsayers, regarding the fire as an evil omen, ran about the city beating their breasts and crying
* Aristotle was a native of Stagi'ra, a Chalcidian sea-port. His father had been physician to Amyntas II., the father of Philip; and the prince and the philosopher in their boyhood formed a friendship, which outlasted the life of the former and was inherited by his son. The enlarged political views of Alexander, his fondness for discovery and physical science, his lively interest in literature, especially the poems of Homer, and his love of the noble and great in character, were largely due to his teacher's influence. When he became the conqueror of Asia, he caused rare collections of plants and animals, from all his provinces, to be sent to Aristotle, who found in them the materials for valuable works on Natural History.
aloud, "This day has brought forth the scourge and destroyer of Asia." B. C. 356.
7. At the age of sixteen, Alexander was left regent of the kingdom during his father's campaign against Byzantium. At Charonea, two years later, he led a corps of Macedonian youth against the Sacred Band of Thebes, and the victory was mainly due to his courage and impetuosity. Upon the death of his father, Alexander, at twenty years of age, ascended a throne beset with many dangers. He expelled or killed his nearest rivals, marched into Greece and convened at Corinth a new congress, which conferred upon him the same dignities and powers previously granted to his father; then instantly returning to Macedon, he signally defeated his enemies on the west and north, some of whom he pursued even beyond the Danube. During these campaigns a false report of his death reached Greece, and Thebes seized the occasion to revolt. But Alexander appeared suddenly before her gates, stormed and took the city, which, by way of warning to others, he completely destroyed-saving only the house of Pindar, the poet-and either enslaved or massacred the inhabitants.
8. Greece was now awed into submission, and Alexander prepared to execute his father's and his own schemes of Asiatic conquest. In the spring of 334 B. C., he crossed the Hellespont with 35,000 men. The Persians awaiting him at the Granicus were defeated, and Alexander, with his usual celerity, overran Asia Minor, which submitted with little opposition. Memnon, a Rhodian Greek in the service of Darius, and his greatest general, desired to carry the war into Macedonia, by means of the overwhelming fleet of the Persians. His movements detained Alexander some months near the Ægean coast; but his death, in the spring of 333 B. C., left the invader free to march toward the heart of the empire. Darius led a vast army to the plain of the Orontes, where he might have had the advantage over his assailant; but Alexander lingered in the Cilician mountain passes, until the Persian king was impatient and came to meet him. The battle of Issus (B. C. 333, Nov.) resulted in the defeat of the Persians with great slaughter.
9. Instead of following Darius, Alexander proceeded to conquer the sea
Coin of Alexander, enlarged one-half.
coast of the Mediterranean as far as Egypt, thus providing for the security of Macedon and Greece. Most of the Phoenician cities submitted as he approached, but Tyre withstood him seven months. When it was taken (B. C. 332, July), 8,000 of its people were massacred and 30,000 sold into slavery. Gaʼza was captured after a siege of two months. According to Josephus, the conqueror then marched upon Jerusalem. The high priest, Jad'dua, came forth to meet him, wearing the breastplate of precious stones and the miter inscribed with the Holy Name. Alexander prostrated himself with profound reverence before the priest, and explained to his followers that in a vision, before leaving Europe, he had seen such a figure, which had invited him to the conquest of Asia. The high priest pointed out to him the prophecies of Daniel concerning his career; and Alexander, in adding the Jews to his empire, exempted them from tribute every seventh year, when, according to their law, they could neither sow nor reap.
10. In Egypt the Macedonian king was gladly welcomed, for the people hated the Persians for having insulted their gods and profaned their temples. At the western mouth of the Nile he founded a new capital, which he designed as the commercial exchange of the eastern and western worlds. Alexandria, with its great advantages of position, soon became a rich and magnificent city. A less judicious proceeding of the conqueror was a toilsome march across the desert to the temple of Amun. He was rewarded, however, in being saluted by the priests as the son of the god, a distinction which Alexander greatly valued.
11. Turning to the north and east, Alexander now sought the grand contest which was to transfer to him the dominions of Cyrus. He had purposely given Darius time to collect the entire force of his empire, so that one battle might decide its fate. The battle of Arbela (B. C. 331, Oct.) has been described in Book II. As its result the three capitals, Susa, Persep ́olis, and Babylon, surrendered almost without resistance; and Alexander might, without further effort, have assumed the pomp and ease of an Oriental monarch. But his restless spirit carried him on to the conquest of the eastern provinces and India. He first marched into Media, where Darius had rallied the remnants of his forces to oppose him, but on his approach the dethroned king fled through the Caspian Gates to Bactria. Before Alexander could overtake him, he was murdered by his rebellious satrap, Bessus, who assumed the title of king of Persia.
12. The Greek mercenaries of Darius, who had formed his most effective force, were now added to the army of the conqueror. From province to province Alexander marched, receiving submission and organizing governments. Bessus fled into Sogdiana, but was taken, and suffered a cruel death for his treason and usurpation. A new city of Alexandria was founded on the Jaxartes; and having chastised the Scythians to the northward, the conqueror returned to Bactria, where he spent the winter of 329 B. C.