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252. Scarcely was Julius invested with the insignia of his rank, when he was driven from the country by a new sedition led by Ores'tes, master-general of the armies, who placed upon the throne his own son, Romulus Augustus. This last of the Western emperors, who bore, by a curious coincidence, the names of the two founders of Rome and the empire, was more commonly called Augus'tulus, in burlesque of the imperial grandeur which mocked his youth and insignificance.
The mercenaries demanded one-third of the lands of Italy as the reward of their services; and being refused, they sprang to arms again, slew Orestes, deposed Augustulus, and made their own chief, Odo'acer, king of Italy. The Roman Senate, in a letter to Zeno, emperor of the East, surrendered the claim of their country to imperial rank, consented to acknowledge Constantinople as the seat of government for the world, but requested that Odoacer, with the title of "Patrician," should be intrusted with the diocese of Italy.
With the fall of the Western empire, Ancient History ends. But the establishment of kingdoms by the northern nations marks the rise of a new era, which, through centuries of turbulence, will open into the varied and brilliant scenes of Modern History.
Alaric, invading Italy, is defeated by Stilicho. Gladiatorial combats are forever abolished at Rome. Honorius fixes his capital at Ravenna. Italy and Gaul are overrun by a pagan host. Constantine becomes emperor in the extreme West, A. D. 407-411. Death of Stilicho and massacre of Gothic women and children lead Alaric to a second invasion of Italy, A. D. 408-410. Rome is three times besieged, and finally given up to plunder for six days. Alaric dies, A. D. 410, and is succeeded by Adolphus, who marries the sister of Honorius, and founds a Gothic kingdom in Spain and southern Gaul. Constantius, second husband of Placidia, reigns as colleague of Honorius, A. D. 421; and his son, Valentinian III., succeeds to the whole Western empire, A. D. 425-455. During the regency of Placidia, the general Boniface, deceived by Aëtius, betrays Africa to the Vandals. Gaul is invaded by Attila, king of the Huns, who is defeated by Goths and Romans near Chalons, A. D. 451. He ravages northern Italy; and fugitives from cities which he destroys, found Venice on the Adriatic, A. D. 452. Valentinian III. is assassinated; and his widow, to avenge his death, calls in the Vandals, who plunder Rome fourteen days. Avitus (A. D. 455, 456) is proclaimed emperor in Gaul. Count Ricimer rebels, and sets up first Marjorian (A. D. 457-461), then Severus (A. D. 461-465), and finally applies for an emperor to the Eastern court, which appoints Anthemius (A. D. 467-472). Ricimer revolts again, and crowns Olybrius, who dies in a few months. Glycerius (A. D. 473, 474) soon exchanges the crown for a miter, and Julius Nepos is installed as sovereign. Orestes sets up his own son, Romulus Augustus (A. D. 475, 476), the last Roman emperor of the West. Odoacer becomes king of Italy, and the Western empire is overthrown.
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
1. What three successive forms of government in ancient Rome? 2. What races inhabited Italy?
3. Describe, severally, their origin, character, and institutions. 4. Relate the traditions concerning the origin of Rome.
5. Describe the acts and characters of the first three kings.
6. What tribes and classes made up the Roman population under Tullus Hostilius?
7. What changes were made by Ancus Martius and Tarquinius Priscus ? 8. Describe the constitution under Servius Tullius.
2 8. 9-11.
12, 13. 13-16.
17, 18. 19-21.
The reign of Tarquin the Proud.
The chief divinities and religious festivals of the Romans.
The ceremony of lustration.
The government and condition of Rome after the expulsion
The causes and effects of the first secession.
The Cassian, Publilian, Terentilian, and Hortensian laws.
37, 40, 43, 46, 78.
Of Cincinnatus and his son.
17. Tell the story of Coriolanus.
19. Describe the Laws of the Twelve Tables.
20. What occasioned the second secession?
21. What changes in government resulted from it?
22. Describe the Veientine War and its consequences.
The invasion of Italy by the Gauls.
The condition of the Romans after the departure of the
The treason of Marcus Manlius.
The Licinian laws.
The final expulsion of the Gauls.
The character of the Samnites.
31. Relate the incidents of the Latin War.
32. Describe the Second Samnite War, and the reduction of the Æqui.
34. What nations were allied against Rome, B. C. 283 ?
35. Describe the campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy and Sicily.
The preparations by Carthage for the Second Punic War.
113, 114, 117.
46. Describe the conquest of Spain.
The condition of Rome after the foreign wars.
Of Scipio Æmilianus. Of Caius Gracchus.
51. Tell the history of Marius.
52. Describe the Roman slave-code, and its effects in Sicily.
60. Describe the three decisive battles of Pharsalia, Philippi, and Actium.
169, 179, 180. 181, 182, 185.
67. How many emperors during A. D. 69?
68. Describe the reigns of Vespasian and his two sons.
The contrasted characters of the two grandsons of Julia
207. 208, 209.
The new arrangement of the empire under Diocletian and
The changes in the empire, from Diocletian's abdication to
The reorganization of the Roman world by Constantine. 84. What change of religion marked this reign?
85. What foreign nations obtained settlements within Roman boundaries?
The character and reign of Theodosius the Great. 92. What was the comparative duration of the Eastern and Western empires?
93. What barbarians invaded Italy during the reign of Honorius? .
The successive captures of Rome by Goths and Vandals. 98. How many sovereigns appointed by Count Ricimer? 99. How many by the court at Constantinople.
The extent of the Western empire under Valentinian III. 247. 96. Describe the career of Alaric, and the battle of Chalons. 97.
101. How many centuries had Rome existed from its foundation?
LIST OF BOOKS RECOMMENDED.
The following works are recommended to the student who desires a more complete account of the nations of antiquity.
Rawlinson's History of the Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World.
Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians.
Heeren's Researches into the Politics, Commerce, etc., of the Ancient World.
Niebuhr's Lectures on Ancient History.
Milman's History of the Jews.
Stanley's History of the Jewish Church.
Josephus's Jewish Antiquities.
Herodotus. (Rawlinson's translation, with illustrative essays, is incomparably
Xenophon's Cyropædia, Anabasis, and Memorabilia.
Grote's History of Greece.
Curtius's History of Greece.
Dr. Wm. Smith's History of Greece, in a single volume.
Bulwer's Athens: its Rise and Fall.
St. John's The Hellenes: the Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece.
Creasy's Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World.
Niebuhr's History of Rome.
Arnold's History of Rome.
Mommsen's History of Rome.
Forsyth's Life of Cicero.
Selections from Cicero's Orations.
Life of Cæsar, by Napoleon III.
Merivale's History of the Romans under the Empire.
Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
LIST OF BOOKS RECOMMENDED.
Among Stories, Poems, and Dramas illustrative of Ancient History, the following are recommended-the first three especially to the youngest readers.
Hawthorne's "Wonder-book" and "Tanglewood Tales."
Shakespeare's "Coriolanus," "Julius Cæsar," and "Antony and Cleopatra.”
Among collections of Engravings, the following should especially be sought. "Description of Egypt," made by the Commission of savans who accompanied the French army in 1797. Commonly called "Napoleon's Egypt." 9 vols. Text, and 14 folio vols. Plates.
Fergusson's "Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored."
Fergusson's "Illustrated Handbook of Architecture."
Botta's "Monuments of Nineveh."
Layard's "Monuments of Nineveh."
Penrose's "Athenian Architecture."
Stuart's "Antiquities of Athens.”
Canina's "Edifices of Ancient Rome."