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PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN
"This volume contains all the Anti-Pelagian writings of Augustin, collected by the Benedictine editors in their tenth volume, with the exception only of the two long works Against Julian, and The Unfinished Work, which have been necessarily excluded on account of their bulk. The translation here printed is that of the English version of Augustin's works, published by Messrs. T. and T. Clark at Edinburgh. This translation has been carefully compared with the Latin throughout, and corrected on every page into more accurate conformity to its sense. But this has not so altered its character that it ceases to be the Edinburgh translation, bettered somewhat, but still essentially the same. The excellent translation of the three treatises, On the Spirit and the Letter, On Nature and Grace, and on the Proceedings of Pelagius, published in the early summer of this year by two Oxford scholars, Messrs. Woods and Johnston (London: David Nutt), was unfortunately too late in reaching America to be of any service to the editor.
“What may be called the explanatory matter of the Edinburgh translation, has been treated here even more freely than the text. The headings to the chapters have been added to until nearly every chapter is now provided with a caption. The brackets which distinguished the notes added by the translator from those which he translated from the Benedictine editor, have been generally removed, and the notes themselves often verbally changed, or otherwise altered. A few notes have been added, - chiefly with the design of rendering the allusions in the text intelligible to the uninstructed reader; and the more lengthy of these have been enclosed in brackets, and signed with a W. The result of all this is, that it is unsafe to hold the Edinburgh translators too closely responsible for the unbracketed matter ; but that the American editor has not claimed as his own more than is really his.
"In preparing an Introductory Essay for the volume, two objects have been kept in view : to place the necessary Prolegomena to the following treatises in the hands of the reader, and to furnish the English reader with some illustrations of the Anti-Pelagian treatises from the other writings of Augustin. In the former interest, a brief sketch of the history of the Pelagian controversy and of the Pelagian and Augustinian systems has been given, and the occasions, objects, and contents of the several treatises have been briefly stated. In the latter, Augustin's letters and sermons have been as copiously extracted as the limits of space allowed. In the nature of the case, the sources have been independently examined for these materials; but those who have written of Pelagianism and of Augustin's part in the controversy with it, have not been neglected. Above others, probably special obligations ought to be acknowledged to the Benedictine preface to their tenth volume, and to Canon Bright's Introduction to his edition of Select Anti-Pelagian Treatises. The purpose of this essay will be subserved if it enables the
reader to attack the treatises themselves with increased interest and readiness to assimilate and estimate their contents.
“References to the treatises in the essay, and cross-references in the treatises themselves, have been inserted wherever they seemed absolutely necessary; but they have been often omitted where otherwise they would have been inserted because it has been thought that the Index of Subjects will suffice for all the needs of comparison of passages that are likely to arise. In the Index of Texts, an asterisk marks some of those places where a text is fully explained ; and students of the history of Biblical Interpretation may find this feature helpful to them. It will not be strange, if, on turning up a few passages, they will find their notion of the power, exactness, and devout truth of Augustin as an interpreter of Scripture very much raised above what the current histories of interpretation have taught them.”
The above has been prepared by Dr. Warfield. I need only add that the present volume contains the most important of the doctrinal and polemical works of Augustin, which exerted a powerful influence upon the Reformers of the sixteenth century and upon the Jansenists in the seventeenth. They constitute what is popularly called the Augustinian system, though they only represent one side of it.
Enough has been said on their merits in the Prolegomena to the first volume, and in the valuable Introductory Essay of Dr. WARFIELD, who has been called to fill the chair of systematic theology once adorned by the learning and piety of the immortal HODGES, father and son.
The remaining three volumes will contain the exegetical writings of the great Bishop of Hippo.
New YORK, September, 1887.
INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON AUGUSTIN AND THE PELAGIAN
BY PROFESSOR BENJAMIN B. WARFIELD, D.D.
A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PELAGIAN CONTROVERSY.
(Adapted from Dr. Schaff's Church History, vol. iii.)
I. THREE works of PELAGIUS, printed among the works of Jerome (Vallarsius' edition, vol. xi.): viz., the Expositions on Paul's Epistles, written before 410 (but somewhat, especially in Romans, interpolated); the Epistle to Demetrias, 413; and the Confession of Faith, 417, addressed to Innocent I. Copious fragments of other works (On Nature, In Defence of Free Will, Chapters, Letter to Innocent) are found quoted in Augustin's refutations; as also of certain works by CELESTIUS (e.g., his Definitions, Confession to Zosimus), and of the writings of JULIAN. Here also belong Cassian's Collationes Patrum, and the works of the other semi-Pelagian writers.
II. AUGUSTIN's anti-Pelagian treatises; also his work On Heresies, 88, 428; many of his letters, as e.g. those numbered by the Benedictines, 140, 157, 178, 179, 190, 191, 193, 194; and many of his sermons, as e.g., 155, 163, 165, 168, 169, 174, 176, 293, 294, etc. JEROME's Letter to Ctesiphon (133), and his three books of Dialogue against the Pelagians (vol. ii. of Vallarsius); PAULUS Orosius' Apology against Pelagius ; Marius MERCATOR'S Commonitoria ; PROSPER OF AQUITAINE's writings, as also those of such late writers as Avitus, CÆSARIUS, FULGENTIUS, who bore the brunt of the semi-Pelagian controversy.
III. The collections of Acta of the councils and other public documents, in Mansi and in the appendix to the Benedictine edition of Augustin's anti-Pelagian writings (vol. x.).
IV. LITERATURE. — A. Special works on the subject : GERH. Joh. Vossius, Hist. de Controversiis quas Pelagius ejusque reliquiæ moverunt, 1655; HENR. Norisius, Historia Pelagiana, etc., 1673; GARNIER, Dissert. vii. quibus integra continuentur Pelagianorum Hist. (in his edition of Marius Mercator, I. 113); the PRÆFATIO to vol. x. of the Benedictine edition of Augustin's works; Corn. JANSENIUS, Augustinus sive doctrina S. Augustini, etc., adversus Pelagianos et Massilienses, 1640; Jac. SIRMOND, Historia Prædestinatiana, 1648; TILLEMONT, Mémoires xiii. 1-1075; CH. Wilh. Fr. Walch, Ketzerhistorie, Bd. iv. and v., 1770; JOHANN GEFFKEN, Historia semi-pelagianismi antiquissima, 1826; G. F. WIGGERS, Versuch einer pragmatischen Darstellung des Augus. tinismus und Pelagianismus, 1821-1833 (Part I. dealing with Pelagianism proper, in an E. T. by Professor Emerson, Andover, 1840); J. L. Jacobi, Die Lehre des Pelagius, 1842; P. SCHAFF, The Pelagian Controversy, in the Bibliotheca Sacra, May, 1884; THEOD. GANGAUF, Metaphysische Psychologie des Heiligen Augustinus, 1852; JULIUS MÜLLER, Die Christliche Lehre von der Sünde, sth edition 1866 (E. T. by Urwick, Edinburgh); Do., Der Pelagianismus, 1854; F. WÖRTER, Der Pelagianismus u. s. w. 1866; Mozley, On the Augustinian Doctrine of Predestination, 1855; NOURRISSON, La philosophie de S. Augustin, 1868; BRIGHT, Select anti-Pelagian Treatises of St. Augustine, 1880; WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM (not to be confounded with the Scotch professor of that name), S. Austin and his place in the History of Christian Thought, being the Hulsean Lectures for 1885; JAMES FIELD SPALDING, The Teaching and Influence of St. Augustine, 1886; HERMANN REUTER, Augustinische Studien, 1887.
B. The appropriate section in the Histories of Doctrine, as for example those of MÜNCHNER, BAUM GARTEN-CRUSIUS, HAGENBACH (also E. T.), NEANDER (also E. T.), BAUR, BECK, THOMASIUS, HARNACK (vol. ii. in the press); and in English, W. CUNNINGHAM, SHEDD, etc.
C. The appropriate chapters in the various larger church histories, e.g., those of SCHRÖCKH, FLEURY, GIESELER (also E. T.), NEANDER (also E. T.), HeFELE (History of the Councils, also E. T.), Kurtz (also E. T.); and in English, SCHAFF, MILMAN, Robertson, etc.
INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON AUGUSTIN AND THE PELAGIAN
BY PROFESSOR B. B. WARFIELD, D.D.
THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF PELAGIANISM.
It was inevitable that the energy of the Church in intellectually realizing and defining its doctrines in relation to one another, should first be directed towards the objective side of Christian truth. The chief controversies of the first four centuries and the resulting definitions of doctrine, concerned the nature of God and the person of Christ; and it was not until these theological and Christological questions were well upon their way to final settlement, that the Church could turn its attention to the more subjective side of truth. Meanwhile she bore in her bosom a full recognition, side by side, of the freedom of the will, the evil consequences of the fall, and the necessity of divine grace for salvation. Individual writers, or even the several sections of the Church, might exhibit a tendency to throw emphasis on one or another of the elements that made up this deposit of faith that was the common inheritance of all. The East, for instance, laid especial stress on free will: and the West dwelt more pointedly on the ruin of the human race and the absolute need of God's grace for salvation. But neither did the Eastern theologians forget the universal sinfulness and need of redemption, or the necessity, for the realization of that redemption, of God's gracious influences; nor did those of the West deny the self-determination or accountability of men. All the elements of the composite doctrine of man were everywhere confessed; but they were variously emphasized, according to the temper of the writers or the controversial demands of the times. Such a state of affairs, however, was an invitation to heresy, and a prophecy of controversy ; just as the simultaneous confession of the unity of God and the Deity of Christ, or of the Deity and the humanity of Christ, inevitably carried in its train a series of heresies and controversies, until the definitions of the doctrines of the Trinity and of the person of Christ were complete. In like manner, it was inevitable that sooner or later some one should rise who would so one-sidedly emphasize one element or the other of the Church's teaching as to salvation, as to throw himself into heresy, and drive the Church, through controversy with him, into a precise definition of the doctrines of free will and grace in their mutual relations.
This new heresiarch came, at the opening of the fifth century, in the person of the British monk, Pelagius. The novelty of the doctrine which he taught is repeatedly asserted by Augustin,' and is evident to the historian; but it consisted not in the emphasis that he laid on free will, but rather in the fact that, in emphasizing free will, he denied the ruin of the race and the necessity of grace. This was not only new in Christianity; it was even anti-Christian. Jerome,
' On the Merits and Remission of Sins, iii. 6, 11, 12; Against Two Letters of the Pelagians, iv. 32; Against Julian, i. 4: On Heresies, 88; and often elsewhere. Jerome found roots for the theory in Origen and Rufinus (Letter 133, 3), but this is a different matter. Compare On Original Sin, 25.