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the Roman Beast, the things here ascribed to the horns of the Antichristian Beast. Insomuch, that in Pool's Annotations upon the passage, we read, "But who these ten monarchs be, or what these ten kingdoms are, I must confess myself at a loss to determine. I am much inclined to think the prophecy to concern some kings nearer the end of Antichrist's reign." Even this acknowledgment was made, while under the mistake, of supposing the Beast, that wore these horns, to be the Papal hierarchy; a sentiment attended with inexplicable difficulties! Had the pious expositor viewed the Beast wearing these horns in the character, in which he has just been exhibited, I trust he would have been still more inclined to view the prophecy, as respecting events still future, when his annotations were written.
These ten horns are kingdoms under the Antichristian empire. We find the great Power noted in Dan. xi, 36, and onward, subduing neighboring nations, and distributing their principalities to his favorites. He is thus forming to himself horns. We find in various passages relating to this terrific Beast of the last days, that he has a group of kings at command. Here then are the horns of the Antichristian Beast. And I saw the Beast, and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against him, that sat on the horse, and against his army. Whether the number of these horns will be precisely ten; or whether a certain number is put for an uncertain, time will decide. But as the number of the seven heads is definite, I apprehend the number of the ten horns is likewise definite; that ten will be the precise number of the vassal kingdoms of the Antichristian empire.‡
*See Sec. ii, chap. i, of this dissertation.
†Rev. xix, 19. See also Rev. xvi, 13; and sec. 2, chap. iii, of this dissertation, relative to Gog and his bands.
"The following arrangement of titles and of dislocations and creations of kings is reported in letters from Germany to have been determined on between the Emperors of France and Austria.
Their servility, as well as the shortness of their existence, is hinted. Which have received no kingdom as yet; but have received power as kings, one hour with the Beast. The word in the original, made in our translation to import not yet, I think is designed here to express only an emphatical negative. It is not oux εтI; but our prefixed to the verb eλabov, from ou not, and
by any means. Which have not by any means received a kingdom. They have not the independence of a kingdom. But they have received power as kings, one hour with the Beast. Each has only the resemblance of a kingdom; or the name, without the thing; and this but for a short space, like an hour, under his imperial master.
Their object is noted. These shall make war with the Lamb. The final event is given. And the Lamb shall overcome them. The unanimity of these horns, and the government of God in it for judgment, are strongly expressed. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the Beast. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree and give their kingdom unto the Beast, until the words of God
Napoleon I, Emperor of France, &c. King of the Romans. Francis II, Emperor of Austria and Franconia, and co-protector of the confederation of the Rhine.
The Archduke Charles King of Spain, and of the Indies.
Ferdinand IV to be restored to the throne of the two Sicilies.
Eugene to be King of Macedonia.
Louis Napoleon to be King of Bavaria.
The hereditary prince of Bavaria to be King of Holland and Berg.
Jerome Napoleon to be King of Wirtemberg.
The King of Wirtemberg to be King of Westphalia.
(Gazette of July 3, 1810.) This evinces the inclination of the French Empire to create vassal kingdoms, which may answer to the horns of the Antichristian Beast. What vassai kingdoms may eventually be found to answer to the ten horns of this Beast, those who may live at the time of the battle of the great day, will be better able to decide, than we can do at this period.
shall be fulfilled; as in the forecited passage, Dan. xi, 36; and shall prosper, till the indignation be accomplished; for that, which is determined, shall be done.* And
*The above passages admit, and parallel prophecies teach, as was noted in the last section, that the Antichristian Empire will exhibit a striking mixture of strength and weakness. It will, at times, appear, as though it were going to speedy destruction. And yet the Providence of God will signally uphold it, beyond the limits of human calculations.
The above ten horns have one mind to give their power and strength unto the Beast. There was not to be found among them a strange yielding to this their fate, contrary to what might have been expected. And the reason of so strange an event is given. "For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree and give their kingdom unto the Beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled." God signally governs the event for judgment, to fulfil his own word and purposes. The strange obsequiousness of those kingdoms to a most despotic dynasty, is hence accounted for. This seems to imply, that, aside from this special divine superintendence, for judg ment, the submission of those states and kingdoms, would be unaccountable, and contrary to human probability.
This Power, (though with great reverses,) we are assured on the whole, "shall prosper, (or exist) till the indignation shall be accomplished; for that, which is determined shall be done; Dan. xi, 36. This implies, that while this Power may seem to be on the eve of ruin; and the world are rising on tiptoe, to hail the destruction of their destroyer; yet they will be in a measure disappointed. The existence of the rod of iron, the battle axe of the nations, is still upheld, till the work of divine indignation is accomplished.
In the description of the feet and toes of the great image, Dan. ii, the idea under consideration is clearly given. The legs of iron, (verse 33,) were immensely strong: as was indeed the old Roman Empire. But the feet and toes, or the last part of the same Empire, with its ten vassal kingdoms, are, for a season before the coming of Christ to destroy them, presented to the world as part of iron, and part of clay. The sense is given; verse 41, 42, 43; "And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes part of potter's clay, and part of iron; the kingdoms shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron; forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with the miry clay. And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay; so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. They shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom." Here is the finishing dynasty of the Roman empire, with its vassal kingdoms, when Christ comes and
the final destruction of the Romish hierarchy by these horns, is predicted. These shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire. And thus the Papal power, which has led into captivity, now goes into captivity. He, that has killed with the sword, is now killed with the sword. Here is the patience and faith of the saints; either that righteous vindication, for which the martyrs have been represented as patiently waiting and expecting;* or new trials to the saints under Anti
dashes them to pieces, to set up his own kingdom. And this dynasty is composed of iron and clay: "Partly strong, and partly broken."
Great battles, and vast enterprises may be lost. Men may say, Now this Empire is going to ruin at once! But they will find their mistake. "The end is not by and by." "The time is not yet; but in the days of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God shall be finished." An emperor may be hurled from his throne. For the Antichristian Empire depends on no one man. Emperors were hurled from their thrones, and others succeeded them, in the first reign of the imperial head of the Roman Beast, even in the time of the legs of iron. And similar events may again take place, under the Antichristian reign. But whatever great commotions may take place; this kingdom will stand, till the time arrives for the Stone to grind it to powder.
In Rev. xii, 16, is the same idea. The infernal dragon, by his new instrument of persecution, pours out floods of armies, falsehoods, mischief, rage and terrors, to cause the Church o be swept away. But the earth helps the Church, and opens ner mouth, and swallows up these floods. Earthly views and motives will induce some to counteract the strength and violence of this great instrument of Satan; so that, while it is partly strong; it will also be partly broken. While it has much iron, it will possess much clay. But its strength will prevail, till the indignation is accomplished: or the word of God is fulfilled. While a mixture of iron and clay will be exhibited, which will keep the nations in a tremendous uproar; the iron will prevail, till the period arrives for the Stone, cut out without hands, to smite the feet and toes, and all the materials of the image, to dust, and to set up his own millennial kingdom. But this will not be so immediately, upon the appearing of the Antichristian Power to be partly broken, as many may imagine. (See remarks on Rev. x, and Matt. xxiv, in the sequel of this work, under the fifth vial.)
*Rev. vi, 9, 10, 11.
christian tyranny. The Papal harlot appears, in the beginning of the chapter, dressed out and presented for execution; as has been noted. The Beast is, under the direction of Divine providence, bearing her to her judgment, or execution. I will show thee the judgment of the whore. And now the event takes place, under the agency of the ten horns of the Beast, as her executioners. Whether this execution of the Papal harlot will be finished in the mutinies, and bloody havoc, which are to take place among the combined powers, under the Antichristian Beast, gathered in Palestine against the Jews;* or in some preceding events, time will determine. To me the former appears probable. For the false prophet is represented as present, in union with the Antichristian Beast, and going into perdition with him, at the battle of that great day.† By the false prophet here, must be understood Popery, after it ceases to be a Beast, its throne being subverted, and its kingdom being filled with darkness, upon the rise of the Antichristian Beast. This is evident from Dan. vii, 11, compared with Rev. xix, 19, 20. In the former, it is "because of the voice of the great words, which the horn (Popery) spake, that the Beast (the last head of the Roman Beast) is slain, and his body is destroyed and given to the burning flame." In the latter passage, (which clearly relates to the same period and event,) we find the Beast and his kings and their armies, gathered to battle against Christ. "And the Beast was taken, and with him the false prophet, that wrought miracles before him, and both were cast alive into the lake of fire." Here we learn, that the horn, in the former passage, or Popery, is the false prophet in the latter passage. The false prophet in the Revelation then, is Popery, in that subjugated form, in which it goes into perdition. This subjected relict of Popery must have some new name. And, as it is a scheme of false religion, found in the most mischievous connexion with the Antichristian Beast, as his nominal form of Godliness, it is rational, that the term false prophet should be given.
* See Sec. ii and iii, chap. iii.
See Rev. xix, 20.