Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution

Couverture
Matthew J. Ravosa, Marian Dagosto
Springer Science & Business Media, 5 janv. 2007 - 829 pages

This book provides a novel focus on adaptive explanations for cranial and postcranial features and functional complexes, socioecological systems, life history patterns, etc. in early primates. It further offers a detailed rendering of the phylogenetic affinities of such basal taxa to later primate clades as well as to other early/recent mammalian orders. In addition to the strictly paleontological or systemic questions regarding Primate Origins, the editors concentrate on the adaptive significance of primate characteristics. Thus, the book provides the broadest possible perspective on early primate phylogeny and the adaptive uniqueness of the Order Primates.

 

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Table des matières

PROBLEMS OF DIAGONAL SEQUENCE WALKS
406
DS WALKING AND ARBOREAL LOCOMOTION
415
DUTYFACTOR RATIOS AND DIAGONALITY
420
FINE BRANCHES VERSUS FLAT SURFACES
421
LOCOMOTION AND THE ANCESTRAL PRIMATES
422
CONCLUSIONS
427
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
430
Morphological Correlates of Forelimb Protraction in Quadrupedal Primates
437

Relationships in Afrotheria
18
Relationships in Laurasiatheria
19
CONCLUSIONS
22
REFERENCES
23
New Light on the Dates of Primate Origins and Divergence
29
THE FOSSIL RECORD
30
THE MOLECULAR EVIDENCE
35
QUANTIFYING THE INCOMPLETENESS OF THE FOSSIL RECORD
37
PRESERVATIONAL BIAS IN THE FOSSIL RECORD
43
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
46
The Postcranial Morphology of Ptilocercus lowii Scandentia Tupaiidae and Its Implications for Primate Supraordinal Relationships
51
Taxonomy
52
Supraordinal Relationships of Tupaiids
53
Significance of Ptilocercus
59
MATERIALS AND METHODS
60
RESULTS
62
DISCUSSION
65
CONCLUSIONS
67
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
69
REFERENCES
75
Primate Origins A Reappraisal of Historical Data Favoring Tupaiid Affinities
83
LIMITS OF CLADISTICS CONFRONTED WITH LARGE DATA SETS
86
FACING PRIMATOMORPHA
90
Dermopteran Incisors
92
Paromomyid Postcranials Gliding and Apatemyid Adaptations
95
On Postcranial Characters and Archontan Phylogeny
97
Skull Characters and Conclusion
100
THE PLESIADAPIFORM RADIATION AND PRIMATE ANCESTRY
101
Temporal and Geographical Extension
102
Plesiadapiform Dental Characters and Primate Origins
104
Other Characters and Conclusion
108
RETURNING TO TUPAIIDAE
112
Important Tarsal Characters
116
Tupaiids as SisterGroup of Primates
120
REMARKS ON SCENARIOS OF THE ACQUISITION OF NAILS
122
CONCLUDING REMARKS
126
Primate Morphotype Locomotor Mode
129
SUMMARY
131
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
133
Primate Taxonomy Plesiadapiforms and Approaches to Primate Origins
143
BACKGROUND ON TAXONOMIC DEBATES
145
Phylogenetic Taxonomys Solutions to the Problems Posed by Linnean Taxonomy
146
Other Taxonomic Priorities
150
PREVIOUS DEFINITIONS AND DIAGNOSES OF PRIMATES
151
THE PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF PLESIADAPIFORMES
155
A More Comprehensive Analysis
159
Taxonomic Implications of the Current Analysis
163
PRIMATE TAXONOMY AND THE STUDY OF EUPRIMATE ORIGINS
167
CONCLUSIONS
169
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
170
REFERENCES
171
JawMuscle Function and the Origin of Primates
179
Functional Morphology of the Primate Masticatory Apparatus
180
Interpretations of the Masticatory Apparatus in the First Primates
192
Treeshrew Feeding Ecology and Jaw MorphologyA Reasonable Early Primate Model?
196
MATERIALS AND METHODS JawMuscle Electromyography
197
Comparative Primate Electromyographic Data
202
RESULTS
203
Comparison of Treeshrew and Primate Electromyography
206
DISCUSSION
209
Behaviors
213
In vivo Evidence from Treeshrews and Primates
217
CONCLUSIONS
219
REFERENCES
220
Were Basal Primates Nocturnal? Evidence from Eye and Orbit Shape
233
ORBITAL CONVERGENCE
235
ORBIT SIZE AND SHAPE
237
RECONSTRUCTIONS OF ORBIT SIZE AND SHAPE IN BASAL PRIMATES
240
MATERIALS AND METHODS
241
RESULTS
242
Orbit Size and Shape
246
DISCUSSION
248
The Eyes of Haplorhines
251
CONCLUSIONS
252
REFERENCES
253
Oculomotor Stability and the Functions of the Postorbital Bar and Septum
257
Neurological and Morphological Maintenance of Eye Position
260
What Are the Consequences of Disruption of Oculomotor Coordination?
263
Focus of This Study
266
METHODS
267
RESULTS
268
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
271
Oculomotor Stability and the Function of the Postorbital Bar
272
Oculomotor Stability and the Function of the Haplorhine Septum
275
SUMMARY
276
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
277
Primate Origins and the Function of the Circumorbital Region What Is Load Got to Do with It?
285
MASTICATORY STRESS AND CIRCUMORBITAL FORM
286
Galago Circumorbital PeakStrain Magnitudes
289
Galago Circumorbital PrincipalStrain Directions
293
Facial Torsion and the Evolution of the Primate Postorbital Bar
294
NOCTURNAL VISUAL PREDATION AND CIRCUMORBITAL FORM
298
Orbital Form and Patterns of Covariation
301
Nocturnal Visual Predation and the Evolution of Orbit Orientation and the Postorbital Bar
307
Phylogenetic Evidence Regarding the NVPH and the Evolution of Circumorbital Form
316
CONCLUSIONS
317
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
320
Origins of Grasping and Locomotor Adaptations in Primates Comparative and Experimental Approaches Using an Opossum Model
329
A REVIEW
331
COMPARATIVE STUDIES
334
A Review of Didelphid and Cheirogaleid Ecology and Behavior
335
A Functional Model
339
Morphometric Results
341
Performance Results
346
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
351
Materials and Methods
353
Gait Patterns
356
Arm Protraction
359
Vertical Force Distribution on Limbs
362
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
363
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
368
REFERENCES
369
Evolvability Limb Morphology and Primate Origins
381
THEORETICAL CRITERIA FOR EVOLVABILITY
383
EVIDENCE FOR EVOLVABILITY IN THE AUTOPOD
385
ROLE OF AUTOPOD EVOLUTION
389
DISCUSSION
393
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
396
Primate Gaits and Primate Origins
403
METHODS
438
RESULTS
442
DISCUSSION
448
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
452
Ancestral Locomotor Modes Placental Mammals and the Origin of Euprimates Lessons from History
457
GLIMPSES OF HISTORY OF RESEARCHES REGARDING ARCHONTAN PLESIADAPIFORM AND EUPRIMATE MORPHOTYPE LOCOMOTO...
459
Arboreality as a Novel Strategy for the Stem of Archonta
461
The Role of Leaping in the Ancestral Euprimate
466
MODELS AND THE LOCOMOTOR STRATEGIES OF EXTINCT TAXA
473
HOMOLOGY IN EVOLUTIONARY MORPHOLOGY
478
TRANSITIONS LEADING UP TO THE ARCHONTAN AND EUPRIMATE LOCOMOTOR STRATEGIES AND SUBSTRATE PREFERENCE
481
LOCOMOTION AND THE ORIGINS OF EUPRIMATES
482
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
483
The Postcranial Morphotype of Primates
489
RECONSTRUCTING FUNCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ROLES
495
DERIVED FEATURES OF THE MRCA
499
Features Related to Grasping
500
Beyond Grasping and Small Branches
503
Features Related to Leaping
506
DO THE FUNCTIONALBIOLOGICAL ROLE ATTRIBUTES OF THE TRAITS AS A WHOLE CONSTITUTE A COHESIVE STORY?
517
Are the Biological Roles of Features Misidentified?
518
Are these Features Part of the Primate Morphotype?
521
Origin of Primates as a Process Not an Event
522
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
525
New Skeletons of PaleoceneEocene Plesiadapiformes A Diversity of Arboreal Positional Behaviors in Early Primates
535
CLARKS FORK BASIN FOSSILIFEROUS FRESHWATER LIMESTONES
537
Documenting PostcranialDental Associations
538
An Example from a Late Paleocene Limestone
539
Newly Discovered Plesiadapiform Skeletons
541
A Diversity of Arboreal Behaviors
553
Carpolestidae
557
Plesiadapidae
562
Micromomyidae
563
PRIMATE ORIGINS AND ADAPTATIONS
566
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
572
REFERENCES
573
Start Small and Live Slow Encephalization Body Size and Life History Strategies in Primate Origins and Evolution
583
RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE IN PRIMATES
585
Encephalization in Extant Primates
588
Encephalization in Extinct Primates
590
PRECOCIALITY AND ENCEPHALIZATION IN PRIMATE EVOLUTION
593
Encephalization and Precociality
600
PRECOCIALITY ENCEPHALIZATION AND SMALL BODY SIZE IN EARLY PRIMATE EVOLUTION
601
SCALING PRINCIPLES AND SUBSEQUENT PRIMATE EVOLUTION
608
PRIMATES AND OTHER MAMMALS
611
SUMMARY
614
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
617
Evolutionary Specializations of Primate Brain Systems
625
SPECIALIZATIONS OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
627
Retinotectal Organization
632
Blobs
636
The Critical Role of V1 in Primate Vision
639
Dorsal and Ventral Visual Processing Streams and Their Termini in HigherOrder Parietal and Temporal Cortex
640
SPECIALIZATIONS OF FRONTAL CORTEX
645
Premotor Cortex
650
SPECIALIZATIONS OF LIMBIC CORTEX
652
DORSAL PULVINAR AND RELATED CORTICAL NETWORKS
653
SPECIALIZATIONS OF CORTICOTECTAL ORGANIZATION
656
PRIMATE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS IN ATTENTION AND ACTION
657
CONCLUSIONS
658
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
664
New Views on the Origin of Primate Social Organization
677
DEFINITION OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND SOCIALITY
679
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF PRIMATE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
680
Inferences from Strepsirrhine Primates
681
Inferences from Primitive Mammals
684
Reconstruction of the Ancestral Pattern of Primate Social Organization
685
CAUSES FOR SOCIALITY IN PRIMATES
686
Ecological Factors and Sociality in Rodents
687
Body Size
691
CONCLUSIONS
692
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
693
Primate Bioenergetics An Evolutionary Perspective
703
SAMPLE AND METHODS
704
RESULTS
710
Ecological Correlates of Strepsirrhine Hypometabolism
711
Metabolic Variation and Body Composition
712
Comparative Metabolic Data
713
Implications for Subfossil Lemurs
715
Ecological Correlates of Primate Metabolic Variation
718
Phylogenetic Influence on Primate Metabolic Variation
721
Body Composition and Primate Metabolic Variation
724
Implications for Models of Primate Origins
725
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
730
Episodic Molecular Evolution of Some Protein Hormones in Primates and Its Implications for Primate Adaptation
739
AN EXAMPLE OF ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION
742
Statistical Analyses to Detect Positive Selection in Lysozyme Sequences
743
EVOLUTION OF GROWTH HORMONE AND ITS RECEPTOR
746
Biology of GH and GHR and their Interactions
747
Gene Duplications Leading to Multiple GHRelated Loci in Primates
748
Episodic Molecular Evolution of GH in Mammals
749
Test of Positive Selection in DNA Sequences of Primate GHs and GHRs
750
A Case Study of Functional EvolutionThe Emergence of Species Specificity
753
EVOLUTION OF CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN IN PRIMATES
755
Molecular Structure and Origin of CG
756
Evolution of Placental Expression of the CGαSubunit Gene in Primates
757
Number of Gene Copies and Episodic Molecular Evolution of CGβSubunit Genes in Primates
759
Summary of Molecular Evolutionary Events in the Evolution of CG in Primates
761
EPISODIC EVOLUTION OF OTHER PROTEIN HORMONES
762
CONCLUSIONS
767
REFERENCES
768
Parallelisms Among Primates and Possums
775
OVERVIEW OF PHALANGEROID PHYLOGENY
777
MINIATURE FLOWER SPECIALISTS
780
SMALLBODIED OMNIVORES
786
LARGERBODIED FOLIVORES
789
CRITICAL PRIMATE ADAPTATIONS
793
PARALLELISM AND PRIMITIVENESS
795
REFERENCES
798
Perspectives on Primate Color Vision
805
VISION
806
In Black and White
808
TEXTURE
809
TASTE
812
EARLY PRIMATE EVOLUTION
813
FUTURE RESEARCH
815
REFERENCES
816
TAXON INDEX
821
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