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la conserver, sont à nos yeux des phénomènes qu'on ne saurait expliquer par le raisonnement. Le théisme qui

. s'y amalgamoit avec le panthéisme, ressembloit peu à la notion de l'unité de Dieu, telle que les livres hébreux nous la présentent, simple, claire, établissant entre la Divinité et les hommes des rapports moraux. Ce dernier caractère constitue la différence essentielle qui sépare ces deux espèces de théisme "*

From our preceding remarks it will be perceived that we may naturally expect some gleams of truth, sparkling like fire-flies amid the wilderness of paganism. The following extract from a literal translation of a portion of the Maha-wansi, one of the most revered of the sacred books of Budhism, and considered as a faithful transcript of the doctrines of the devotees of Budha, is given by Mr. Upham. It presents an interesting corroboration of some of the most remarkable events and circumstances which characterize the antediluvian age. · At that time all beings lived an assankaya of years; nosin was there in the world: the immense duration of their life caused men to forget their birth, and be unmindful of their death ; they knew not the infirmities of life, nor the miseries of the world. They derided the very deities, as these were not the fortunate partakers of such a length of days; so that at that time the life of mankind in this world outlasted the existence of the gods. Irrational animals had also their kings in those days; the narration of these facts appears in the ancient histories.” In the sequel we have the translation of the king Maha-mandatoo Chackrawarty-raja: “This king having enjoyed great happiness in the world of mankind, ascended in that state of life to the world of the gods.” We cannot fail to discern here several remarkable circumstances, having a distinct reference to events recorded in Scripture history :-the protracted lives of antediluvians ;--the rationality of inferior creation, in which we may discover the serpent of Eden speaking with man's voice ;-the sinless nature

* De la Religion Considérée dans la Source, &c. Tome II. p. 219, &c.

of man before the fall ;-man's subsequent rebellion, and the depravity of the world ;-Enoch“walking with God,” and his translation from earth to heaven, that he should not “see death.” It may be necessary to inform our readers that a sanka or assankaya of years, is an incredible number of years ;-an immensely long period. An assanka is represented by a unit followed by sixtythree ciphers; such as are the periods of geological theories.

In the Hindoo cosmogony, according to Maurice, there is a description of creation recorded, which has some obscure features of resemblance to that of the Mosaic history; and in the personification of Narain or Narayan, in the mythology of Budhism, one of the features of creation is presented to us, since the name Narain literally signifies “moving upon the waters :" while the fall of man from a state of primeval innocence and enjoyment, in the Satya Yug, or age of perfection, forms the basis of the metempsychosis of India, of which that of Egypt is the counterpart. In one of Mr. Upham's plates, we have a representation of Payay and Ritta, the latter presenting a twig with three leaves, or a flower, which the former seems to reject ;—the figures are surrounded by the symbols of the zodiac.

It is not difficult to recognize here a reference to the first pair. In one of the most ancient pagodas of India, is a figure of Chreeshna,* one of the avatars of Vishnu, trampling on the crushed head of a serpent, the kali-naga, or black snake—it is his triumph. In another figure, the serpent is seen compassing Chreeshna with its folds, and biting his heel. In all this, and much more, we cannot fail to perceive adumbrated the remarkable prediction which accompanied the fall of man;—“The seed

A contemptible ignorance has, in its foolishness, endeavoured to inculcate an idea that the affix, Christ, applied to the Messiah, is a similar word to Chreeshna ! The former is an appellation which belongs to our Saviour, as“King of kings;" whereas Chreeshna signifies black or blue, and is applied to the dark complexion of this idol of the Hindoo mythology. What strange rhythmical ideas some individuals possess!


of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head.” Amid the shadowy forms that peopled the heathen mythology we observe abundant proofs of the same extraordinary description. In the maha-wansi of Budhism, the vedas and puranas of Hinduism, and the theogony of Hesiod, the same facts are enrolled. In the mythology of Egypt the serpent bears an important character : represented in an upright form, it enters into all its rites and ceremonies. In Apollo and Hercules, Thor and Chreeshna, the event of triumph is adumbrated, and cannot be mistaken. In ages the most distant, and lands the most remote, the same belief seems to have been infused into their mythology, and perpetuated from age to age. We remember to have been considerably interested in examining the war-helmet of, we believe, a New Zealand chief, in which was found a talisman, and the bruised head of a serpent, folded up. When we examine ancient coins and medals, we shall find that, in many cases, the serpent cuts no inconspicuous figure. We are by no means disposed to go so far as Mr. Deane has gone, in his ingenious work on "The Worship of the Serpent;" for many circumstances induce us to think that a number of these symbols are connected with the elevation of the brazen serpent in the wilderness—a question which shall be considered in its proper place. Among the coins of Augustus, however, figured by Dr. King, (Fig. XVIII.) is a very remarkable one. It represents a female with a mural crown, a palm branch in her hand, and a dove by her side ;—she is trampling on a serpent. In the Tyrian coin, of which we present a fac simile, a serpent appears twisted round a tree:-conical mounds, or perhaps petræ ambrosianæ, are seen on each side; and on what


be called the exergue of the coin, or that part of it which is out of the field, may be seen Hercules's dog, and the shell from which the famous Tyrian purple was extracted ;





which appears to have been of different kinds, principally belonging to the genera Murex and Buccinum ,

2; for Tyrian coins seem to represent different shells. The legend of the discovery of this imperial dye will be readily recalled to mind. It was imparted to the lips of a dog which had devoured the shell-fish on the shore: the purple stain being accidentally observed by his master.

It cannot be out of place here to advert to the chronology of the Hindoos, about the antiquity of which so much has been said. According to the judicious remarks of M. Joinville, it is in the precepts not in the history of the religions of Brahma and Budha, that we are to decide the question of priority between them. According to the Budhists the world existed from all eternity; their calculations, therefore, relate entirely to the transmigrations of Gaudma, (whose living representative is the Lama in Tibet) from the time he first thought of becoming Budha, until he merged into Nirwana. There are, however, traces of Brahminical calculations to be discovered in those of Budha The Brahmins calculate the antiquity of the globe on a most extravagant scale, and this shoots into an epocha immensely prolonged. In the assumption of the astronomical periods, on which they profess to found their calculations, they have cunningly displayed some ingenuity.

- The Brahmins and Budhists,” says Joinville," are equally bigoted and extravagant, with this difference, that in the former religion, are found very deep ideas of astronomy, in the latter NONE. I have, till now, searched in vain for an instructive work in Singalese, relative to the heavenly bodies; and have found only uninteresting speculations on the influence of the stars upon the affairs of the world. The Brahmins respect fire, the Budhists do not.

The former eat of no animal, the latter are restricted only to the not partaking of the flesh of nine, of which the ox is the principal. I am rather of opinion, upon a comparison of the two religions, that that of Budha is the more ancient.” Then follow his reasons, which seem powerful. “ The religion of Budha, having

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extended itself, in very remote times, through every part of India, was, in many respects, monstrous and unformed. An uncreated world and mortal souls are ideas to be held only in an infant state of society; and as society advances such ideas must vanish: à fortiori, they cannot be established in opposition to a religion already prevailing in a country, the fundamental articles of which are the creation of the world and the immortality of the soul. Ideas in opposition to all religion, cannot gain ground, or at least cannot make head, when there is already an established faith; whence it is fair to infer, that if Budhism could not have established itself among the Brahmins, and if it has been established in their country, it must be the more ancient of the two.” In the astronomical systems of both the Budhists and Brahmins we see the number 432 selected as the ground of their periodic numbers : other traits of resemblance may be discovered ; and since “the Budhists were possessed,” according to our author, "of astronomy before the Brahmins; and as both religion and astronomy are united, is it not probable that the religion of the Budhists is the more ancient ?” These remarks are extremely interesting, and the question is important; for the Brahminical calculations in astronomy must be posterior to the schism that separated the devotees of Brahma from that of Budhism, which seems to have been the parent stock; and in that case the high antiquity the Hindūs claim entirely vanishes. In the Asiatic Researches there will be found many solid reasons for believing that the religion of the Brahmins was grafted on Budhism, and that the Brahmins are the later sect, and the reformers. The devotees of Budha and Brahma have ever maintained towards each other, an inextinguishable hatred and antipathy; remarkably resembling that bitter animosity and jealousy which existed between the Jews and Samaritans at the commencement of the Christian era ; and this hostile schism between the followers of these two great sects of Indian mythology, may, providentially, be the means of deciding the question of their chronology with a precision which could not be

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