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circumstances of the deluge, in every kindred and tongue,” is an unequivocal testimony to the truth of the event. The very fact, that


nation tells its own story about it, conformably to the peculiarities which distinguish its annals, (though the epocha of the event be consigned to the darkness of distant ages,) sufficiently attests that it must have been communicated before the nations “were scattered and peeled," when their language and their name were one :—but, though tradition has not preserved the record of the epocha, the Annals of Heavenly Truth reconcile the facts, and determine, with clearness and precision, the date and history of the event. The circumstantial details of this remarkable event are very satisfactorily recorded in the venerable document, whose claim to all acceptance as a register of truth, is so clear and decisive. The world had become guilty before God. Fratricide had long before stained the annals of the primeval world. Crime pressed on crime, as wave succeeds to wave ; the moral beauty of that world which the CREATOR had surveyed on its completion, and pronounced good, was marred by the ravages of evil. Man became an apostate from his God, rose in rebellion, and defied his legislation :-"His thoughts were only evil,

“ and that continually.” The holiness and justice of heaven required a terrific monument to be perpetuated to the end of time, written in the adamantine rock, and stamped in the frame-work of the globe; to be seen and read of all men :-evidence to a world, that “God will not be mocked.” The symbols which are so clearly seen in the organic remains of a former world ; the register of its wreck and ruin, cannot be obliterated while the mountains remain, and the earth endures. Earthquakes may overturn the pyramids, or overwhelm the temples of Egypt, or the pagodas of Hindūstan be swept away by an inundation of the Ganges; but these awful legends will remain until the period of the EcPYROSIS, for which they are reserved ;-"When the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; the earth also, and the works that are therein shall


on the

be burnt up:

:"* and, it is a remarkable fact that the chemical elements of that very agent (water) which was employed in the destruction of an antediluvian world, have in modern times been proved adequate to this. No mineral substance can resist the energy of a flame the elements of which are the constituents of water. Platinum, one of the most refractory of the metals, enters into fusion before it, the diamond burns away, and plumbago rises in vapour; thus it is proved beyond all question, that “ the elements can mest with fervent heat.” So that, as the late Dr. Clarke remarked, we almost see in this fact a physical illustration of

rape of Proserpine by Pluto, from the Fountain of Cyane.

The deep delinquency of man before his MAKER is thus described, and the terms are fearfully expressive : “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” It is added, “ the earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.” The “goodliness” of creation was tarnished, and its beauty “consumed.” The sentence of destruction went forth, and “ God said unto Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me, for the earth is filled with violence through them: and behold I will destroy them with the earth.” In this language there is something more implied, we think, than a cursory observation might suppose. “The whole creation groaned" under a a load of guilt. We are cautious in speculating on questions for which we possess insufficient data. It is difficult to determine how the inferior creation had “ become corrupt;" but it seems to be connected with, or refer to, the laws of their original creation ; yet, to us, there really do seem to be some palpable proofs, in the evidence revealed by the exhumation of organic remains, of some dislocation in the links of being, and the order and harmony of creation even in inferior animals“ violence” done to those distinctive lines of demarca

* 2 Pet. iii. 10.

tion, by which the various tribes of animals are preserved separate, and distinct. There seems, somehow, to be a violent rupture of those laws which were imposed on them, for “that which is against nature.” We do not advert here to gigantic remains, merely as such, but to the incongruous union of animal forms :-“chimeras and gorgons dire," on which the laws of God seem to have put a restraint, that nothing might, with impunity, change that order of creation which, in the beginning, his wisdom had pronounced good.” Among other organic remains which might be mentioned, we may cite, by way of illustration, the ichthyosaurus or lizard fish, and the plesiosaurus. Perhaps, however, the most wonderful specimen, of this description, is the pterodactylus or winged lizard, connecting, by an extraordinary link, birds and reptiles. Professor Buckland thus describes this strange fossil production : “In size and general form, and in the disposition and character of its wing, this fossil genus, according to Cuvier, somewhat resembled our modern bats and vampires; but had its beak elongated, like the bill of a woodcock, and armed with teeth, like the snout of a crocodile; its vertebræ, ribs, pelvis, legs and feet, resembled those of a lizard ; its three anterior fingers terminated in long hooked claws, like that on the forefinger of the bat; and over its body was a covering neither composed of feathers, as in the bird, nor of hair, as in the bat, but of scaly armour, like that of an iguana: in short, a monster, resembling nothing that has ever been seen or heard of upon earth, excepting the dragons of romance and heraldry. Moreover, it was, probably, noctivogous and insectivorous, and in both these points resembled the bat ; but differed from it in having the most important bones in its body constructed after the manner of those of reptiles. With flocks of such like creatures flying in the air, and shoals of no less monstrous ichthyosauri and plesiosauri swarming in the ocean, and gigantic crocodiles and tortoises crawling on the shores of the primeval lakes and riversair, sea, and land, must have been strangely tenanted in






those early periods of our infant world." The ichthyosaurus deviates from the saurian or lizard. It resembles a fish in its vertebral column. The paddles are intermediate between feet and fins. “ It has the snout of a dolphin, the teeth of a crocodile, the head and sternum of a lizard, the swimmers of a whale, and the vertebræ of a fish.” The plesiosaurus somewhat resembles the crocodile, but has a double number of vertebræ; the neck is like the body of a serpent, and the head is that of a lizard; it has no feet, but swimmers like a whale, or paddles like a turtle. The celebrated fossil of Maestricht belongs to this class of beings; the name mosasaurus has been assigned to it; its extreme length is computed to be nearly twenty-six feet; and, from tủe structure of the tail, it seems to have been designed for a marine purpose : at one period it was supposed to be a crocodile, at another time a lizard, and finally a cetaceous animal or a fish. Another fossil body, somewhat intermediate between the crocodile and that class of lizards called monitors, but of very inferior size compared with the mosasaurus, has received from Cuvier the name of geosaurus. The fossil organic body called megalosaurus, is of a gigantic lizard-like form, and computed by Dr. Buckland to be from thirty to forty feet in length: it combines the characteristics of the monitor and crocodile.

Inferior creation did suffer, along with man, in the cataclysm of the deluge; but its tribes might have reaped corresponding advantages, had he sustained his innocence. They formed part of man's estate, and must necessarily suffer in the ruin of man's inheritance, as is even now the case in secular affairs. In the wreck of fortune, the integrity of property is destroyed, and the materials which contributed to happiness are disordered. There certainly seems to have been some terrible defection from the law of their being. We cannot fail to observe checks or reins imposed on animal nature, which the inferior tribes of creation, in their native haunts and wilds, do not seem to violate; which even when interfered with by the agency of man, cannot



progress beyond one link.

.-" Hitherto and no farther." Hybridism is a positive infraction of the laws of Nature, It is thus that the uniformity of creation is not defaced, or its links dissevered. Not only does the aspect of the material world extinguish the wild and incoherent notion of a fortuitous congregation of atoms, and dance of dust, but indisputably proves the constant preservation of the beautiful and wondrous structure, which originated in the first creation from intelligence and design. The oak that flourishes in our forest is as the oak of Eden. The cedar of Lebanon is but a scion of that cedar which was first planted by an Almighty hand ;—“All things continue until now;"—fac similes of their antitypes, as they flourished in grandeur and in beauty at the close of a magnificent and beautiful creation. The type transmitted from age to age, shall continue until time shall be no longer, to attest creative power, wisdom, and goodness. The stability of material things is a record of the immutability of JEHOVAH ; and since no new forms start up around us, to startle and amaze, we have a sufficient assurance that the Creator is the “God of order, and not of confusion.".

From what has been said, we need not be surprised should we find entire races of nondescripts exterminated; and such as have no living analogues in existing genera and species. We mention these things incidentally, and merely as ideas that have, in our geological researches, flashed across our own mind, without at all being anxious to give them a prominent place; just as we have adverted to the subject of phrenology, en passant, indifferent as to its rejection or belief, and solely with a view to prove that it is not so terrible as some, without investigation, have considered it to be ;-that it has been assailed by ridicule, is not a warrant for despising the claims it urges on attention. Time may discover an error in judgment, and inform us that we have been deceived ;-when that error is discovered, it will be soon enough to cast phrenology from us, but as it may also contain the constituents of truth, let it receive the audience it seeks.

Let us never forget that any thing may

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