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in pacifying them, and at later periods he also rendered valuable service to the national government in dealing with the Indians. Soon after the truce with the Sioux was arranged, immigration increased, so that by 1869 the population had probably reached twelve thousand.

In July, 1874, gold in paying quantities was discovered in the Black Hills, and there was a rush of prospectors to this place. As it was an Indian reservation, the United States troops attempted to keep out the gold seekers, but in spite of this opposition miners entered in 1875 and began work. Deadwood, Rapid City, and Hill City were quickly formed. In 1876, treaties were made with the Indians by which the United States gained possession of the auriferous lands, and thousands of miners entered the new Eldorado.

In the great Territory of Dakota all that was needed for growth was railroad facilities. The period of railroad building began in 1872, and continued rapidly from that time until the Territory was well supplied with means of transportation. A great increase in population followed the building of the railroads, so that by 1880 there arose a movement for statehood. With this came the demand that the Territory should be formed into two States. There was no precedent for doing this, though there had been cases which were somewhat similar. There had been many instances where a State had been formed from a previously existing Territory of the same name, but none where the people had demanded that the existing Territory should be divided into two States nearly equal in area. Of the two, the section now known as South Dakota was the more populous and was the leader in this movement for division. The demand from what is now North Dakota was equally urgent, though not so early, because in 1870 the population of that part of the Territory was only two thousand. In the next fifteen years the population increased with great rapidity. Its claims were not pressed so strongly, because it was realized that if the southern part of Dakota could not succeed there was no hope for the less populous northern half.

In January, 1871, the Territorial legislature petitioned Congress for a division of Dakota on the line of the fortysixth parallel. Another effort for a division was made in 1872 and again in 1874, with the request that the northern Territory should be called Pembina. In 1877, and again in 1881, this effort was repeated.

In the winter of 1882 and 1883 a bill was passed by the Territorial legislature to form a constitution for South Dakota; the governor withheld his signature and the bill did not become a law, but the popular interest in the movement was so great that delegates were elected and a Constitutional Convention was held at Sioux Falls in September, 1883. This body formed a constitution, which was adopted by a popular vote, and, with the petition for admission, was unsuccessfully presented to the Committee on Territories.

At the session of the Territorial legislature in 1885, in response to many memorials from South Dakota, an act was passed on March 9th to provide for a Constitutional Convention preparatory to the admission into the Union of that part of the Territory south of the forty-sixth parallel. This act provided for a convention to assemble at Sioux Falls for the purpose of framing a constitution, republican in form, and performing all other things essential to the preparation of the Territory for making application to the general government for the admission of such part of the Territory into the Union.

The delegates were chosen under this act and came together at Sioux Falls September 8, 1885, and formed a constitution for the proposed State. This was submitted to the people November 1, 1885, and was adopted by them by a majority of eighteen thousand five hundred and sixty-one.

These persistent efforts for the division of the Territory had a reasonable basis. There were few common interests between its northern and southern sections because of the great distance between the settlements. Unfortunately for the unity of the State the settlements, instead of beginning


Father Gabriel Richard, first Representative for the Michigan Territory in Congress. Painted for M. Antoine Beaubien, now in Sainte Anne's Church, Detroit.

at some one point and spreading from that, had begun at almost the same time in the extreme north around Pembina, and near the extreme south. They were, therefore, separated by a distance of hundreds of miles with no direct method of communication. This difference was accentuated by the building of the railroads, which went in a nearly direct line east and west. The settlements in the northern and southern parts did not approach each other, but grew up along the lines of the railroads, the two lines of settlements remaining hundreds of miles distant from each other. At the time of application for statehood, 1883, there was no railroad connection between northern and southern Dakota except by way of St. Paul.

Then again it was claimed that agriculturally they were different. The north was destined to become a great wheat field in close railroad connection with Minneapolis and St. Paul, which furnished a market for the wheat. The south was pastoral and agricultural, divided up into small farms in direct communication with Chicago and St. Louis.

There was also a decided difference between the people of the two sections. They generally came from the same parallel of latitude in which they settled. The tastes and habits of the northern and southern people were different. From the first the two sections had been prejudiced against each other and had always had the belief that the north and south were to have separate governments. This was shown in the early establishment of the public institutions in the two sections, each division having its own agricultural college, prison, etc.

When the apparent need was so great and the desire for statehood was so frequently expressed it seems strange that the request was not more readily granted. The Committee on Territories in 1886 reported that the movement in Dakota was irregular and without precedent; the right to create Territorial governments within the public domain, to fix their boundaries, and to provide for their admission into the

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