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dition, whereupon they said in verse 1, “ Remember, O Lord, what is come upon us; consider and behold our reproach.” Whence I take up this observation :

That it is a matter of great lamentation for God's people to be driven from their houses and inheritances, and for strangers and aliens to be brought into them. When the Jews were in Babylon, and remembered their former estate and condition, they sat down and wept by the waters of Babylon. Saith the psalmist, “ We sat down and wept when we remembered thee, O Zion,” Psalm cxxxvii. 1. This is matter of tears and weeping; a condition in itself exceeding sad and very lamentable. Which truth, that I


more fully open to you, and apply to ourselves according to our occasion, I shall deliver myself these four ways:

First, Shew that it is a sore and heavy affliction for a man to be driven from his habitation, and aliens to be brought into it.

Secondly, That it is such an affliction, as God suffers his own servants to fall under.

Thirdly, Why God suffers his own people thus to be driven from their houses and habitations.

Fourthly, How a man should prepare for the evil of that condition, and carry the matter so as he may have comfort and supportance in that estate.

First, I say, that it is a sore affliction, and matter of great lamentation, for a man to be driven from his house and habitation.

His house and habitation is the meeting place of all his outward comforts ; the seat and centre and receptacle of all those outward blessings that he doth enjoy in this world. If he hath riches, they do meet him there ; if friends, they do meet him there, if rest, quiet, peace, sleep, they do meet him there. There are all his pleasant things laid up. If he hath any money, choice gold or silver, left by his father, which he will not part with, but keep for a remembrance of the dead, there it is laid up. If he hath any choice linen or household stuff that was left by his mother, which he will not sell for any money; where are they laid up, but in his house? And therefore the church, in Lam. i., complains, that when the enemy came to rifle and plunder their houses, the adversary had spread out his hand upon all her pleasant things. Now whence is grief, but from the losing that which a man counts pleasant ? And for this cause, some say, the valley of Megiddo was so mournful a place, because it was the valley of Hadadremmon;* that is, say they, the valley of the cutting of their pleasant things. Zech. xii. 11. So that when a man's house is spoiled, and he is outed, it is as it were a little valley of Hadadremmon, a man's house, &c. As a man's house is the nest where all these eggs are laid, and therefore when a man is driven from thence, the meeting place of all his outward comforts, surely it must be an exceeding sad thing and very lamentable.

To say nothing of the reproach that doth come thereby, or of the violence that doth come therewith; it is the judgment threatened, threatened against the wicked, and those that are most ungodly. The contrary is often promised unto God's people: “ They shall build houses and inhabit them, and they shall plant vineyards and eat the fruit of them : they shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat; for as the days of a tree are the days of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands : they shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth for trouble," Isa. lxv. 21, 22, 23. On the contrary, when God threatens evil to a place and people, this is the evil that he denounceth; that he will drive them from their houses and habitations, and that others shall be brought into them : “ But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to observe to do all his commandments, and his statutes, which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee : thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her; thou shalt build an house, and thou shalt not dwell therein; thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not gather the grapes thereof," &c. Deut. xv. 28, 29, 30. Now is it nothing for a man to go up and down under the wounds of a threatening ? Saith Paul, “ I bear about in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.” But such an one may say, I bear in mine estate and name and body, the marks of the threatening ; oh, the threatening hath taken hold upon me. As of all mercies, it is most comfortable to receive a blessing in the way of a promise ; so among miseries, it is the most lamentable to meet with an affliction in the way of a threatening: therefore matter of lamentation hereby.

* LXX. Legunt Hadadremmon, sicut planetus mali granati quod in campo succiditur ; quia fortasse quo tempore occisus fuit Josias mala punica occisa sunt, quæ Judæis erant in deliciis. Theodor. similitudinem sumi putat ab eo, strepitu qui a lignatoribus editur cum mala punica succiduntur.

Again, A man loseth many, it not most of his opportunities of doing good and receiving. “Make yourselves friends of your unrighteous mammon (saith our Saviour), that they may receive you into everlasting habitations,” Luke xvi. 9. But if this unrighteous mammon fail, how shall a man make him such friends ? So long as a man is at home, and hath a habitation to resort unto, he hath many opportunities of doing good, and receiving good into his family. He may pray, read, meditate, sing, and have a little church and heaven on earth.* If God give a man any notion or knowledge out of the Scripture in his chamber, when he hath a family he may come down and communicate it unto them. He may there receive strangers, for which many have been blest. There he may give a hiding, a resting place unto the saints, for which many have been hid themselves. There he may exercise good duties, the only way unto heaven and happiness. When he is thrust out, and strangers brought in, he doth therefore lose many of these opportunities; and therefore how justly may he take up this lamentation and say, Have pity, have pity upon me, oh all my friends, for the hand of the Lord hath touched me. This condition is very sad, I am not able to express it in words, and praised be the Lord that your experience cannot preach it.

Secondly, Yet God suffers his own people and dear children many times to fall into this condition. Our Saviour Christ himself, who bare our sins, had not whereon to lay his head. The apostle tells us, Heb. xi., that many saints wandered up and down the world in woods and caves, of whom the world was not worthy. They did not only wander, and were removed from their own houses ; but, as Chrysostom observes,t they were not quiet even in the woods: they did not only want their own house in the city, but they wanted a quiet seat in the wilderness.

* Unum quod equantumvis exiguum tuguriolum fieret coelum quoddam et superaret omnia omnium regum palatta.-Luther.

Ipse Deus hospitiore cipitur. Cette enim scimus ipsum Deum domi nostræ esse, apud nos pasci, cubare, re puescere quoties bonus aliquis frater ob evangelium exulans ad nos verit, et a nobis hospitio ex ipitur.-Luther.

† Non solum non habebant propriam domum intra civitatem, sed neque in solitudine propriam et quietam sedem habebant ; quippe non dicit apostolus sedebant in solitudine, sed cum illic essent fugiebant. et illine expellebantur non solum exteria que inhabitari poterat, sed etiam ex inhabitabili.—Tena in Heb. xi. Chrysostom in Ηeb. xi. αλλα και εκ ιο λες εφευγον. &c.

Four especial causes there are, or occasions, as Musculus observes* whereby men have been driven from their houses and habitations. First war. Secondly famine. Thirdly inhumanity, cruelty, exaction of evil men and magistrates. Fourthly, want of liberty in the matter of religion : and in all these respects God's people have been driven from their houses. First by famine and outward scarcity: so Abraham, so Naomi, so Jacob and his family, when they went down into Egypt. Secondly by war: so the Israelites when they were carried into Assyria, and the Jews into Babylon. Thirdly: by the inhumanity, cruelty, and exaction of evil men and magistrates : so Joseph and Mary went down into Egypt. Fourthly, by want of liberty in the matters of religion: so it is said many of the saints in Jeroboam's time left their houses, and went down to dwell in Jerusalem under Rehoboam, 2 Chron. xi. 14, 16. “ The Levites left their suburbs, and their possessions and came to Judah and Jerusalem. And after them, outof all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the Lord God of Israel came unto Jerusalem to sacrifice unto the Lord God of their fathers." So that we see this condition, though sad, is no other than what may, and doth, and shall befal the servants of the Most High God. In the churches since Christ what men of note have there been, but have fallen under this condition ? Cyprian, Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, all by violence, one time or another driven out of their habitations and forced to leave their houses. In times nearer to ourselves, Calvin driven from Geneva, because especially he would not administer the sacrament of the Lord's supper to some that were very scandalous : you know the story of Galeacius Caracciolus, you may read it in Mr. Jewell's life; to this purpose described in English and set down before his Works, Doctor Humfreyt also, relating his life, tells us how he was

* Musculus in Ps. xciv. page 714. + Certe qui me hic nolunt esse si esset integrum nus quam vellent vivere. Ego vero cedo temporibus, et si quam ille amea calamitate voluptatem capiant eam nihil impedio; quodque suis precatus est. Aristides cum ire in exilium


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expelled the college, and at once suffered a threefold banishment, who taking his leave of the college in a solemn oration, breaketh forth into these expressions : Well surely those that would not have me live here, if it were in their power, would not have me live in the world. But I give place to the times, only wishing, as Aristides when he went into banishment, and praying that none of you all hereafter may think on me: and so farewell all studies, farewell these schools and seat of learning, fare ye well, O young men, fellows, friends, brethren, yea mine own eyes. Ye know how it fell out with many of our brethren in England, Tyndale, Rogers, Palmer, and divers others. Our Saviour saith expressly, “ when they persecute you in one city, flee unto another.” when you see the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place, then let them that are in Judea flee unto the mountains.” Matt. xxiv. Let me allude and say also, when you see the desolating army, the army that maketh desolations in places where it comes, that abomination of desolation standing in the holy place, the highest court of justice, then let those that are in England also flee unto the mountains.*

But God hath promised the contrary, that he will plant his people surely with his whole heart, and they shall be no more removed.

You must distinguish of times : some promises are made to all times, some promises are made only to some times, and are to be fulfilled especially in the later times, the end of the world, when the Jews are converted : when the Jews are called, the enemies of the churches shall be all destroyed, and then God's people shall be planted in their houses, and no more removed, as Isa. lxv. Who would not pray for this time?

But besides you know God's promises are of two sorts, such as are made absolutely, and such as do run conditionally according unto the nature of that good thing which he promiseth ; some good things promised are absolutely good

id ego nunc Deum opt max. preco ne mei posthac cuiquam in mentem veniat valete, omnes valete, Humfred. in vita Juelli, page 75.

* Sed id tempus in hac Angliorum Ecclesia Francforti exulante multi nobiles et alioqui variis Dei muneribus illustrati convenerunt. Doctor Humfred. de vita Juelli, page 87.

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