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very much. - Have you a son? I have a son and a daughter. Do you like our children? I like your children very much; they are very good. - My daughter loves her brother very much. My son loves his sister and his parents. - Do you like coffee? I like coffee, tea, and chocolate. - Your niece loves her father, uncle, aunt, and cousins (f.) very much.- My uncle is very fond of beer. - Do you know your enemies? I know them very well. Have you any friends? Yes, I have some good friends. Are you hungry? I am not hungry, but I am thirsty. Is it cold? It is not cold to-day.



Do you like eggs? I like eggs and butter. Does he like wine? He likes wine and beer. - Does she like meat? Not much. My sister likes chocolate and sugar. We are fond of cheese. My brothers like good wine. - My nephews are very well satisfied. My children are very fond of potatoes. - Have you not any sugar? I have none. - Do you like milk? Yes, but I like cream better. - Have they no coffee? Yes, they have some. - Have you any good knives? I have no good ones. -Your brothers are very industrious. They are industrious and kind. - My mother loves her uncle and aunt. - Are they old? They are very old. - Have you not a niece? No, but I have nephews. My sister loves her young child; it is a beautiful child. I am very well satisfied with my wine. - Do you like our old friends? I like them very much; they are very agreeable.



It now becomes most advisable to study the verbs as a separate subject; a certain portion being assigned for each lesson.

Learn first the verbs avoir and être; then the terminations, which precede each of the regular conjugations; and, finally, the formation of tenses.

Many of the verbs referred to in this and in the subsequent lessons, are conjugated in full; but the acquire

ment of the same can be more easily obtained through the formation of tenses. If the learner masters the regular verbs, and can form a verb, by means of the terminations and the formation of tenses, the task of memorizing a whole irregular verb, and frequently a whole class. of verbs, will require less study than to learn two or three tenses needed for a "Lesson."

SEVENTH LESSON-Septième Leçon.

The book, le livre.

The dictionary, le dictionnaire.
The copy-book, le cahier.

The letter paper, le papier à lettre.
The envelope, l'enveloppe. f.
The letter, la lettre.

The pen, la plume.

The pen-holder, le porte-plume.
The pencil, le crayon.

The inkstand, l'encrier. m.
The ink, l'encre. f.

A sheet of paper, une feuille de

Study and conjugate, negatively and interrogatively with the negation, the indicative present of aimer. See p. 139.

The possession, in French, corresponding to the Saxon Genitive, i. e., expressed in English by means of 's or s', is rendered by the preposition de, of or from, in connection with the possessive adjectives (see the table in the preceding lesson), or by means of the contracted articles du, m. de la, f, de l', m. and ƒ. des, m. and f. plural.

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These children and those children, Ces enfants-ci, et ces enfants-là.

This, ceci, and that, cela, are used absolutely.

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These demonstrative pronouns are usually understood in English, but can not be omitted in French. They agree in gender and number with the noun for which they stand.

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In the same manner as the adverbs of place ci and là are used above, with the demonstrative adjectives, they can be used with the demonstrative pronouns, conveying then the idea of this one, that one, these (here), those (there).

We have this one, and you have that


Nous avons celui-ci, or celle-ci, et vous avez celui-là, or celle-là.

You have these, and we have those. Vous avez ceux-ci, or celles-ci, et

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To whom do these good pens belong? A qui sont ces bonnes plumes?

They are my cousin's.

Do you see my pen-holder?

I see your brother's.

You do not speak to Robert?
No, I am angry with him.

Elles sont à ma cousine.
Voyez-vous mon porte-plume?
Je vois celui de votre frère.
Vous ne parlez pas à Robert ?
Non, je suis fâché contre lui.

Charles gives his inkstand to his Charles donne son encrier à son brother.


*Placed before the verb, except in the imperative affirmative I see it, je le, (la,) vois.


N'avez-vous pas mon cahier? A qui sont ces enveloppes? A qui prêtez-vous votre dictionnaire? N'avez-vous pas soif? Ne connaissez-vous pas la sœur d'Arthur? Connaissez-vous ces enfants? Ne voyez-vous pas mes beaux crayons? N'avez-vous pas l'encrier de mon fils? Avez-vous l'encrier de Charles? N'êtes-vous pas mouillé? Fait-il humide? Fait-il froid? Aimezvous ces plumes? Ne sont-elles pas bonnes? Qui a tort? Qui a peur? Comment vous portez-vous aujourd'hui ? Comment se portent vos enfants?


When the nominative or subject of the verb in an interrogative sentence is a noun, it must be placed before the verb; and a pronoun agreeing with the subject in gender, number, and person, is placed immediately after the verb in simple tenses, or immediately after the auxiliary in compound tenses.

Is his brother tall?
Does his father love him?
Has your sister danced?

Son frère est-il grand?

Son père l'aime-t-il ?

Votre sœur a-t-elle dansé ?

When the third person singular of a verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pronoun, a euphonic t is placed between the verb and the pronoun; as:

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