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Study and conjugate finir in the indicative present, four forms. See p. 145, as well as sentir (p. 149), ouvrir (p. 149), and tenir (p. 150).
Do I? Est-ce que je?
The student already knows that in conjugating a verb interrogatively, the subject pronoun is placed after the verb; as, aimons-nous? etc. However, when a verb in the first person singular of the indicative present ends with two or more consonants, as je vends, je dors, je pars, je prends, and also in all verbs of the first conjugation, as well as in the verbs of other conjugations in which the same first person ends in e, as je cueille, j'ouvre, the French make use of the above expression— est-ce que je? i. e., is it that? as:
Do I sell?
Do I open?
Est-ce que je vends?
Est-ce que je dors ?
Est-ce que j'aime?
Est-ce que j'ouvre ? etc.
The same est-ce que may be used with every tense and person in familiar style, but the other form is preferable.
Do you work? Travaillez-vous? or Est-ce que vous travaillez? Does he sell? Vend-il? or Est-ce qu'il vend?
Do they open? Ouvrent-ils? or Est-ce qu'ils ouvrent?
Would that gentleman leave? Ce monsieur partirait-il? or Est-ce que ce monsieur partirait ?
In speaking of the parts of the body or the qualities of the mind, the French use the article le, la, les, etc., instead of the possessive adjective or the indefinite article; the possession being already expressed by some other word in the sentence.
Objective-interroga- | Whom do you see? qui voyez-vous? tive applying to persons.
Objective (not interrogative), to persons and things.
Of whom do you speak? de qui parlez-vous?
The lawyer whom I heard, l'avocat que j'ai entendu.
The book which, or that, I read, le livre que j'ai lu.
VARIOUS FORMS OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
1. Qui, who, that, which, mas. and fem., sing. and plur.; standing in the nom. for persons or things. Who is there? Qui est là?
2. Qui, whom, mas. and fem., sing. and plur.; standing in the objective for persons, in interrogative sentences, with or without preposition. Whom do you see? Qui voyez-vous ?
3. Que, whom, that, which, mas. and fem., sing. and plur.; standing for persons or things in the objective case. The man whom L'homme que je vois.
4. Quoi, what, used absolutely and relatively; also interrogatively with a preposition, in the sense of "what thing?" etc. Of what are you thinking? A quoi pensez-vous ?
5. Dont, of whom, of which, whose, mas. and fem., sing. and plur.; for persons or things, never used absolutely; preferable to de qui, du quel, etc. The book of which I speak. Le livre dont je parle. 6. Lequel, which one, which, mas. sing.; standing for mas. sing. nouns. Which one do you see? Lequel voyez-vous?
7. Laquelle, which one, which, fem. sing.; standing for fem. sing. nouns. Which one do you give me? Laquelle me donnez-vous ? 8. Lesquels, which ones, which, mas. plur.; standing for mas. plur. nouns. Which ones are yours? Lesquels sont à vous ?
9. Lesquelles, which ones, which, fem. plur.; standing for fem. plur. nouns. Which ones are mine? Lesquelles sont à moi? 10. Duquel, of which one, of which, mas. sing.; standing for mas. sing. nouns. Of which one does he speak? Duquel parle-t-il ? 11. De laquelle, of which one, of which, fem. sing.; standing for fem. sing. nouns. Of which one is he fond? Laquelle aime-t-il? 12. Desquels, of which ones, of which, mas. plur.; standing for mas. plur. nouns. Of which ones does she complain? Desquels se plaint-elle ?
13. Desquelles, of which ones, of which, fem. plur.; standing for fem. plur. nouns. Of which ones do they speak? Desquelles par
sing.; standing for mas. Auquel le donne-t-elle ? sing.; standing for A laquelle écrit-il ? plur.; standing for
14. Auquel, to which one, to which, mas. sing. nouns. To which one does she give it? 15. A laquelle, to which one, to which, fem. fem. sing. nouns. To which one does he write? 16. Auxquels, to which ones, to which, mas. mas. plur. nouns. To which ones do we give it? nons-nous ?
Auxquels le don
17. Auxquelles, to which ones, to which, fem. plur.; standing for fem. plur. nouns. To which ones shall I write? Auxquelles écrirai-je ?
He who, the one who, the one which, etc., are rendered in French by means of the demonstrative pronouns (see Seventh Lesson) and the relatives qui and que.
The one who, he who, she who, the Celui qui, celle qui.
The one whom, he whom, she Celui que, celle que,
Good morning, sir; what is the Bonjour, monsieur; qu'avez-vous
matter with you?
I have a violent headache.
You work too much.
I am in a hurry.
I have pains in my legs.
Is this handsome child yours?
J'ai un violent mal de tête.
Vous travaillez trop.
Je suis pressé.
Moi, j'ai mal aux jambes.
Et j'ai un mauvais rhume.
His mother intends to cut his hair. Sa mère a l'intention de lui
Has he not sore eyes?
He has sore eyes and ears.
What is the matter with your arms?
couper les cheveux.
N'a-t-il pas mal aux yeux ?
Il a mal aux yeux et aux oreilles.
I have a mind to walk.
I have not time to cut your nails.
J'ai envie de marcher.
Je n'ai pas le temps de vous couper les ongles.
I have the one my father does not J'ai celui que mon père n'aime not like.
Avez-vous chaud aux pieds? A qui est cet
encrier? Cette plume est-elle à vous? Connaissez-vous ma sœur? Connaissez-vous son amie? Aimez-vous le vin? Fait-il bien froid aujourd'hui? Ecrivez-vous beaucoup? Avez-vous mal à la tête? Etes-vous fatigué? Marchez-vous beaucoup? N'avezvous pas le dictionnaire de mon frère? Qui a le livre de ma nièce? A qui sont ces livres? Qu'avez-vous?
Are not your feet cold? No; it is not cold. — Have you time to cut my hair? Not to-day. - Do you intend to work to-day? I intend to work much (hard); I am in a hurry. Do you walk much? I walk too much; I am very tired. - How is your mother? My mother has a headache. And how is your sister? My sister has a bad cold, and she has sore eyes. You have a cousin (f.) who is very pretty; she has beautiful eyes and nice, small hands. —The one who has a pain in her foot? The one whom your mother loves very much.-Yes, she is my cousin Catharine; she is very pretty and very good. — Your brother has a fine beard. I do not like it so long. My uncle has a violent toothache. My brother's friend has pains in his arms. - I
noticed (j'ai remarqué) your sister's pretty little hands.
To whom does this beautiful pen-holder belong? Which? That one.
To my uncle (Paul). - Whose books are these?
Which? These. They are my nephew's.
Do you not answer