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Among the more important articles in this Volume are the following:

CATERPILLARS, CELL,

CRAR, & other articles Professor J. ARTHUR THOMPSON.
CATTLE..................... J. MACDONALD of the Farming World.
CATTLE PLAGUE, &c.... Principal WILLIAMS.
CATULLUS.................. WALTER WHYTE.
CAUSALITY.................. Professor W. R. SORLEY.
CAVALRY................... Lieut.-Col. DUNLOP, R. A.
CELTS........ ....... Professor Ruys.
CERVANTES; CID. ....... JOHN ORMSBY.
CEYLON..................... J. L. SHAND.
CHANCERY; COMMON

LAW; COPYRIGHT.... Thomas RALEIGH, D.C.L.
CHANNEL ISLANDS...... A. G. KEENE, C.I.E.
CHANNEL TUNNEL. ... ... Sir EDWARD W. WATKIN.
CHAP-BOOKS............... H. B. WHEATLEY.
CHAPMAN; DEKKER.... A. H. BULLEN.
CHARLES I. and II...... F. HINDES GROOME.
CHARLES V............... P. Hume Brown, LL.D.
CHATHAM, EARL OF..... R. B. HALDANE, Q.C., M.P.
CHATTERTOx.............. F. HINDES GROOME
CHAUCER....... ... Professor J. W. HALES.
CHEMISTRY....

LEONARD DOBBIN, Ph.D.
CHERUBINI............... COLIN STALKER.
CHESS.......

R. F. GREEN, EJ. Brit. Chess Magazine.
CHICAGO.................... GEORGE FORRESTER.
CHILI.......

J. SAMSON (South American Journal). China; CONFUCIUS..... Professor LEGGE. CHLOROFORM.............. W. Inglis CLARK, D.Sc. CHOLERA.......

.. Dr R. W. FELKIN. CHOPIN ..................... CHARLES L. GRAVES. CHRISTIANITY

EDMOND DE PRESSENSÉ, D.D.
CHRISTMAS.
IMAS.............

Rev. T. F. THISELTON DYER.
CHRONOLOGY............... R. E. ANDERSON.
CHURCH, CRYPT, &c..... D. MACGIBBON.
CHURCH HISTORY....... Rev, A. P. DAVIDSON.
CIBBER; COLMAN........ ROBERT W. Lowe.
CICERO...................... Rev. W. J. BRODRIBB.
CIRCULATION.............. DAVID HEPBURN, M. D.
CIVIL SERVICE........ Ti. A. Casson, F.S.S.
CLAN................ The Duke of ARGYLL.
CLIMATE....

Dr ALEX. BUCHAN.
CLOUDS......

.... R. T. OMOND (Ben Nevis).
CLOUGH, A. H............ Thomas Davidsox.
CLUBS....................... HENRY R. TEDDER.
COACHING.................. W. C. BLEW, of the Field.
COAL, CORAL ISLANDS,

and Geology generally. Professor JAMES GEIKIE
COALING STATIONS...... Lord BRASSEY.
CODE........................ Professor GOUDY, D.C.L
COLCHESTER............... Rev. E. L. CUTTS.
COLEXSO.......

.. G. BARNETT SMITH. COLERIDGE...... ..... Professor W. KNIGHT. COLOMBIA......

W. DUNDAS WALKER.
COLONY..................... JAMES 8. COTTON.
COLORADO ................... CHARLES W. GREENE, M.D.
COLOUR..................... ALFRED DANIELL, D.Sc.
COLOUR-BLINDNESS ..... Dr R. A. LUNDIE.
COLUMBA; CULDEES ... Dr Joseph ROBERTSON, revised.
COLUMBIA, BRITISH..... J. G. COLMER, C.M.G.
COMPRESSIBILITY........ A. C. MITCHELL.
CONGO........................ Sir FRANCIS DE WINTON.
CONGRESS U.S....... D. Y. KILCORE.
CONGREVE, .....

..... THEODORE WATTS-DUNTOX. CONJURING................ A. J. LEWIS, M.A. (* Prof. Hoffinann'). CONNECTICCT.............. CHARLES W. GREENE, M.D.

CONSCIOUSNESS........... Professor ANDREW SETH.
CONSTABLE, CORREGGIO,

CRUIKSHANK, &c...... J. M. GRAY.
CONSTANTINOPLE, COPTS STANLEY LANE-POOLL
CONSUMPTION............. Dr R. W. Philip.
CONVOCATION, &c. ...... Rev. Dr R. F. LITTLEDALE
Cook, CAPTAIN........... JOHN 8. Keltis, F.R. G.S.
COOKERY; COFFEE...... W. MartieU WILLIAMS,
CO-OPERATION; DEMO-

CRACY....... ... Tuomas KIRKUP.
CORNEILLE.

.... WALTER WHYTE. CORNWALL.......

F. N. WORTH.
CORTES ..................... THOMAS DAVIDSOX,
COTTON....................... Thomas Ellison.
COUNTY...................... W. A. Casson, F.S.S.
COURSING.................. B. C. EVELEGH ('ALLAN-A.DALE')
COVENTRY.................. W. F. Dawson.
COWLEY..
..............

P. Hume BROWN, LL.D.
COWPER, WILLIAM...... Mrs OLIPHANT.
CRANMER ................... F. HINDES GROOME.
CREATION................... Professor HENRY DRUMMOND.
CREMATION................ W. Eassie, C.E.
CRICKET.................... C. J. BUTCHER, of the Field.
CRIMINAL LAW........... GEORGE P. M'NEILL.
CROFTERS................... Lord NAPIER AND ETTRICK.
CROMWELL, OLIVER..... Professor GOLDWIN SMITH.
CROSS ....................... Rev. S. BARING-GOULD.
CROUP....................... Dr GEORGE GILRAY.
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY....., C. J. WOODWARD.
CUNEIFORM................ EMANUEL DEUTSCH, revised by

E. A. WALLIS BUDGE.
CURLING........

ROBERT CHAMBERS, revised CURRENCY........

Professor NICHOLSON. CUTTLE-FISH............... WM. E. HOYLE. Cycats, and the other

Botanical articles ..... Professor PATRICK GEDDES. CYCLING.................... E. R. Shipton, Secy. C.T.C. CYPRUS...................... Ulick Ralph BURKE. DAIRY......................... Professor Robert WALLACE DAIRY FACTORIES....... HENRY STEWART. DanaSCUS........

Rev. W. WRIGHT, D.D.
DANTE.

Rev. EDWARD MOORE, D.D.
DARWIN.................... GRANT ALLEN.
DARWINIAN THEORY... Professor PATRICK GEDDES.
DAUDET..................... Professor SAINTSBURY.
DEAF AND DUMB......... J. D. Buxtox, LL.D.
DEBT........................ WILLIAM C. SMITH.
DEER FORESTS............ J. WATSON LYALL.
DEFOE......................... Rev. A. P. DAVIDSON.
DEFORMITIES.............. Professor A, HARE.
DELAGOA BAY............ E. P. MATHERS, F.R.G.S.
Delhi..

... A. MACDONALD, Calcutta Englishman
DEMONOLOG Y.............. Thomas DavidsON.
DEMOSTHENES......... .. F. B. Jevons.
DENMARK (Literature) Rev. A. P. Davidson.
DENTISTRY................ Dr John SMITH.
DE QUINCEY........... ... J. R. FINDLAY.
DERBY; DERBYSHIRE.. Rev. J. CHARLES Cox, LL.D., F.S. A
DESCARTES................. Professor ANDREW SETH.
DEVON: DARTMOOR. ... F. N. Worth.
Dew; DIFFUSION ....... W. PEDDIE, D.Sc.
DIAMOND................... EDWIN W. STREETER.
DIALECT.

ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, F.R.S.
DICKENS.................... Sir Walter BESANT.
DIET; DIGESTION........ Professor HAYCRAFT.

The Publishers beg to tender their thanks for suggestions or corrections on the following articles : To Lord KINGSBURGH, on 'Catholic and Apostolic Church ;' to Bishop Westcott and Rev. Charles Bigg, D.D., on 'Clement;' to Sir FREDERICK POLLOCK, on Clifford;' to His Excellency General A. B. Cuervo, on ‘Colombia ;' to Sir EDWARD WALTER, on 'Commissionaires ;' to JACOB HOLYOAKE, Esq., on 'Co-operation ;' to the Head Masters of the Charterhouse and Christ's Hospital; to EDMUND GOSSE, Esq., on 'Denmark (Literature);' and to the Editor of the Field, on ‘Derby Day.'

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qatarrh (Gr. katarreo, I flow | irritation of the surfaces affected, and probably no

down'), a disease of great fre- one of the little miseries of life is more prostrating quency in temperate latitudes, / and discouraging for the time than a bad cold in especially in changeable moist the head. The tendency of catarrh to attack the clímates in the winter season. chest, and thus to pass into Bronchitis (q.v.) or From its well-known connec. Pneumonia (9.v.), or to lay the foundation of tion with sudden falls of tem- tubercular disease, constitutes almost its only

perature, and other epidemic or danger.

2 atmospheric causes (see INFLU The treatment of a cold is commonly a simple EXZA), as also from the chill often experienced at the matter, so far as the particular attack is concerned. commencement of the disease, it is popularly called | But so many colds disappear in a little time witha cold-a term, however, perhaps somewhat less out any special treatment that few persons, unless definite in its meaning than catarrh, which word in delicate health, are willing to subject them. is usually restricted to the case of a cold affecting selves to the confinement which is necessary to the chest, and attended with discharge of mucus give any form of treatment a chance of success. by coughing. A cold in the head' is termed, in | In the earliest stage a warm hip or foot bath, and strict scientific language, Coryza; we shall, how a large opiate (Dover's powder especially) at bed. ever, keep both forms in view in the present article. time, if followed by confinement to the house, and, Catarrh, or cold, commonly begins with a feeling in severe cases, to bed or to the sofa for a day or of chilliness, which may or may not be attribut two, light farinaceous diet, and, if the stomach able to external causes. Sometimes this is absent, and bowels are at all loaded, à dose or two of there being only a sense of languor and indisposi. some gentle laxative, will generally cut short the tion; not unfrequently there is no sensation of an disease. In some persons it yields readily and unusual kind, until a stuffing is experienced in the quickly to spirit of camphor, five drops on a lump nostrils, or severe headache, or hoarseness with of sugar every half-hour; but in others no effect cough, or oppression of the breathing. It most is produced. Free bathing of the nose with commonly attacks the nostrils first, and afterwards hot water may relieve the irritability and dis. the air.passages leading to the chest. But the charge. In most cases frequent sipping of warm mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth are often soothing drinks-gruel, barley-water, black-currant affected, as well as those of the nose, throat, and tea, &c.—is grateful to the patient; sometimes ice lungs; and the disease may begin in any of these gives more relief. Some persons cure their colds situations, and either spread to them all or leave by entire abstinence from food, and as much as one or more unaffected. When it habitually possible from drink; others by spirit of mindererus attacks the chest, without running through its and paregoric; some even profess to carry out the ordinary course as indicated above, there is often popular maxim, stuff a cold, and starve a fever, some special cause of delicacy in the lungs, or and maintain that a good dinner and a tumbler of some constitutional tendency towards Consumption whisky or brandy toddy are the best specifics. (q.v.). The affected mucous membrane is at first That colds get well under all these methods need abnormally red and swollen, and its secretion not be denied; but multiplied experience has diminished. But it soon begins to pour out a shown that 'stuffing a cold' at its commencement discharge, at first watery, but afterwards glairy is by no means to be commended. In the later and of a yellowish colour, or purulent. The early stages, however, a more liberal diet than at first, stages of the disease are attended by considerable and in some cases even a moderate allowance of

CATARRHINI

CATECHISM

stimulants, affords considerable relief from the Catchfly, the name of the genus Silene, of feeling of depression that remains for a time on which many species produce a sticky secretion on the subsidence of a catarrh. The tendency to this the calyx, the joints of the stem, &c., which predisease, when habitual, and when not dependent vents the access of ants and other creeping insects on any form of constitutional disorder requiring to the honey, so preserving it for the bees or other special means for its cure, is best met by the daily flying insects by which alone cross fertilisation is use of the cold bath, with frequent exercise in the effected. Other Caryophyllaceæ, notably Lychnis open air, and proper ventilation of the sleeping Viscaria, possess the same means of defence. The apartment; also by friction of the skin, and by Nottingham Catchfly is Silene nutans. The unclothing which, without being oppressive, is com related Dionæa muscipula is also sometimes called fortably warm. Exposure to draughts or sudden the Carolina Catchfly. See DIONÆA. chills when the surface is perspiring is to be

Catchpoll, a sheriff's officer or bailiff, who had avoided; but a close confined air habitually

power to arrest. From catch and poll, “the head ; breathed in a workshop or bedroom is a fruitful

not as is suggested by the spelling catchpole from predisposing cause of the disease.

pole ; though in various places a long pole was in Catarrh or catarrhal inflammation is also used

use for catching or holding criminals by the neck, in modern pathology of an inflammation with the

having at the end of it an iron collar with a characters above described in any mucous mem

V-shaped opening, occasionally armed with spikes brane whatever ; we have, for example, catarrh

on the inside. of the stomach, intestines, bladder, &c.

Cateau, LE, or CATEAU-CAMBRESIS, a town Catarrhini, Old-World monkeys, with a |

in the French department of Nord, on the Selle, narrow partition between the nostrils, with a

14 miles ESE. of Cambrai. Pop. (1891) 10,529. dental formula 41?, and including two distinct

Here in 1559 the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was sets of forms, (a) the lower dog-like’apes (Cyno.

concluded between Henry II. of France and Philip morpha), and (b) the higherman-like' forms

II. of Spain. (Anthropomorpha). See APE, ANTHROPOID APES, MONKEY.

Catechism, any compendious system of teachCatawba, a name of wines, both still and

ing drawn up in the form of question and answer,

It is derived, through low Latin, from a Greek sparkling, produced in various parts of the United | word katēcheo, which means to resound, or sound States from the Catawba grape, the fruit of a

into one's ears ; to instruct by word of mouth. variety of the Vitis Labrusca, a North American

Persons undergoing instruction in the principles of and Asiatic species, from which have been derived

Christianity were hence called Catechumens (q.v.). most of the cultivated North American varieties of

Catechisms have long formed one of the principal the vine. It is often said that it was ‘first found growing on the banks of the Catawba River' (in

means employed for popular instruction in the

truths and duties of the Christian religion. The North and South Carolina); but it is on record

composition of the first catechisms was, in all that it was named by Major Adlum, who found

probability, suggested by the ordinary oral init growing wild near Washington, D.C., about

struction of catechumens, and was intended for 1825. Catawba wines are of various grades, the

the help both of teachers and pupils. It appears best being of very decided value. The vine is

to have been in the 8th and 9th centuries that the extremely prolific, the fruit being large, of a deep

first regular catechisms were compiled, of which coppery red, and very sweet. The Catawba grape

that by Kero, a monk of St Gall, that of Notker does best on southern slopes, and on limestone

Labeo of St Gall, and that ascribed to Otfried of soils. Its slight musky aroma pervades the wines

Weissenburg in Alsace, are among the most noted. made from it, and causes some connoisseurs to

At later periods the use of catechisms prevailed reject all but the very choicest of the vintage from

chiefly among the opponents of the hierarchy, as the catalogue of first-class wines.

among the Waldenses, the Albigenses, the WyclifCat-bird (Turdus or Galeoscoptes carolinensis), ites, and, above all, among the Bohemian Brethren. an American thrush, of the same group as the The term catechism appears to have been first emmocking-bird, which it resembles in its vocal ploved in its present sense among the latter. At powers. Its name refers to its mew-like cry an early period in the history of the Reformation when disturbed. It feeds on many kinds of the Reformers began to avail themselves of this fruit and berries, also on worms and insects; method of popular instruction, and their catechisms builds a large nest of dry twigs, weeds, &c., with: became important instruments in that great religi. out any attempt at concealment, in a bush or ous movement. After Luther published in 1520 tree, often in the immediate vicinity of human his primer of religion, entitled A Short Form habitations, and shows extraordinary boldness in of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the the defence of its young. It is a bird of passage, Lord's Prayer, several catechisms were prepared making its way northward in spring through by leading Protestant theologians, that of Brenz Georgia and Carolina as far as Massachusetts. (1527-28 ) being the most notable. In 1525 Justus In winter it migrates southwards, and strayed Jonas and John Agricola had been intrusted with specimens have been seen as great rarities on the

the preparation of a catechism, and Luther's visita. continental coast of the North Sea.

tion of the Saxon churches in 1528 led to his preCatch, a species of musical composition peculiar paring his Larger and Smaller Catechisms (1529), to England, written generally in three or four which found a place among the standards of the parts, and in the canon form. It was origin. Lutheran churches. The Larger he meant to be ally synonymous with the Round (q.v.), but the for teachers, the Smaller for the people. The name has been appropriated to a species of it to latter has been constantly reprinted, and is very which an absurd or humorous effect is given by | extensively used at the present day. A number of the successive entries of the parts, interrupting catechisms were published also by the theologians or distorting the sense of the words into a new of the Reformed churches. The most noteworthy and unexpected meaning. They abounded in the are the Geneva and Heidelberg catechisms, and Restoration period, when, as may be surmised, those of (Ecolampadius (Basel, 1526), Leo Judæ they often had a more than questionable coarse. (Zurich, 1534), and Bullinger (Zurich, 1555). The ness. Hayes, Webbe, and Callcott, towards the Geneva catechisms, Larger and Smaller, were end of last century, were fertile composers in this the work of Calvin. The latter was published form. The 'Catch Club' was founded in 1761. I in French in 1536 (Lat. ed. 1538); the former CATECHISM

appeared in French in 1541 or 1542 (Lat. ed. 1545), The catechism called the Orthodox Confession was speedily translated into various languages, and of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church, became an acknowledged standard of the Reformed was prepared about 1640 by Peter Mogilas, churches, not only in Switzerland but in the Low | metropolitan of Kief, and received symbolical Countries, in France, and in Hungary. The First authority from a synod at Jerusalemin 1672. Book of Discipline of the Scottish Church (1560) It is often called the Larger Russian Catechism, directs that the children be taught this catechism to distinguish it from the Smaller Catechism pre. - which catechism is the most perfect that ever pared by order of Peter the Great in 1723. These yet was used in the kirk'-every •Sonday' after. were practically superseded by the catechisms of noon in the presence of the people. The Church of Platon, metropolitan of Moscow (first published in Geneva has set aside the authority of Calvin's cate 1762), and of Philaret, also metropolitan of Moscow, chisms. The Heidelberg or Palatinate Catechism which has since 1839 been in general use in the is of greater importance, however, than any other schools and churches of Russia. - Besides these cate. as a standard of the Swiss Reformed churches. It | chisms, which have a historic interest, or are of was compiled by the Heidelberg theologians, Caspar | importance from their symbolical character, there Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus, at the request of have appeared at all periods, since the Reformathe Elector Frederic III. of the Palatinate; it was tion, many others, both Protestant and Roman published in 1563, was approved by several synods, Catholic, some doctrinal, some controversial, some and recognised as a symbolical book by the Synod devoted to particular subjects, as the sacraments, of Dort in 1619, and has been translated into all or to particular purposes, as the preparation of canthe languages of Europe. It is the standard of the didates for admission to the Lord's Supper, some Dutch and German Reformed churches of America. adapted to the mental capacity of very young A tercentenary edition of this catechism was children, &c. The opinion, however, has become published in German, Latin, and English at New prevalent, that doctrinal abstracts are not the York in 1863.-King James said at the Hampton best form in which religion can be presented to Court Conference that in Scotland 'every one who the young, and the use of catechisms has accordwas the son of a good man' thought himself com- | ingly been in some measure relinquished in favour petent to write a catechism. The catechisms of of other methods of instruction. the Scottish Reformation must have been numerous. The catechism of the Church of England with The most popular, until it was superseded by the which we are most familiar is the smaller one Westminster Catechism, was John Craig's Smaller published in the Book of Common Prayer. It is Catechism (Edin. 1581; edited by T. G Law, 1883). in two parts: the first contains and explains the -The doctrines of the Socinians are embodied in Baptismal Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Com. the greater and smaller Racovian Catechisms mandments, and the Lord's Prayer; the second (Polish ed. Racow, 1605; Latin ed. 1609). Besides explains the two sacraments, Baptism and the & catechism of 1660, in the form of a conversation Lord's Supper. It is not known with absolute between father and son, said to have been written certainty who was the author of the first part ; by George Fox, the Quakers have that of Robert probably Cranmer and Ridley had the principal Barclay (1673), in which the answers are in the hand in framing the questions and answers. It language of the Bible, the distinctive peculiarities was originally put forth in the reign of Edward VI., of the sect being involved in the questions. , and condemned as heretical in the reign of Mary,

In the Church of Rome there were several and underwent several modifications from 1549 to catechisms published in Germany and elsewhere 1661. It must not be confounded with Cranmer's before the Tridentine settlement of doctrine. A Catechism (1548), which was a larger work, differScottish catechism, known as Archbishop Hamil. ently arranged, and probably translated chiefly from ton's, was issued by authority of a provincial the Latin catechism of Justus Jonas. This first part council in 1552, and was ordered to be read in of the church catechism was formerly spoken of as church by the parish priests. But in 1563 the the Shorter Catechism. There was a larger church Council of Trent in its twenty-fourth session catechism compiled also in the reign of Edward determined to compose and prescribe for the whole VI. by Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, and pubchurch an authorised form of catechism, which the lished, together with the 42 Articles, in 1553, and it bishops were to have translated into the vulgar corresponds in some degree with the smaller work tongue, and expounded to the people by the above described. It was afterwards revised and curates. The work was, however, not carried enlarged by Dean Nowell, and published in 1570; throngh by the council itself, and Pius IV. in and, though never officially promulgated by the trusted its completion to a commission of four church, it has some authority from having been theologians. Eminent scholars were also appointed approved by the lower house of Convocation. At to perfect its latinity, and when finished in 1564 the Hampton Court Conference (1604), the Shorter it was once again submitted to a new commission Catechism was considered too short, and Nowell's under Cardinal Sirletus. It finally appeared in larger one 'too long for novices to learn by heart;' 1560 under the title Catechismus Romanus ex decreto | accordingly, at James I.'s suggestion, an addition Concilii Tridentini Pii V. Pont. Max. jussu editus. was made to the former of that explanation of the In form it is not catechetical, and it is addressed, two sacraments which now forms the second part of not to the people, but to the curates as a guide to the church catechism. This is attributed to Dean them in their instructions. It possesses very high Overall. The whole is a work much esteemed by authority, but is ill adapted for popular use. For | all sections of the church as remarkable for its lav teaching it has fallen into desuetude, and has simplicity, truth, and catholicity. It, however, been superseded by various catechisms of more states sacramental doctrine in a way that is not private origin. The most popular of these were very acceptable to the extreme Low Church party. prepared by the Jesuit Peter Canisius. His larger | Hence, the Prayer-book put forth by the Church work, entitled Summa Doctrince et Institutionis of Ireland, while leaving the catechism otherwise Christiance, was published in 1554, and the shorter untouched, ingeniously interpolates an additional (1556) reached inore than 400 editions, and was question and answer (based on Article XXVIII.), used in the schools of all countries. In the which, in the opinion of many, tends to modify the present day, as a general rule, each diocese pos- | ideas suggested by the catechism concerning Holy sesses & catechism of its own approved by the Communion. Modifications occur, too, in the bishop. In England the short · Penny Catechism' Catechism of the American Episcopal Church. is used by authority of all the bishops in concert. | The rubrics in the Common Prayer-book enjoin

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