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The Russian minister of Foreign Affairs is some. More (1529), Bishop Gardiner (1553), Sir Francis times called Vice-chancellor. Besides these state. Bacon (1617), Hyde, Earl of Clarendon (1660), chancellors, there were officers in many other Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury (1672), Lords Jeffreys capacities to whom the title was given. Every (1685), Hardwicke (1737), Thurlow (1778), Eldon bishop has his chancellor in the Church of Rome, (1801, 1807), Erskine (1806), Lyndhurst (1827, and there are still chancellors of cathedrals, | 1834, 1841), Brougham (1830), Cranworth (1852, dioceses, universities, &c.

1865), Chelmsford (1858, 1866), Campbell (1859), Chancellor, LORD. It is usually said that Westbury (1861), Cairns (1868, 1874), Hatherley the existence of the office in England, as in the (1868), Selborne (1872, 1880), Halsbury (1885, other states of Europe, is to be ascribed to the 1886), Herschell (1886, 1892). See Lord Campbell's influence which the constitution of the Roman | Lives of the Chancellors (1845–47). empire had on the constitutions of the modern. The office of Chancellor of Scotland, which was nations. This influence was exercised in no small analogous to that of England, was abolished at ineasure through the medium of the church, the the Union, a keeper of the Great Seal (q.v.) being profession of the law being generally exercised by appointed. The English chancellor is described ecclesiastics; and it is for this reason, probably, as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain and Irethat the bishop and the king are furnished with land; but in Scotland he has scarcely any jurisdicofficers bearing the same title, and exercising tion, and in Ireland there is a separate chancellor, analogous functions. Soon after the Norman Con- whose powers and duties are similar to those of quest the English chancellor became a judicial | the English chancellor. officer of high rank (see CHANCERY), and a CHANCELLOR OF A CATHEDRAL is an officer who confidential adviser of the sovereign in state formerly had charge of the chapter library, custody affairs. Being charged with the supervision of of the common seal, superintendence of the choir charters and other instruments, he obtained the practices, and headship of the cathedral schools ; custody of the great seal. The office of chan- sometimes being also visitor of all church schools in eellor, or Keeper (q.v.), which in 576 was the diocese. Hence he was often styled Scholasti. declared to be exactly the same, is created with cus or Capischolius ( = Caput Scholæ). These funcout writ or patent, by the mere delivery of the tions are now generally in abeyance. great seal. The chancellor, if a baron, takes! CHANCELLOR OF A DIOCESE is, as legal adviser precedence of every temporal lord not a member to the bishop, an ecclesiastical judge, uniting the of the royal family, and of all bishops except the functions of vicar-general and official principal, Archbishop of Canterbury. To slay the chancellor appointed to assist the bishop in questions of is treason. The chancellor is a privy-councillor ecclesiastical law, and hold his courts for him. By by his office, and prolocutor, or speaker of the an act of Henry VIII. it is provided that he may House of Lords, by prescription. Though the be a layman, whether married or single, provided form in which his tenure of ottice is terminated he be doctor of the civil law, lawfully create and is by the resumption of the great seal by the made in some university. By the canons of 1603 sovereigu, the chancellor is now always a cabinet | he must be a bachelor of law, at the least, or a minister, and resigns office with the party to which master of arts. There are certain cases, however, he is attached. He has the appointment of all in which the bishop must sit in person. justices of the peace throughout the kingdom, but For other Chancellors, see UNIVERSITIES, Exthis privilege he exercises generally on the recom | CHEQUER, LANCASTER (DUCHY OF). mendation of the lord-lieutenants. But the most Chancellor, RICHARD, a daring English sea. important, and, as it now seems, somewhat anom.

man, who seems to have been brought up in the alous branch of his patronage, arises out of his household of the father of Sir Philip Sidney, and having been originally an ecclesiastic. Though the

was chosen in 1553 as captain of the Bonaventure last bishop who held the office was John Williams, and pilot-general' of Sir Hugh Willoughby's Archbishop of York, who was Lord Keeper from 1621 expedition in search of a North-east Passage to to 1625, the chancellor still continues to be patron of India. The ships were parted in a storm off the a large number of crown livings (though in 1863 Lofoden Islands, and Chancellor, after waiting about 300 were sold to augment the incomes of

seven days at Vardöhus, the rendezvous that those sold and those retained), and visitor of all had been agreed upon, proceeded alone into the hospitals and colleges of the king's foundation. White Sea, and travelled thence overland to the As representing the paternal character of the

court at Moscow, where he was very hospitably sovereign, again, the chancellor is the general

treated, and was able to conclude a treaty protector of all infants, idiots, and lunatics, and

giving freedom of trade to English ships. His has the supervision of all charitable uses in the

interesting account of Russia was published in kingdom. His jurisdiction in lunacy' is com. Hakluyt's Navigations. Next spring Chancellor mitted to him by special delegation from the

rejoined his ship and returned to England, where sovereign. As regards his judicial patronage, the

his hopeful reports led to the establishment soon arrangement is, that the chancellor appoints in after of the Muscovy Company. In the summer general all the judges of the superior courts,

of 1555 he made a second voyage in the Bona. cicept the chief justice, who is nominated by the

| venture to the White Sea, and was at Moscow prime-minister of the day. He also appoints the

once more in the succeeding winter. In July 1556 judges of the county courts, and various subordi.

he set sail on his voyage homewards, but on 10th nate officers. All these functions the chancellor November was lost in the wreck of his ship in periorms in addition to his extensive duties as a

Aberdour Bay off the Aberdeenshire coast. judge in the House of Lords, the Privy-council, the Court of Appeal, and the Chancery Division

Chancellorsville, a post-station of Spottsyl. of the High Court of Justice. Objection has

vania county, Virginia, near the sonth bank of the often been taken to the combination of judicial

Rappahannock, 11 miles W. of Fredericksburg. In and political offices in the same person, but the

a desperate battle here, May 2 and 3, 1863, General proposal to appoint a minister of justice has not

Lee defeated the Federal forces under Hooker, yet found favour. The salary of the chancellor is

The Confederates, however, suffered a severe loss £10,000 a year, and he has an annuity of £5000 on

in 'Stonewall Jackson,' who was accidentally retiring from office.

wounded by his own men. See JACKSON (T. J.) Among the notable Lord Chancellors of England Chance-medley and Chaud-medley are have been Cardinal Wolsey (1515), Sir Thomas / law expressions, which practically both mean the 98



same thing, that a particular homicide was justi. | in the colonies and the United States, as in Eng. fiable because it was done in the hot blood caused land, the ‘fusion of law and equity' has been by an unprovoked assault. The phrase has no effected by legislation. The anomalies of the old reference to homicide by accident. See MAN system have been removed ; but many of the SLAUGHTER, SANCTUARY.

distinctive doctrines and rules of the Court of Chancery, the office of a chancellor or ambas Chancery remain. In several of the original sador: a place in which writs. &c. are prepared and I thirteen states there are distinct Courts of formally recorded. In England the Chancery was Chancery, but in most of the United States in early times the office in which writs and forms equity powers have been conferred on the higher of process were prepared ; some of these forms being law-courts, and the principles of equity are kept in the Hanaper or hamper, and some in the

administered therein. By the United States Petty Bag. When the chancellor became a judi. constitution and several Acts of Congress, equity cial officer of the first rank, the COURT OF CHAN powers commensurate with those of the Court of CERY exercised a very wide jurisdiction. The Chancery in England were conferred on the Federal court could not maintain its hold on criminal

Courts. cases, or on civil cases in which the common-law

The CHANCERY OFFICE, in Scotland, is an office courts could do adequate justice; but the equit. in the General Register House at Edinburgh, man. able jurisdiction of the court was established, after aged by a director, in which all royal charters of a keen struggle with the common lawyers. The novodamus, patents of dignities, gifts of offices, re. assistance of the chancellor, as keeper of the missions, legitimations, presentations, commissions, king's conscience,' was invoked in cases where the and other writs appointed to pass the Great and common law might work injustice. A trustee, for

Quarter Seals, are recorded. Prior to 1874 a great example, was in law the owner of the trust pro

number of royal charters by progress passed through perty, but the Court of Chancery, which acted in

this office; and this is still done with regard to personam, would compel him to render an account precepts from Chancery in favour of heirs in crown of his trust to the beneficial owner. This power to

holdings. It is the duty of the director to keep a enforce equitable claims gave the court an adminis record of the decrees of service pronounced in favour trative jurisdiction which was used for the protec

of heirs by the Sheriff of Chancery, who holds a tion of infants, married women, mortgagors, &c.

special court in Edinburgh for considering such The prejudice of the common lawyers against the petitions, and to send printed indexes of his record court was due to the fact that its extensive powers

to the sheriff-clerks in the various counties. The were exercised at the discretion of the chancellor,

record kept by the director also includes the decrees and not according to settled rules. So late as the

of service pronounced in the different sheriff-courts, time of Charles II., Shaftesbury was thought to be and of these the director is bound to furnish a good chancellor, though he was not a lawyer. A extracts. See SEAL. succession of eminent chancellors, from Lord Not Chancre. See SYPHILIS. tingham to Lord Eldon, developed the rules of | Chanda, chief town of a district of India, on equity into a logical system. They did so, it must the south-west frontier of the Central Provinces, be admitted, at the expense of unfortunate suitors ; | 90 miles S. of Nagpur. Its stone battlemented and the Court of Chancery became a byword for | walls are 54 miles round, and 15 to 20 feet high. delay and expense. Some of the evils satirised, | Pop. 16.137. and somewhat exaggerated, by Dickens in Bleak

Chandausi, a town of the North-west Pro. House (1853) have been removed by modern

vinces of India, 27 miles S. of Moradabad Pop. legislation. The judges of the Court of Chancery were the

28,111. Lord Chancellor, the Master of the Rolls (originally

Chanderi, a town of Central India, 105 miles a subordinate officer, but afterwards an independ

S. of Gwalior. It is now an insignificant place, but ent judge), a Vice-chancellor added in 1813, and

its fort and many ruined buildings attest its two more Vice-chancellors added in 1841, when the

strength and splendour in former times, when it is equity business of the Court of Exchequer was

said to have contained 14,000 stoue houses (not transferred. Two Lords Justices of Appeal were

to speak of mosques), and 360 caravanserais. added in 1851. On the passing of the Judicature

Chandernagore (properly Chandan-nagar, Acts the inconvenient and indefensible distinction city of sandalwood'), a French city, with a scanty between courts of equity and law was abolished,

territory of about 34 sq. m., on the right bank and the judges of the Court of Chancery became

of the Hugli, 22 miles above Calcutta by rail. members of the Court of Appeal, or of the Chancery

Established in 1673, the place for a while rivalled Division of the High Court of Justice.

Calcutta ; now, through the gradual silting up of Among the officers of the Court of Chancery were

the river, it has lost most of its commercial advan. the MASTERS IN CHANCERY, whose office is now tages, and has little external trade. It is the seat abolished, their duties being for the most part of a French sub-governor, with a few soldiers, and assigned to the chief-clerks in the Chancery has in all a population of 25,395, including some Division. The office of Accountant-general is also

| 500 Europeans and Eurasians. The town was abolished, and Her Majesty's Paymaster-general | bombarded and captured by the English in 1757, is charged with the duty of accounting for funds restored in 1763, twice retaken, and finally restored *in Chancery '-i.e. for cash and stocks standing in to the French in 1816. the account of any cause or matter before the Chandler, RICHARD, a learned classical arcbæ. court. In 1886 there were 39,944 accounts open ; ologist, was born at Elson, Hants, in 1738, and eduthe balance of stocks was £71,946,527; balance cated at Winchester and at Queen's and Magdalen of cash, £3,931,054. In 1893 the total funds colleges, Oxford. His first important work was were £65,481,866. The dormant and unclaimed Marmora Oxoniensia (1763), an elaborate descrip Chancery funds are only about £1,000,000, mostly tion of the Oxford marbles. He afterwards tras. in very small sums. Under an Act of 1872, un. elled through Greece and Asia Minor, with Revett, claimed balances are transferred to the National | architect, and Pars, a painter, at the expense of Debt Commissioners, but the Consolidated Fund | the Dilettanti Society, to examine and describe the is liable in respect of any claim on these balances. | antiquities. The materials collected were given to

In varions British colonies Courts of Chancery the world in the following publications : Ionian have been established, and the distinction between Antiquities (1769), Inscriptiones Antique (1774), courts of law and equity has been preserved. But | Travels in Asia Minor (1775), and Travels in Greece




(1776). Chandler was made D.D. in 1773, and This superstition is alluded to by Shakespeare, afterwards held preferments in Hants and at Tile. Spenser, and other poets, and is an essential part hurst, near Reading, in Berks, where he died 9th of the doctrine of fairy-lore almost everywhere. February 1810.

See Sikes's British Goblins (1879). Chandler. SAMUEL, an English Nonconformist Chang-Sha, a city of China, capital of the divine, born at Hungerford in 1693, became minister province of Hu-nan, on the Heng-kiang, a tribuof a Presbyterian church at Peckham, and preached tary of the Yang-tse. Pop. 300,000 at the old Jewry from 1726 until his death in Chank-shell (Tsjanka), the popular name of 1766. He was an industrious writer, and pub- the shell of several species of Turbinella, a genus lished especially a large number of works relating of (Prosobranchiate) Gasteropod molluscs, natives to the deist controversy and to catholicism,

Chandor, a town in the province of Bombay, 40 miles NE. of Nasik. Its fort, commanding au important pass on the route between Khandesh and Bombay, crowns a hill 3994 feet high. It surrendered to the British in 1804, and was finally ceded by Holkar in 1818. Pop. 4892.

Chandos, a great English family, descended from a follower of William the Conqueror, the last representative in the direct male line being Sir John Chandos (died 1428), whose sister married one Giles Brydges. Their descendant, Sir John

Brydges, was lieutenant of the Tower under Queen
Mary, and was created Baron Chandos in 1554. |

of the East Indian seas. These shells (especially James Brydges (1673–1744), eighth Lord Chandos, T. rapa and T. pyrum) are obtained chiefly on the sat in parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714, and

coasts of the south of India and Ceylon, and form a was created Duke of Chandos in 1719. The lucra. considerable article of trade to Calcutta. They are tive post of paymaster of the forces abroad (1707

much used as ornaments by Hindu women. A 12) supplied means for building a palace at Canons,

clank-shell opening to the right is rare, and is near Edgware, which cost £200,000, but was torn

highly prized in Calcutta, so that a price of £50, down at the duke's death. Here Handel lived two or even £100, is sometimes paid for one. years, and produced Esther.' In 1796 the title Channel, THE ENGLISH (La Manche, ‘Sleeve,' passed by marriage to the Grenvilles, till 1889 the of the French, and the Mare Britannicum of the Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos. See Memoir Romans), is the narrow sea which, since the glacial of first Duke by J. R. Robinson (1893).

period, separates England and France. On the Chandpur, a town of British India, in the

east, it joins the North Sea at the Strait of Dover, North-west Provinces, 19 miles S. of Bijnaur.

where it is narrowest, being only 21 miles wide Pop. 11,182.

from Dover to Cape Gris-Nez. From this strait it Chandragupta. See SANDROCOTTUS.

runs west-south-west for 280 miles, and joins the

Atlantic Ocean at the Chops, with a breadth of Changarnier, NICOLAS ANNE THÉODULE, a 100 miles between the Scilly Isles and Ushant Isle. French general, born at Autun in 1793, was edu.

With an average breadth of 70 miles, it is 90 miles cated at Saint-Cyr, and went in 1830 to Algeria, wide from Brighton to Havre ; 60 miles from Portwhere for eighteen years he saw all the active

land Bill to Cape La Hague; 140 miles-its service there was to be seen. On the proclamation

greatest breadth — from Sidmouth to St Malo; of the Republic in 1848 he acted as provisional

and 100 to 110 miles west of the latter line. It governor-general of Algeria, but returned to Paris

occupies 23,900 square geographical miles, and to take command of the garrisons of Paris and of

contains the Channel Isles, Ushant Isle, Isle of the National Guard. He did much to check the Wight, and many islets and rocks, especially off outbreaks of the anarchist party during 1849. In the coast of Brittany. It is shallowest at the the Legislative Assembly he held a sort of neutral

Strait of Dover, where a chalk ridge at the depth position between the Orleanists and the Legitimists, of twelve to thirty fathoms joins England and whilst opposing the Bonapartist party. At the France. West of this, the average depth of the coup d'état in December 1851, after being im. central portion is thirty fathoms, with hollows prisoned in Ham, he went into exile till the Franco from forty to sixty-two fathoms deep. The Prussian war, when he offered his services to English coast-line of the Channel is 390 miles Napoleon III. He was in Metz with Bazaine, long, and the French coast-line is 570 miles long. and, on its capitulation, retired to Brussels. He Westerly winds prevail, and the current, though returned to France in 1871, entered the Assembly, imperceptible, is always from west to east. The and assisted M. Thiers in reorganising the army. English Channel abounds in fish, of which the chief He died at Versailles, February 14, 1877.

are pilchard, mackerel, and oysters. See CHANNEL Chang-Chow, a city of China, in the province TUNNEL. of Fo-kien, 28 miles W. by S. of Amoy. Pop. Channel Islands, THE, a group of small estimated at 1,000,000.

islands off the NW. coast of France, which formed Chang-Chow, a city of China, in the province part of the old duchy of Normandy, and has of Kiang-su, about 50 miles E. by S. of Nanking. remained subject to the British crown. The nearPop. 360,000.

est points are about twelve miles from the French Changeling. It was at one time a common coast. The principal islands are four in number belief that infants were sometimes taken from their -Jersey, Alderney, Sark, and Guernsey (9.v.); cradles by fairies, who left instead their own amongst the others being the Casquets, Burhou, weakly and starveling elves. The children so left Brecqhou, Jethou, Herm, the Minquiers, and the we

lled changelings, and were marked by their Chausseys. The total area is 75 sq. m.; and the Deevishness, and their backwardness in learning to total population has increased slightly, from 90,739 walk and speak. As it was supposed that the fairies in 1851 to 92,272 in 1891. Originally a portion of had no power to change children who had been the Continent, they were thinly peopled by the race christened, infants were carefully watched until -probably neolithic—who raised the cromlechs and such time as that ceremony had been performed. | other monuments of unhewn stone which are coin.

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mon to Brittany and the islands. This population, | or jurats,' as they came to be called ; and the whole which came to be represented by what may be | assembly was presided over by a bailiff, or lieutenanttermed the Celtiberian nationality, was gradu | governor appointed by the crown. There was also ally isolated by the action of the tides and mari. à lord-lieutenant, comes, or governor, but he was time currents. The Christian religion was intro-often an absentee. In the process of time this duced into the islands by missionaries from Ireland latter post became chiefly titular; the office of and from Brittany; and the Gallo-Roman hier lieutenant-governor was separated from that of archy was centred at Dol. There is some evidence bailiff, though the two were occasionally held by

the same person, and a regular system of judicial
and executive administration came into action.

From the time of John to that of Henry VI., many

attempts were made by France to conquer the

islands. Guernsey was held by the French for CHANNEL

some years during the 14th century, though finally ISLANDS

reconquered by the English with help from Jersey, In 1461 Jersey itself was conquered, and was held

by a French governor for about six years, being GUERNSEYS

finally liberated early in the reign of Edward IV. by Sir R. Harleston. Henry VII. carried his repression of the aristocracy into the islands, where

he curtailed the feudal jurisdictions and did some. Coupee

thing for the popularisation of the militia. The Reformation took early and deep root in the Channel Islands, aided by a considerable immigration

of exiled Huguenots from the mainland ; but the C. Grosneziani au

Anglican ritual was not introduced without diffi. St.Ouen's 6th semest. JERSEY

culty. For most of the time the islands continued subject to the spiritual sway of the

Bishop of Coutances; but in 1568 Elizabeth ades coquell

attached them to the diocese of Winchester. 30 gr o m LaConchitre

Other effects of Elizabeth's reign are the foundaEnglish Miles Walker & Boutall sc. tion of the college (grammar-school) of St Peter

Port, in Guernsey, the grant of Sark to the Carof a partial occupation of the islands by Saxon and terets of Jersey, and the improvement of the Castle Danish sea-rovers. Guernsey is named in the Edda, of St Helier, in Jersey, which, like the Guernsey and arms of Viking character have been dug up College,' still bears the name of the virgin queen. there. The islands were probably used as depôts in During the reign of Charles I. Guernsey sided the conquest of Neustria by the Northmen. Some for the most part with the English parliament, time elapsed after that event, during which they Jersey with the crown. In the former island, continued subject to Brittany, but in the early however, Castle Cornet, which commands the part of the 10th century A.D. the Cotentin was harbour, held out for Charles, and was not reduced added to the duchy of Normandy, and the islands until after Jersey had been conquered. This took followed in the annexation. The institutions then place in 1651. Under the Commonwealth the introduced were those already established on the Channel Islands continued to enjoy their old mainland of Normandy-derived from the Frankish privileges, being specially excluded from the legal system as it existed when the duchy was Instrument of Government,' and from the operafirst separated from the Frank empire by the treaty |tion of the excise, because not governed by our of St-Clair-sur-Epte (Stubbs's Const. Hist. i. & 92). laws, but by municipal institutions of their own The feudal system, however, was only partially (Burton's Diary). introduced. The parishes did not become manors In the reign of Charles II. the Channel Islands -as happened in England after the Conquest-nor were once more threatened by France, and the did the Norman seigneurs make a general practice militia was improved and formed into regiments. of residing in the islands. They drew rents as The total population of the Channel Islands was absentee landlords from the allodial proprietors then abont 25,000; and the chief towns began to who, willingly or otherwise, accepted their pro. increase in importance. The reign of William III. tection. But these did not yield military service ; witnessed the famous victory of the British navy and the island militia, when formed, adopted | at Cape La Hogue, largely due to information and preserved, till comparatively recent times, conveyed to the admiral by a gentleman of Guerna parochial organisation. The 12th century is sey. The privilege of neutrality was taken from the beginning of the authentic history of these the inhabitants—to whom it had ceased to be singular little communities, and of the ecclesi. useful—and they entered upon a course of privaastic organisation already transferred from the teering, which made them, in the words of Burke, see of Dol to that of Coutances. When Philip one of the naval powers of the world.' Augustus declared the duchy of Normandy forfeit In 1781, after the French had espoused the cause on the ground of the alleged contumacy, as a vassal, of the revolted British colonies in America, a semiof John Lackland, he also pronounced the con official landing took place in Jersey, headed by an fiscation of the fiefs of those seigneurs who might adventurer named Macquart, styling himself Baron adhere to John; some of these then settled in de Rullecourt. His defeat by Major Pierson, who Jersey, where they formed the chief notables and fell in the engagement, has been rendered famous members of such local government as might be by Copley's picture in the National Gallery. Since in existence. John confirmed and strengthened the then the chief event has been in Jersey the introprivileges of this body, and appointed coroners duction of elected deputies into the legislature sworn to watch over the judicial interests of the (1856). In the reign of William IV. the militia of crown. By degrees the seigneurs ceased to attend the Channel Islands was declared Royal.' Queen the sittings of the states, where the rural popula. Victoria visited them in 1849. tion was represented by the constables or mayors The present constitution of the islands is a of the parishes or communes : these, together with development of the ancient institutions, slowly the rectors, became associated with the coroners, modified to meet changes in surrounding circum. CHANNEL ISLANDS




stances. The people, especially in Guernsey and probably in no other area of similar size could be Jersey, adhere to their old speech, a dialect of the found such a combination of savage rocks and ancient Langue d'oil, which was once a literary pleasing landscapes. language. Its best-known monument is the Roman The climate is agreeable and suitable to invalids. de Rou of Wace, a native of Jersey, who wrote in The prevailing winds are from north to north. the 12th century. In our own days it has been west. The mean annual rainfall is 35 inches revived by the late Georges Métivier, who has in Guernsey ; but the climate is not over moist, been called the 'Guernsey Burns.' The late Sir the soil being porous, and evaporation rapid. Robert Marett was also the author of many poems | The mean annual temperature of Jersey is 508°; written in the Jersey form of the language. The of Guernsey, 50-5°, or about 2° warmer than basis of the local law is the Coûtumier de Norman Greenwich. The range of temperature is very die, which is prima facie evidence of the common moderate ; but the climate of Guernsey is rather law, Besides this, the local states enact statutes more equable than that of Jersey, August is the of two kinds—their bylaws (called 'ordonnances'), hottest month ; February the coldest. Frost and having force for three years without royal assent, snow are rare. The autumns are very beautiful ;. and organic statutes, which must be sanctioned by and a second summer, called the Petit Eté de Saint the crown. The French language, in its modern | Martin, generally sets in about the 10th of shape, is the official language of the states and of and lasts till the middle of December. Flowering the law.courts; and a French service is held in the plants and shrubs are about a fortnight earlier in parish churches.

the spring than in England. The sunshine averages The administration, generally speaking, is of nearly six hours a day throughout the year. the usual two sorts, the executive and the judicial. The produce of the islands is principally agricul. The principal officer is the general commanding tural ; but horticulture and floriculture are successthe troops in each bailiwick, of which Jersey is fully followed the latter especially in Guernsey. one, and Guernsey, with its dependencies Sark and The soil is generally light, deep, and fertile. The Alderney, the other. He is called lieutenant- system of cultivation is very primitive. The prin. governor, and is appointed in that capacity for cipal manure is seaweed, which is gathered in five years. The chief civil officer is the băiliff, vast quantities from the shores at certain seasons who presides in the executive and legislative under strict regulations. Its annual value to assemblies, represented when absent by a lieu. Guernsey alone is estimated at £30,000. A great tenant-bailiff. In judicial matters the bailiff is quantity is burned for the manufacture of kelp and also the chief, the superior courts being formed by iodine. a quorum of the jurats. In matters of legislation. The land is held in small parcels ranging from the states are constituted in Jersey of the twelve five to twenty English acres. The principal crops jurats, twelve rectors, twelve constables, and four. are potatoes, hay, wheat, turnips, mangel-wurzel, teen deputies ; but in Guernsey almost all power parsnips, and carrots. The Channel Islands are has been retained by the royal court. The other | famous for excellent breeds of horned cattle, crown officers are the attorney-general, the solici. usually known as · Alderneys,' though each island tor-general, and the viscount or prévôt, who have has its own speciality (see CATTLE). The other a right of sitting in the states, but not of voting. main articles of exportation are granite, fruit, and

The Channel Islands, as already mentioned, are early potatoes. attached to the diocese of Winchester, but each There are no good recent books on the Channel Islands. bailiwick has its own dean. The livings are in Physical phenomena will be found treated of by Professor the gift of the crown, but are of small value. The Ansted in The Channel Islands (4th ed. 1896). Useful administration is, to a great extent, gratuitous ; historical information will be found in Le Quesne's such offices as are not so being paid chiefly out of Constitutional History of Jersey (1856), and Tupper's the local revenues of the crown. revenues of the crown These islands | History of Guernsey (1876). See the separate articles on

These islands have compulsory military service within their own

ALDERNEY, JERSEY, GUERNSEY, and SARK. limits-about one-tenth of the population being in Channel Tunnel. The proposed tunnel the ranks or the reserve of the militia. Their im- under the narrow channel dividing England and munities have been fully and frequently recognised, France, which countries in very early geological and much loyalty to England is consequently felt. times were united, would be 23 miles long, includ. The industry, thrift, and prosperity of the inhabit. | ing land-approaches. It would be made entirely ants have been testified to by recent observers. through and within the area of the old gray Their holdings are small, but the agricultural pop-chalk,' or craie de Rouen, as designated by ulation consists chiefly of yeomen-proprietors who French geologists. This bed of chalk extends labour with their own hands. The towns are busy from shore to shore. It consists of a mixture of and populous, and the houses, both there and on 65 per cent. of chalk and 35 per cent. of clay, and the farins, are large, substantial, and well kept. is therefore impervious to water; though the exThe taxation is trilling, the customs duties being perimental works have shown cracks here and very light. Living is very cheap. Communication there which exude for a time a fresh or brackish with the ports of the south of England is regular water, apparently imprisoned for ages in these and frequent.

small fissures. While the experimental works have Geolory.-Most of the islands are composed of been suspended most of these fissures have run primary or granitic rocks. Alderney is a mass of themselves dry. The French Tunnel Company, *yenite, with hornblende, porphyry, and occasional who possess a concession for making a tunnel to the bandstone. The structure of Guernsey is hard middle of the Channel, and the English Tunnel #venite to the north, and gneiss to the south. The Company, associated under limited liability,' have geology of Jersey is more varied, presenting a made many thousand soundings and experiments, mixture of metamorphic rocks, conglomerates, and and consider it proved that the gray chalk’ is not sandstones, with syenites and quartzites. Shale only in the same position and of the same thickness and blowo sand are also prevalent. Sark is com and consistency on each side of the Channel, but poved of very hard syenite, with veins of greenstone that no erosion or fault interfering with continuity and felspar. Granite is quarried from all the exists as between the two coasts. islands, especially from Guernsey, Herm, and | The experimental works, already executed by a Mont Mado in Jersey, both for home use and headway of 7 feet diameter on the English side, have for exportation.

been extended by the using of a “boring machine,' The scenery is exquisitely varied and beautiful ; | from the foot of Shakespeare's Cliff, near Dover,

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