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for a distance of 2200 yards under the sea. The Harvard in 1798, and in 1803 was ordained minister similar work on the French side seaward, from of a Congregational church in Boston, where his Sangatte, near Calais, is of about the same length. sermons soon became famous for their 'fervour, Thus, about a tenth of the whole distance has solemnity, and beauty.' Though never a Trini. been successfully experimented; and the opinion | tarian, at first he had Calvinistic leanings, but

gradually drifted towards what is now known as Unitarianism, although the name itself was repugnant to him, and he would gladly have seen liberal theology growing naturally outwards from within the church herself. His famous sernion, preached at the

ordination of the Rev. Jared CHALK PRVIOUS TO WATER

Sparks in 1819, was a fearless and plain definition of the Unitarian position. It involved him in con. troversy, a thing which he naturally loathed. To the end of his life he preserved a devoutly Christian heart, shrinking with the

delicate instinct of a pious nature Section of the Bed of the English Channel, showing the

from everything cold, one-sided, proposed tunnel.

and dogmatic, whether Unitarian

or Trinitarian. As late as 1841 of the engineers engaged is that the work presents | he wrote, “I am little of a Unitarian, have little exceptionally favourable features for cheap and sympathy with the system of Priestley and Belrapid accomplishment. The original estimate, sham, and stand aloof from all but those who before experiment showed the way through this strive and pray for clearer light.' He had symfavourable stratum of gray chalk,' was about pathy for social and political as well as purely £10,000,000; now that estimate is only £4,000,000. religious progress, advocated temperance and eduThe proposal is to have two single-line tunnels, cation, and denounced war and slavery with more which can be multiplied to any extent side by than his accustomed eloquence. In 1821 he reside as traffic might demand-one tunnel ventilat- ceived the title of D.D. from Harvard University, ing the other, and to work the lines by engines and next year he visited Europe, and made the which have been successfully designed and worked acquaintance of several great English authors, such experimentally, charged with highly compressed as Wordsworth and Coleridge, both of whom were air. In the construction hardly any pumping and strongly impressed in his favour. Coleridge said no “timbering' would be required. The machine of hin, 'He has the love of wisdom and the which bores takes up any modicum of water wisdom of love.' Among his most popular works with the debris it excavates; and every turn of it were his Essay on National Literature, Remarks on gives out a portion of the air, which, at a pressure the Character and Writings of John Milton, the of about 25 lb. to the inch, is its motive force (see Character and Writings of Fénélon, his essay on the article BORING).

Negro Slavery, and that on Self-culture. Besides The instruction to the engineers by Sir Edward these, he wrote a variety of other essays and Watkin, the chairman of the English Tunnel Com- treatises, all characterised by vigour, eloquence, pany, to find the “gray chalk” at its outcrop, pure taste, and a lofty tone of moral earnestness. and never leave it,' would seem to have reduced a He died October 2, 1842, at Bennington, Vermont. work which at one time appeared all but impractic. His works were collected before his death in 5 vols. able to the utmost simplicity and ease of comple- (Boston, 1841), to which a sixth volume was aftertion. The scheme for a railway tunnel was dis- wards added. The American Unitarian Association cussed in 1867 and succeeding years. In 1876 a (Boston) has reprinted the whole in a single cheap convention for carrying it out was concluded volume. An interesting memoir of him has been between the British and French governments, and published by his nephew, William Henry Channing in the same year boring was begun on the French (3 vols. Boston, 1848 ; new ed. 1880). There is side ; but the excavations on the English side were also a short Life by Frothingham (1887). stopped by order of the British government, mainly Chansons de Gestes, long narrative poems, for military reasons.

dealing with warfare and adventure, which were Amongst the supporters of such a submarine

popular in France during the middle ages. Gestes, means of intercourse between England and France from the Latin gesta, signified, first, the deeds of have been the late Prince Consort, Mr Cobden, I a hero, and secondly, the account of these deeds ; the late and present Lords Derby, the late Lords

the family to which the hero belonged being spoken Beaconsfield and Clarendon, and Mr Gladstone. of as gens de geste. One of these poems, and that The engineers whose names have been associated

the greatest of all, was composed in the 11th with various schemes for a Channel Tunnel have century-namely, the Chanson de Roland, which been those of Thomé de Gamond and Raoul-duval is treated of in the article ROLAND. Most of the in France; and William Low, Frederick Bramwell, others were produced in the 12th and 13th cenFrancis Brady, John Hawkshaw, and Brunlees in

turies, only a few poems to which the name is England.

strictly applicable having been written after the The experiments near Dover have led to the

year 1300 A.D. They were mainly the work of belief that there is a coal-bed under the Channel. trouvères, and were carried by wandering minThe English Channel Tunnel Company had in strels, jongleurs and jongleresses, from castle to 1888 already bored to a depth of 950 feet, and castle, and from town to town. They are distinproposed going down to 12,000 feet with the view guished from the later Arthurian romances and of finding this mineral.

from the Romans d'Aventures both by their matter Channing, WILLIAM ELLERY, a great Ameri. and their form. Their subjects are invariably can preacher and writer, was born 7th April 1780, taken from French history, or from wbat passed at Newport, Rliode Island. He graduated at 1 as such, and they are written in verses of ten or





twelve syllables, arranged in laisses, or stanzas of spirited battle-pieces, and contain not a few irregular length, throughout each of which the marked by deep and simple pathos. Their plots same rhyme or assonance is repeated. In his intro are somewhat monotonously alike. The strength duction to the Song of Roland, M. Génin points of their writers does not lie in invention, but in out that it is the decasyllabic verse of the Chan fresh and vivid and sometimes (as in the picture sons and not the Alexandrine (a form introduced of the sack of the abbey in Raoul de Cambrai) in the 13th century) which is the true epic verse terribly realistic descriptions. Their verse is by in French literature. A large number of these no means unmelodious, and their style is rich in poems celebrate the exploits of the peers of Charle picturesque and poetical epithets. magne, and form what is termed the Carlovingian After lying in neglect for centuries, the Chancycle, wbich includes the Song of Roland. But sons de Gestes have for the last fifty years been while the anthor of that poem depicts Charlemagne assiduously studied and brought into notice by a as on the whole a worthy and venerated sovereign, / band of French and German scholars. Some fifty the aim of the later writers is to exalt the vassal of them are now in print, a number of these having nobles at the expense of the emperor, who is in been edited by the late M. Paulin Paris, a scholar variably presented in an odious or ridiculous light. who did more than any one else to promote the * The great emperor,' says M. Géruzez, ‘pays for the study of this department of literature." misdeeds of his feeble successors; the monarchy See Léon Gautier's Les Epopées Françaises (2d ed. of which he remains the representative has been 1878); the Histoire Poétique de Charlemagne, by G. Paris degraded; consequently he is degraded along with (1866); C. d'Héricault's Essai sur l'Origine de l'Epopée it to the profit of the fendal hero who is opposed | Française (Frankfort, 1860); Génin's introduction to the to him.' The principal poems of the Carlovingian

Chanson de Roland (1850); the series, Les Anciens cycle ( setting aside the Song of Roland) are Ogier

Poëtes de la France, which MM. Guessard and Michelant le Danois, Renaut de Montauban, Raoul de

began to issue in 1858; and Fauriel's Epopée Chevaler. Cambrai, Huon de Bordeaux, Les Saisnes, Doon

esque au Moyen Age. de Mayence, Gérard de Viane, and Hugues Capet.

Chant, in Music, is the name applied to the Ogier is a typical chanson containing more

short tunes used in the English Church since the than 13,000 lines, written by Raimbert of Paris

Reformation for the psalms and, less properly, the in the first half of the 12th century. It tells

canticles. The adaptation of the form to the how the vassal noble Ogier, after vainly seeking

structure of the psalms is obvious. Its distin. reparation for the death of his son, who has

guishing point is that each section is composed been slain by a son of Charlemagne, is pursued by

of a reciting note of indefinite length, according the emperor into Italy and captured after a heroic

to the nunber of words sung to it, followed by a resistance; how, saved from death by the inter

few notes in regular time, called the Mediation vention of Archbishop Turpin, he lives in conceal.

or Termination. The tunes were originally dement until the Saracens invade France, and the

rived, as the name indicates, from the Canto emperor is forced to implore his aid ; how he yields

Fernio, or Plain Song of the Roman Church, also at last to repeated entreaties, frees the land from

called Gregorian Tones. These Gregorian tones the heathen, marries a princess, and lives happily

were preceded by a still earlier form, the Ambrosian to the end of his days. The style of the poem

Chant, which was the first attempt to systematise is clear and vigorous, the characters stand out

the traditional music of the Christian church, vividly, the narrative interest is considerable, and

carried out by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, in the the hero rivets the sympathy of the reader. The

4th century. Of this, next to nothing is now l'oyage du Charlemagne à Constantinople, which

known, the statements of musical historians being belongs to the same cycle, offers a strong contrast

founded on slender authority, and curiously at to O quer. It is a mock-heroic piece. full of broad variance. If any fragments still remain in the and extravagant pleasantries, and is rather a long

services of the Roman Church, they cannot be fabliau than a true Chanson de Gestes. Among

distinguished from the later Gregorian music (see the other chansons which have come to light, the

PLAIN-SONG, INTONING). There has been a re. most remarkable are Garin le Loherain (ascribed to

vival in the present day of the old Gregorian Jean de Flagy), which takes us back to the times

chants, which are all single,' that is, composed of Charles Martel and Pepin, and describes the

of only two sections, and adapted to a single feud between the Counts of Metz and the Counts

verse, and have the additional feature of an introof Boulogne; Amis et Amiles, and its sequel Jour

ductory intonation of two notes before the first dains de Blaivies : Berte aus grans Piés, one of the

reciting note; but many consider these of mainly most graceful of all; Gérard de Roussillon ; Fiera.

antiquarian interest. The double chant, adapted bras ; Aliscans, which relates the wars of William

to a couple of verses, and hence more suitable for of Orange with the Saracens; and Antioche, which

antiphonal singing, dates from the time of the gives a singularly animated account of the siege

Restoration; and in later days there have been of Antioch by the crusaders, one of whom is sup.

added quadruple chants. The repertory has been pred to have written the original version of the

enriched by almost every English composer of the poem. The last forms one of the series known as

last three centuries, famous or obscure. The objec. Le Cheralier au Cygne, which is concluded with

tionable .florid 'style has now happily gone out. On Burrulouin de Seboure.

the subject of pointing' the psalmis-i.e. indicatThe Chansons de Gestes are not, strictly speak.

ing the division of the verses to accord with the ing, epics, though they are frequently described

| chant, there is great diversity of usage, and no as such. They are rather the material out of

| authoritative system. The best treatment of which a genuine epic, such as the liad or the

the subject, theoretic and practical, will be found Nibelungenlied, might have been wrought had a |

in Helmore's Psalter Noted and Plain Song, the great poet appeared to extract the gold from the

Cathedral Psalter, and Ouseley and Monk's and droms and mould a work of art out of this rich mass

Oakeley's Psalters. Chanting is gaining ground of national legend. There has been a natural

in the Presbyterian and other churches. tendency to overestimate their worth on the part

Chantenay, a western suburb of Nantes (q.v.). of those by whom they have been exhumed and Chantibun, or CHANTABON, an important edited. Their literary merit, however, is incon. commercial port of Siam, near the month of the testable, and their historical interest is very great. | Chantibun River, in the Gulf of Siam, occupied by They faithfully reflect the beliefs and customs of the the French as security for the fultilment of the ager in which they were written ; they abound in treaty of 1893. Pop. 30,000.




Chantilly, a town in the French department annually, of which the president was to receive of Oise, 26 miles NNE, of Paris. One of the most £300 and the secretary £50, and the rest was to be beautiful places in the vicinity of the capital, and devoted to the purchase of works of art executed the headquarters of French horse-racing, it attracts in Great Britain. Many national acquisitions have immense numbers of visitors. Apart from its already been made by means of this • Chantrey natural beauty, it is interesting as the place Fund. See John Holland's Memorials of Chantrey where the Great Condé spent the last twenty years (1851). of his life in the society of Molière, Boileau, Racine,

Chantry (Fr.chanterie, from chanter, 'to sing'), La Fontaine, and Bossuet, and where his cook

| a term applied alike to endowments or benefices killed himself, on the occasion of a royal visit, I to provide for the chanting of masses, and to the because the fish failed to arrive. His magnificent

chapels in which such masses are celebrated. These chateau was pulled down at the Revolution of 1793,

endowments were commonly made in the form of but was rebuilt by the Duc d'Aumale, who bought

testamentary bequests, the object being to insure back the estate in 1872, and who in 1886 presented

the erection of a chapel near or over the spot where it to the French Institute, with is priceless art

| the testator was buried, and to remunerate the collections, its celebrated stables for 250 horses, and

priests for saying masses in it for the repose of his its 16th-century ·Petit Chateau,' one of the finest

soul, or of the souls of others named in his will. specimens of Renaissance architecture in France.

| Many such chantry chapels are still to be seen in The grounds, park, and forest, 6050 acres in area,

English parish churches; but they were more are of great beauty-truly a princely gift, its

common in abbeys and monastic establishments, in value nearly £2,000,000. The manufacture of silk

which it was deemed a privilege to be buried, and pillow-lace, or blonde, so famous in the 18th cen.

where some such offering to the brotherhood was in tury, is all but extinct. Pop. (1891) 4022.

a measure the price of sepulture. These chapels, Chantrey, SIR FRANCIS LEGATT, an eminent which have generally the tomb of the founder in English sculptor, was born at Jordanthorpe, in the middle of them, are separated from the aisles Derbyshire, on 7th April 1781 (not 1782, as has been or nave of the church by open screen-work. Some. generally said). His father, who was a carpenter, | times, again, they are separate erections, projectand rented a small farm, died when Chantrey was ing from the church externally ; but in cathedrals only twelve years of age, leaving the niother in and the larger churches they are generally connarrow circumstances. The boy was in 1797 appren: structed within the church, often between the ticed for seven years to a carver and gilder in Sheffield | piers. Many chantries are lavishly enriched with called Ramsay. It was in these humble circum- sculpture and tracery of all descriptions, and some stances that Chantrey acquired the rudiments of art. of them are adorned with gilding and painting. He began to model in clay and to draw portraits and landscapes in pencil. His efforts were encour

Chanzy, ANTOINE EUGÈNE ALFRED, French aged by J. R. Smith, the mezzotint engraver : he

general, born at Nouart (Ardennes), 18th March acquired some local celebrity as a portrait painter,

1823, entered the artillery as a private, received a and in 1802 was enabled to cancel his indentures

commission in the Zouaves in 1841, and served

almost uninterruptedly in Africa till 1870. with Ramsay. Soon afterwards he came to London,

After and studied for a short time in the schools of the

the revolution of the 4th September the Govem. Royal Academy, employing himself also in wood.

ment of National Defence appointed him a general carving. In 1805 he received his first commission

of division ; in December he was placed at the head for a marble bust, that of the Rev. J. Wilkinson, |

of the second Army of the Loire, and resisted the for the parish church, Sheffield. This was followed

invaders inch by inch with a stubborn valour that by commissions for colossal busts of admirals for

won the respect of the Germans and the confdence Greenwich Hospital; and having in 1807 married a

of his countrymen, and which found a fitting close cousin with some property, his early struggles were

in the great six days' conflict about Le Mans. over. In 1808 he was successful in the competition

He was elected to the National Assembly, and for the statue of George III. for Guildhall, and

narrowly escaped being shot by the Communists

in 1871. In 1873-79 he was governor-general of during the rest of his life he was largely employed

Algeria. Chosen a life senator in 1875, he was on works of portraiture. The features of the most

put forward for the presidency in 1879. He was celebrated men of his time were transcribed by his

ambassador at St Petersburg in 1879-81, and afterchisel, and it was in this class of severely realistic

wards commanded the 6th army corps at Chalons, work that he most uniformly excelled; though probably his most widely known statue-group is

where he died suddenly, 4th January 1883. See ihat of the "Sleeping Children'in Lichfield

Chuquet, Le Général Chanzy (1884). Cathedral, a subject-its design has been attrib

Chaos signified, in the ancient cosmogonies, uted, in error, to Flaxman-in which the real

that vacant infinite space out of which sprang all and the ideal seem to meet and blend. His busts things that exist. Some poets make it the single include those of James Watt, Wordsworth, and the original source of all ; others mention along with it two very celebrated heads of Sir W. Scott, which Gaa, Tartaros, and Eros. By some also only the he executed in 1820 and 1828. Among his statues rough outlines of heaven and earth were supposed are Sir Joseph Banks (1827), Sir John Malcolm to have proceeded from Chaos, while the organisa. (1837), Francis Horner, William Pitt, George tion and perfecting of all things was the work of IV. and the Duke of Wellington: while his | Eros. Still later cosmogonists, such as Ovid, head of Satan and his Plentydesions for Sheaf represent it as that confused, shapeless mass out House, Sheffield, and his “Penelope' at Woburn,

of which the universe was formed into a kosmos, are examples of his rare treatment of ideal and

or harmonious order. Hesiod makes Chaos the imaginative subjects. In 1816 Chantrey was mother of Erebus and Nox. In Gen. i. 1-2, after elected an Associate, in 1818 a Meniber of the

God created heaven and earth, the earth was yet Royal Academy; and in 1835 he was knighted by 'waste and void (tõhū va-böhū), and darkness was William IV. Allan Cunningham, the poet, was his upon the face of the deep' (těhom, the Chaldee secretary and superintendent of works from 1814 | tiamat). See ADAM AND EVE. till the date of Chantrey's death, 23th November Chapala, a lake of Mexico, on the high 1841. The sculptor acquired by the practice of his plateau of Jalisco, surrounded by steep,' tare art a fortune of about £150,000 ; and bequeathed to mountains. It has an estimated area of 1300 the Royal Academy, with liferent to his widow, sq. m., contains many islands, and is traversed by who died in 1875, a sum yielding about £3000 the Rio Grande de Santiago.





Chap-books are little stitched tracts written that Whittington set out before daybreak on All. for the people, and sold by chapmen, or travelling Hallows' Day, and before he got as far as Bunhill pedlars, whose representative Autolycus is so he heard Bow Bells ring out. Holloway replaced vividly brought before our eyes by Shakespeare in Bunhill in the later versions, and hence arose the Winter's Tale. The literary wares of the chapman | myth connected with Whittington Stone on Highwere mostly ballads or other broadsides, but he also gate Hill. dealt in these stitched booklets. Popular litera Hannah More's Repository Tracts, and after. ture has naturally become scarce on account of the wards the publications of the Useful Knowledge vicissitudes to which it is subject, and few of the Society, Chambers's Miscellany of Tracts, and the older chap-books exist at the present day. Samuel growth of cheap magazines, greatly reduced the Pepvs collected some of considerable interest which popularity of chap-books; but Catnach, a London he bound in small quarto volumes and lettered printer, kept up the supply in the early portion of l'ulgaria. Besides these he left four volumes of the 19th century, and even now chap-books are chap-books of a smaller size which he lettered still produced in England and elsewhere. Penny Merriments, Penny Witticisms, Penny Com. The influence of chap-books can never have been pliments and Penny Godlinesses. The small quarto very great in Britain from the inferiority of their chap-books are the descendants of the black-letter literary character. This has not been the case in tracts of Wynkyn de Worde, Copland, and other other countries, and Mr Wentworth Webster has famous printers, and were probably bought from discovered the curious fact that the Pastorales or booksellers as well as from chapmen. With the Basque dramas owe their origin to the chap-books 18th century came in a much inferior class of hawked about the country (see article BASQUES). literature, which was printed in a smaller size, and A valuable and standard work on the chap-books of forms the bulk of what is known to us now in France was published in 1854, entitled Histoire des collections of chap-books. These tracts were Livres Populaires, ou de la Littérature du Colport. printed largely in Aldermary Churchyard, and after. age, by M, Ch. Nisard ; but little has been done in words in Bow Churchyard, as well as at Northamp England for this class of literature. Mr J. 0. ton, York, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Stokesley, Warring. Halliwell-Phillipps printed in 1849 Notices of ton, Liverpool, Banbury, Aylesbury, Durham, Fugitive Tracts and Chap Books and Descriptive Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Coventry, White Notices of Popular English Histories; Mr John haven, Carlisle, Worcester, Penrith, Cirencester, Ashton published in 1882 a useful work on Chap&c., in England; at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Falkirk, books of the Eighteenth Century; and five of the Paisley, Dumfries, Kilmarnock, Stirling, &c., in most interesting of the old chap-books have been

l; and at Dublin. As ballads are frequently reprinted (1885) by the Villon Society, with introreduced versions of romances, so chap-books usually ductions by Mr Gomme and Mr H. B. Wheatley. contain vulgarised versions of popular stories. The For German chap-books, the reader should consult subjects of the chap-books are very various ; first Karl Simrock, Die deutschen Volksbücher (55 parts, and foremost are the popular tales, such as Berlin and Frankfort, 1839-67), and Gotthard Valentine and Orson, Fortunatus, Reynard the Fox, Oswald Marbach, Altdeutsche Volksbücher (44 vols. Jack and the Giants, Patient Grissel, Tom Thumb, | Leip. 1838-47). and Tom Hickathrift; then come the lives of

Chapel (through Fr. from a late Latin capella, heroes, historical abridgments, travels, religious treatises, and abstracts of popular books like

which, according to Brachet, already in the 7th Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote. Besides these

century had the sense of a chapel, but earlier meant

the sanctuary in which was preserved the cappa or there are the more modern inventions of hack writers. Dougal Graham (1724-1779), bellman to

cope of St Martin, and was next expanded to mean the city of Glasgow, was a popular writer who is

any sanctuary containing relics). The term now

signifies a building erected for the purposes of supposed to have done much to give a special character to Scottish chap-book literature. Mother

public worship, but not possessing the full privileges

and characteristics of a church. In this sense all well has styled him the vulgar Juvenal of his

places of worship erected by dissenters are now age.' His works were reprinted at Glasgow in

called chapels in England, and the term is also 2 vols, in 1883. The chap-books of the 17th century are valuable

applied to supplementary places of Worship, even as illustrations of manners ; but little is to be

though in connection with the established churchlearned from those of the 18th century, which are

such as parochial chapels, chapels of ease, free

chapels, and the like. In former times it was altogether of an inferior character. An instance

applied either to a domestic oratory, or to a place of this may be taken from the story of Dick Whittington. The earliest version of this tale

of worship erected by a private individual or a which has come down to us is a small quarto tract

body corporate. In the latter sense we speak of

chapels in colleges. But its earliest significaentitled “The Famous and Remarkable History of

tion was that of a separate erection, either within Sir Richard Whittington, three times Lord Mayor of London, who lived in the time of King Henry

or attached to a large church or cathedral, separ

ately dedicated, and devoted to special services the Fifth in the year 1419, with all the remarkable

(see CHANTRY). Chapels had no burying-ground passages, and things of note, which happened in his time: with his Life and Death.' It is without a

attached to them, and the sacrament of baptism date, but was probably published about 1670. In

was not usually administered in them. The name this the historical character of the subject is fairly

is also given to a printer's workshop, hence to a kept up, although the dates are somewhat mixed,

union of the workmen in a printing-office-said to and to this the widespread folk-tale of the cat is

be so applied because Caxton set up his press in a alded. In the later chap-book versions the histori. |

| chapel at Westminster. cal incidents are ruthlessly cut down, and the ficti. | Chapelain, Jean, a somewhat curious figure tious ones amplified. The three chief points of the in the gallery of French authors, was born in 1595, story are (1) the poor parentage of the hero, (2) his and died in 1674. He was a learned, industrious change of mind at Highgate Hill by reason of hear writer, who passed for a time as a poet, and was ing Bow Bells, and (3) his good fortune arising accepted as the dominant authority in the world of irom the sale of his cat. Now these are all equally French letters between the literary dictatorships of untrue as referring to the historical Whittington, Malherbe and of Boileau. He produced one of the and the second is apparently an invention of the abortive epics which it was the fashion to write Isth century. In the 17th-century story we learn | during the regency of Mazarin. This work, the 106



Pucelle, dealt with the story of Joan of Arc, in An ARMY CHAPLAIN, in Britain, is a clergyman twenty-four books. Its appearance covered its not having charge of a parish, especially com. author with ridicule. Chapelain was gibbeted in missioned to do duty with troops." The office, the satircs of Boileau, and the critic's severity which has existed for many years, was at one was in this case amply justified by the dullness time regarded as a saleable perquisite; but the and grotesque absurdities of the work which he system was reorganised and improved in 1796. attacked. Chapelain also wrote a number of odes, The Chaplains' Department, a branch of the one of which, composed in honour of Cardinal Military Department of the War Office, consiste Richelieu, is not without merit. An edition of of a Chaplain-general, ranking as major-general; part of the Pucelle (1 vol. folio) was published in 16 Chaplains to the Forces of the first class, 1656. The last twelve books still remain in manu. ranking as colonels; 10 of the second class, script in the Bibliothèque Impériale.

ranking as lieutenant-colonels; 18 of the third Chapel Royal, in England, consists of a dean,

class, ranking as majors; and 35 of the fourth sub-dean, forty-eight chaplains, ten priests in

class, ranking as captains. Of these, 13 are Roman ordinary, and a numerous lay choir, styled gentle

Catholic and 6 Presbyterian. Their pay, which in men of the chapel, with a clerk of the closet, and

the fourth class is los. a day, rises to 228. 6d, in deputy-clerks of the closet, and an organist. The

the highest rank, the chaplain-general receiving chaplain's duty is preaching, a certain number

£1000 a year. Chaplains are sent on active service being appointed beforehand to take duty each

with the troops, and in peace are allotted to the month of the year; the liturgical offices are per

various military stations. Their duties are to conformed by the dean, sub-dean, and priests in

duct divine service in camp or barracks, officiate at ordinary. The establishment is bound to attend

burials, baptisms, and churchings, visit the hospital the sovereign wherever the court happens to be ;

and barrack-rooms, give religious instruction in the but in fact the services of the chapel are confined

schools, and generally treat the soldiers and their to London-formerly to the chapel at Whitehall,

families as though they were their parishioners. destroyed by fire after the Restoration, more

Where the number of troops is small, the parish recently to the small oratory in St James's Palace.

clergyman is appointed acting chaplain, performs The earliest records concerning the Chapel Royal

hese duties and receives head-money. Soldiers date from the reign of Edward IV.

who do not belong to the Church of England are The CHAPEL ROYAL OF SCOTLAND was an ancient

marched to the nearest place of worship belonging foundation originally located in Stirling Castle,

to their denomination, and head-money is granted founded by Alexander I., and liberally endowed

to the minister in charge. In the United States by his successors. In the reign of Queen Mary the

army, regimental chaplains and post-chaplains may Chapel Royal was transferred to Holyrood House.

be of any of the regular denominations. They After the Reformation the minister of the king's

mostly have the rank of captain. household' conducted service in it, and the chapel

NAVY CHAPLAIN. Every large ship in commis. was used as their parish church by the people of

sion has a chaplain. The Navy Estimates provide the Canongate. It was endowed with the teinds

for above 100 commissioned chaplains, at stipends of various churches, and the revenues of the abbey

varying from £219 to £401 per annum. The Chapof Dundrennan. During the period of Episcopal

lain of the Fleet has an income ( with allowances) church government the Chapel Royal of Holyrood

of £759 a year. The chaplains perform divine was presided over by a dean, generally one of the

service at stated times on shipboard, visit the sick bishops, and served by a number of chaplains (see

sailors, and assist in maintaining moral discipline HOLYROOD). After the Revolution the revenues

among the crew. The estimates also include a sum of the Chapel Royal were bestowed on various

of about £3500 as 'allowances to ministers of ministers and chaplains. In accordance with the

religion,' besides the salaries of chaplains. In the report of the University Commission issued in

United States Davy, chaplains on the active list are 1863 the whole revenues have latterly been taken

of various relative ranks, from that of lieutenant to angment the income of several professors of to that of captain. divinity, among whom they are divided. The Chapman, a trader, but popularly applied in a present Dean of the Order of the Thistle is more limited sense to a dealer in small articles, appointed by his commission from the crown the who travels as a pedlar or attends markets. Our Dean of the Chapel Royal of Scotland. The other familiar chap, a fellow,' is a mere shortening of members of the chapel are the chaplains in ordinary, the name, which is derived from A.S. ceáp, 'trade,' six in nunber, who are appointed during the seen in Cheapside, Eastcheap, and in cognate form pleasure of the crown. Neither the dean nor the | in Copenhagen. See CHAP-BOOK. chaplains receive any of the revenues of the Chapel Royal, which have been all disposed of in the

Chapman, GEORGE, dramatist and translator of manner stated, and their duties are purely honorary.

Homer, was born near Hitchin, Hertfordshire, about

1559. He is supposed to have studied at Oxford Chaperon, a hood or cap worn by knights of

University, and to have afterwards proceeded to the Garter. Such a hood was at one time in general Cambridge. From a passage in his earliest poein, use, but was latterly appropriated to doctors and

| The Shadow of Night (1594), it has been somewhat licentiates in colleges. A person who acts as a

hastily inferred that he served as a volunteer under guide and protector to a lady at public places is Sir Francis Vere in the Netherlands. To Lawrence called a chaperon, probably from this particular

Keymis's Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana piece of dress having been used on such occasions.

(1596 ) he prefixed a spirited poem, De Guiana, The name was also applied to devices which were

Carmen Epicum. His earliest extant play, The placed on the heads of horses at pompous funerals. Blind Beggar of Alexandria, which has little

Chaplain, originally an ecclesiastic who accom merit, but was very popular, was produced in panied an army, and carried the relics of the patron February 1595–96, and printed in 1598. The excel. saint (see CHAPEL). It now signilies a clergyman lent comedy, All Fools, printed in 1605, was prob. employed to officiate at court, in the household of ably produced in 1599; and about this time he a nobleman or bishop, in prisons, with troops, and wrote other plays, which have perished. In 1598 on board ship. Such officials appear first in the he completed Marlowe's unfinished poem, Hero and palaces of the Byzantine emperors. For the royal Leander. The first of his Homeric translations chaplains in Britain, see CHAPEL ROYAL. For was Seven Books of the Iliads of Homer (1598). It prison and workhouse chaplains, see PRISON, POOR. | is a translation of books i. i. vii.-si., and is

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