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written in rhymed verses of fourteen syllables. The Magazine, and soon became known to a literary dedicatory epistle to the Earl of Essex admirably circle, including Richardson ; but she is now chiefly illustrates the writer's dignified temper. Later in remembered by her Letters on the Improvement 1595 he published Achilles' Shield, translated from of the Mind (1772), which went through many the eighteenth book of the Iliad. In this transla editions. She married an attorney in 1760, but tion he used rhymed verses of ten syllables, the next year was left a widow; she herself died at metre that he aiterwards employed in his render Hadley, 25th December 1801. See her Works with ing of the Odyssey. It was not until 1610 or there. | Life (4 vols. 1807). abouts that he published Homer, Prince of Poets : Chapped Hands, a form of inflammation of trunslatel according to the Greeke in twelve Bookes the skin of the back of the hands characterised by of his luuds, with a fine dedicatory epistle in verse abnormal dryness and roughness, with the formato Prince Henry. The complete translation of The tion of cracks or fissures. It is caused by exIliads of Homer, Prince of Poets, in rhymed verses

posure to cold, and can generally be prevented or of fourteen syllables, appeared in 1611. In the cured by carefully drying the hands after they Preface to the Reader he states that the last twelve

are washed, and applying glycerine, vaseline, or books had been translated in less than fifteen

other simple ointment. The hands should also be weeks. Having finished the Iliad, he set to work

protected in cold weather by warm gloves. on the Odyssey, and in 1616 appeared The Whole

Chappell, WILLIAM, F.S.A., the author of Works of Homer, Prince of Poets, in his Iliads and Odysseys, which was followed (about 1624) by The

the most learned work on ancient English music, Crowne of all Homer's Workes, Batrachomyomachia, I lived in London, where he was for some years å

was born November 20, 1809. Most of his life he or the Battaile of Frogs and Mice: His Hymns and

member of a great music publishing house. His Epigrams. In spite of all harshnesses, obscurities,

first work of importance was A Collection of and conceits, Chapman's translation of Homer is a

| National English Airs, consisting of Ancient noble achievement. He was not a profound scholar,

Song, Ballad, and Dance Tunes (2 vols. [1838-40]). and has often missed the sense where a schoolboy

This work, which contained 245 airs, ultimately could set him right. But the work is instinct with

grew into the greater and entirely rewritten work, life, full of heat and energy. By his contemporaries

containing over 400 airs, re-barmonised on a con-Jonson, Drayton, Daniel, and the rest-it was

sistent plan by Macfarren, Popular Music of applanded, and in later days it has never lacked

the Olden Time; a Collection of Ancient Songs, admirers. Pope acknowledged its merits ; Cole.

Ballads and Dance Tunes, illustrative of the ridge declared that it was such a poem as Homer

National Music of England (2 vols. 1855-59' ; new might have written if he had lived in England in

ed. by Wooldridge, 1893). The first volume, conthe time of Elizabeth ; Lamb admired it enthusi.

taining 200 airs, is a complete collection of English astically ; and Keats wrote a famous sonnet in its

airs, so far as known, down to the reign of Charles praise. While he was busy with his Homeric labours, Chapman was also writing for the stage.

1. ; the second is rather a selection, containing,

however, all the more interesting or important airs He joined Jonson and Marston in the composition

of later date. Mr Chappell took a principal part in of Eastuard Ho (1605), and in 1606 published a

the foundation in 1840 of the Musical Antiquarian graceful comedy, The Gentleman Usher. In 1607

Society and the Percy Society, and edited some appeared Bussy d'Ambois: a Tragedie ; and The

of Dowland's songs for the former and several rare Herenge of Bussy d'Ambois followed in 1613.

collections for the latter. He published a few These tragedies contain much inarticulate bombast

papers in the Archäologia, contributed invaluable intermingled with exalted poetry. Heavy and un

notes to Hales and Furnivall's reprint of the Percy dramatic though they were, they held the stage for

Folio MS. (1867-68), and annotated the first three many years by reason of their impassioned earnest.

volumes (1869-79) of the Ballad Society edition of Dess. Two other tragedies, The Conspiracie and

The Roxburghe Ballads (continued by his friend Mr Tragerie of Charles, Duke of Byron (1608), are also

Ebsworth). Mr Chappell published in 1874 the undramatic, but abound in fine poetry. Lamb was

first volume of a History of Music. He died in of opinion that of all the Elizabethan dramatists

London, 20th August 1888. Chapinan came nearest to Shakespeare in the descriptive and didactic, in passages which are

Chapra, a town in Bengal, on the Gogra, i less purely dramatic.' Chapman's other plays are

mile above its confluence with the Ganges. It is The May Day (1611), The Widow's Tears (1612),

capital of the district of Saran. Pop. (1891) 57,352. and Corsar and Pompey (1631). Two posthu.

Chaptal, JEAN ANTOINE, COMTE DE CHANTEmous tragedies, published in 1654, Alphonsus and LOUP, French statesman and chemist, was born Reenge for Honour, bear his name, but their | at Nogaret, Lozère, 4th June 1756, and studied at authorship is uncertain. The Ball, a comedy, and

Montpellier, where in 1781 the states of Langue. The Tragedie of Chabot were published in 1639 as

doc founded for him a chair of Chemistry. A conthe joint work of Chapman and Shirley. Among

siderable fortune left him by his uncle he devoted Chapman's non-dramatic works are Enthymice

to the establishment of works for the manufacture Bautus (1609), Petrarch's Seven Penitentiall of mineral acids, alum, soda, &c. He was made a Pulmes (1612), The Divine Poem of Musaus

member of the Institute in 1798, and in 1800 Min(1616), and The Georgicks of Hesiod (1618). | ister of the Interior. He resigned in 1804, but in Chapman died in the parish of St Giles's in the 1811 was made a count by the emperor. During Fields, 12th May 1634. Wood describes him as a the Hundred Days he was a minister of state and person of reverend aspect, religious and temperate,

director of commerce and manufactures ; after the qnalities rarely meeting in a poet.' A complete

Restoration he withdrew into private life, but was edition of Chapman's works in 3 vols., with an admitted to the chamber of peers by Louis XVIII. essay by A. C. Swinburne, appeared in 1873-75.

in 1819. He died in Paris, 30th July 1832. Chapone, HESTER, authoress, danghter of Chapter. See Bible, Vol. II. p. 126. Thomas Mulso, was born at Twywell, Northamp. Chapter-house (Fr. salle capitulaire), the tonshire, 27th October 1727. She wrote a short building in which the monks and canons of monastic romance in her tenth year, and after her mother's establishments, and the dean and prebendaries death her attention was divided between house of cathedral and collegiate churches, meet for the bold duties and the study of French, Italian, | management of the atlairs of their order or society Latin, music, and drawing. She wrote for the (see CATHEDRAL). Chapter-houses freqnently exPrambler (No. 10), Adventurer, and Gentleman's ' hibit the most elaborate architectural adornment,




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as, for example, those of York, Southwell, and at most ventured to remove these to the Monandria Wells. The original stained-glass windows remain Monogynia, while De Jussieu regarded them as a at York, and are of exquisite beauty. On the walls genus of Naiadaceæ (q.v.), an order of monocotyof that of Westminster the original painting has ledonous aquatics with much reduced flowers. In been discovered. Chapter-houses are of various similar opinions he was followed by De Candolle forms: those at York and Westminster are and other eminent systematists : and it was not until octagonal; those at Oxford, Exeter, Canterbury, | 1851 that a careful re-examination of their structure

and mode of reproduction by Thuret finally dis-
proved the phanerogamous view, and established
their cryptogamic nature. Since that time the
group has attracted great attention, and is now on
grounds of peculiar instructiveness, both morpho-
logical and physiological, one of the
classical forms usually presented to
the beginner, not only in crypto-
gamic botany, but general biology.

Commencing with the vegeta-
tive system, we find this apparently
consisting of a stem with regular
whorls of leaves arising at definite
points (nodes) of the stem. The
internodes, or distances between
these, are at first considerable ;
but as we approach the apex these
are shorter and shorter, and at
length we lose sight of them in
the crowded terminal bud. The
resemblance to a young shoot of
Equisetum is so far satisfactory,
and the mineral incrustation (in
some species so abundant as to
lead to the substitution of the
plant for scouring metal) appears
to confirm this. The incrustation, Fig. 1.
however, is calcareous, not silice. Shoot of Chari.
ous. Even under microscopic ex-

amination we may at first sympathise with the Chapter-house, York.

old observers, and seem to see in the stem a

multicellular structure, even a cortex; nay, to Gloucester, &c. are parallelograms : Lichfield is an see under our very eyes the actual circulation of oblong octagon ; Lincoln, a decagon; and Worces

the sap. More careful scrutiny, however, enables ter a circle. In France the chapter-house is gener

us to repeat the work of later and more accurate ally square. They are always contiguous to the

observers. We see that this movement is not the church, and are not generally placed to the west

circulation of the sap in a stem, but a streaming of of the transepts. They sometimes open into the

the protoplasm within what is simply a single church, or are entered by a passage, but are more

enormous cell stretching from one node to the frequently in connection with the cloisters. In

next (see CELL). The apparent cortex is a single some instances there are arches or windows between

layer of cells the chapter-house and the cloisters to enable those

covering this standing in the latter to hear what goes on in the

internodal cell; chapter-house. A stone seat on a raised step gener

and the whole ally runs round the apartment. Chapter-houses were often used as places of sepulture, and have

structure is un. sometimes crypts under them, as at Wells and

ravelled when Westminster.

we roughly dis

sect out the Chapultepec, a rock 2 miles SW. of the city of Mexico, rising to a height of 150 feet, and

terminal bud,

harden, stain crowned by a castle, which was erected by the

and imbed this Spanish viceroy in 1785 on the site of the palace of Montezuma.

in paraffin, and

thus cut a fine Char, a fish. See CHARR.

longitudinal Chara. The Characeæ or Stoneworts are a section (fig. 2). small group of common aquatic plants found grow. | An apical cell ing in large tufts, or even covering large expanses is seen which on the bottoms of fresh-water ponds and shallow continually lakes, brackish or even salt-water lagoons, &c., and

Fig. 2.—Longitudinal Section of of which the systematic position has undergone the lower one; this the apical bud of Chara. most extraordinary and instructive vicissitudes. divides (still The early botanists, with K. Bauhin, had no hesita. transversely to the axis) into two new ones; and tion in describing them as horsetails (Equisetum). the lower of these henceforth steadily lengthens In 1719 Vaillant proposed for them a separate genus as the internodal cell, while the upper undergoes (Chara), while Linnæus, although at first disposed repeated division, until a plate of nodal cells to regard them as Algae, as their habitat suggests, is formed. In the simpler family (Nitella) the decided that the small red male reproductive body internode thus consists of a single naked cell : must be a stamen, and the larger green female one in the higher (Chara), this is inclosed by the a pistil, and accordingly placed them as flowering so-called cortex, a layer of smaller cells proceedplants among the Monæcia Monandria. His pupils I ing from those of the upper and lower nodes;






and itself showing a minor nodal and internodal have been gigantic Characeæ (Spirangium) occur arrangement. In all cases, from the nodal cells from the Carboniferous to the Wealden, and ordi. there divide off, parallel to the outer surface of the nary Characeæ are abundant in the Tertiary strata. stem, a new set of apical cells, which proceed, like See Howes' Biological Atlas, and Sachs' Botany. the parent one, to form the leaves,' reproducing,

Characin'idæ. See SALMONIDÆ. that is to say, the stem structure, until they lose

Characteristic. See LOGARITHMS. the power of division, and end in a single enlarged vegetative cell. A branch may arise from a new

Character to Servant. The master is under formed apical cell cut off in the axil of the oldest | no legal obligation, either in England or in Scot

land, to give a character to his servant, however leaf of any whorl, while the so-called roots, which fix the plant in the mud, are simply unicellular

long, faithfully, or efficiently he may have served hairs, lengthenings produced from the superficial

him ; but, if given, the character must be strictly cells of buried nodes.

true, or, at all events, in accordance with the The apparently very complex and characteristic

master's belief, otherwise he may be exposed to an reproductive organs arise also at the nodes of the

action of damages, either by the servant whom he stem or leaves, in positions and numbers varying

has calumniated, or by a subsequent employer with the species. *Commencing with the female

whom he has deceived. If true, however, the fact (fig. 3a), which arises in the position of a branch,

of its being prejudicial will expose the master to we find this tó

no risk. In order to justify the giving of a bad be obviously a

character, however, it must, in general, be asked shortened and

for by the servant, as the master is not entitled modified one.

needlessly to publish the servant's defects. Where Its apical cell

asked, it will lie with the servant to prove its false. forms only an

hood, not with the master to prove its truth. The internode and

case of the servant being known by the master to node, then ceases

have committed a felony while in his service, is, division, and be

however, an exception to this rule, as, in a case so comes enlarged

extreme, the master is at liberty to warn others and filled with a

^ against taking him into their employment. Even

aga store of starch

though strictly true, the character, if prejudicial, and other re

must not be more so than the circumstances render serve material

necessary. Acts of petty dishonesty, such as are to form an egg

too common among servants, will not warrant the cell ; while the

master in branding him as a thief. The safe course, cover or arche

in such a case, is to state the offence, and not to gonium inclosing

describe it by a general epithet, which may convey this is readily

an erroneous impression of its magnitude. seen to be a

It is probable that, partly from thoughtless good. Fig. 3.- Node, bearing reproductive niere modifica

nature, and partly from a selfish desire to get rid of

a bad servant in the most comfortable manner, false

tion of the fami. organs: a, Mature ; b. developing. The upper liar cortex. In

characters are given in favour of servants very in each case is the female. the male appa

much more frequently than to their prejudice. It ratus, or anther

is desirable that masters and mistresses should have idium, the branch structure is further modified: its

in view that they may render themselves liable in apical cell similarly remains all but sessile, forming

reparation of any damage which can be shown to only a short node and internode; but segmentation

be the direct result of thus inflicting on a stranger now begins, thus recalling the behaviour of a nodal

a wrong which is unquestionably within the reach cell—with which, in having below it an internodal,

of the law. and not as in the case of the egg-cell, a nodal cell

By an Act of 1816, personating a master, and thus (fig. 36), it so far corresponds. Eight quadrant- givi

giving a false character to a servant, or asserting like cells are formed, but these now segment off

| in writing that a servant has been hired, contrary to new cells in the interior of the spherical mass, and

truth; and any person offering himself as a servant, in the growth and development of these the nodal |

pretending to have served where he has not served, and internodal alternation of ordinary vegetative

or producing a false certificate, or altering a certifi. growth can still be traced. Soon, however, a num.

cate, or pretending not to have been in any former ber of long segmented filaments are developed, and

service, &c., are offences at common law, punishable the protoplasm of these undergoes rejuvenescence,

on conviction before two justices with a fine of £20. and becoines modified into a ciliated spermatozoid. Charade, or ‘syllable-puzzle' as the Germans When the reproductive organs are ripe, this it, is an amusement which consists in dividing gonium is easily broken, and its filaments spread a word of one or more syllables into its component free in the water; the spermatozoids escape in a syllables, or into its component letters, predicating myriad, and some reach the egg-cell of the arche. something of each ; and then, having reunited the gonium by means of a small opening, which is left | whole, and predicated something of that also, the by the all but incomplete upgrowth of the cortical reader or listener is asked to guess the word. As a cells which form the wall of the archegonium. | specimen of the charade depending upon syllables After a period of rest, the fertilised ovum germin we adduce the following: ates, producing, however, not directly a new Chara My first is ploughed for various reasons, and grain is fre.

quently buried in it to little purpose, My second is neither embryo, of which one cell segments into a node,

riches nor honours, yet the former would generally be given for

it, and the latter are often tasteless without it. My whole and the oldest cell of this becomes the growing applies equally to spring, summer, autumn, and winter; and point of the new plant.

both fish and flesh, praise and censure, mirth and melancholy, The affinities and systematic position of the group | are the better for being in it. Ans. Sea-son.' thus still afford ground for discussion, although now. As a specimen of the second class of charades, within narrower limits than formerly; some syste. we take the following happy example from the matists regarding them as a somewhat aberrant | French : group of Algee, while others insist on their resem: Quatre membres font tout mon bien, blance to the archegoniate cryptogams (sec VEGE.

Mon dernier vaut mon tout, et mon tout ne vaut rien. TABLE KINGDOM). The fruits of what seem to 1 The word is zero. It is composed of four letters, of 110




which the last-viz. o, is equal to zero, the whole ; black together, and then strain through filtering. zero itself being equal to nothing.

paper or cloth. The composition of bone-black in But besides charades of this nature there is | 100 parts is 10 of pure charcoal, associated with 90 another kind rather popular at evening-parties of earthy salts-i.e. in the proportion of one of the acted charade, the character of which is entirely pure charcoal in 10 of the commercial bone-black. dramatic. Half a dozen or so of the company | The power of absorbing colours appears to be due retire to a private apartment, and there agree to | to the porosity of the substance, and is not resident select a certain word as the subject of the charade; simply in the pure charcoal ; indeed, the earthy let us suppose Memento. The next thing done is matters (principally phosphate of line and carbon to take the first syllable, Me, and arrange a little ate of lime) can be dissolved out of the bone-black scene and dialogue, each member taking a certain by dilute hydrochloric acid, and the pure charcoal part. This being accomplished, the amateur actors thus obtained only possesses about one-third the return to the drawing-room, and commence their decolourising power of the total amount of boneperformance, the rest of the company constituting black it was obtained from. Thus, if 100 parts of the spectators. Care is taken to mention conspicu ordinary bone-black have the power of arresting ously, and yet not obtrusively, in the course of the the colour from ten volumes of a given coloured dialogue, the word Me, which is the subject of the liquid, then the 10 parts of pure charcoal which can scene. On its conclusion, they again retire, and be obtained from the 100 parts of bone-black will devise a new series of incidents for the word Men, be found to decolourise only three volumes of the and repeat the same process for the final syllable same coloured liquid ; so that it is apparent the To. This being also represented, they retire for a earthy matters in the bone-black influence and fourth time to contrive the final scene, into which increase the absorption of the colouring matter, the whole word, Memento, must be dexterously and thus render a given weight of the charcoal of introduced at an odd moment when the spec greater commercial value. When syrup of sugar tators are thought to be off the scent. The com and other liquids have been run through bonepany are then asked to guess the word. In order | black for some time, the pores of the latter appear to the effective performance of a charade of this to get clogged with the colour, and the clariiving sort, the actors must possess a good share of inven. influence ceases, and then the bone-black requires tiveness, self-possession, and ready talk, as the to undergo the process of revivification, which congreater portion of the dialogue has to be extem. sists in reheating it carefully in ovens, or iron pipes porised.

inclosed in a furnace, when the absorbed colour is Charadriidæ, a large family of birds, placed

| charred, and the bone-black can be of service once among the so-called Grallatores, including about | again as an arrester of colour. After several re120 species, distributed throughout the world, and

burnings, the bone-black becomes of very inferior especially frequenting the shores of lakes and

absorptive quality, and is then disposed of for the rivers. They run and fy with equal success, are

manufacture of bone-ash and dissolved bones (see often seen in migratory flocks, use simple excava

BONE MANURES). Bone-black has likewise a great tions for nests, and feed, often at night, on worms,

power of absorbing odours, especially those of a insects, molluscs, and amphibians. Plovers (9.v.,

disagreeable nature, and can thus be employed Charadrius), Oyster-catchers (Hæmatopus), Turn.

to deodorise apartments, clothing, outhouses, &c., stones (Strepsilas), Crocodile-birds (Pluvianus),

or wherever animal matter may be passing into & and Sandpipers (Ægialitis) are good exanıples of

| state of active putrefaction. the family.

Wood CHARCOAL is the most important, though Charbon. See ANTHRAX.

not the purest kind of Carbon (q.v.). Wood con.

sists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the last Charbon Roux. See CHARCOAL (Wood).

| two being in the proportion to form water. When Charcoal is a term most frequently applied to heated in the open air, it burns completely away, charred wood, or coal produced by charring wood. with the exception of a small white ash; but if the Formerly, charcoal was the name for charred sea- supply of air be limited, only the more volatile coal or mineral coal; and the word is popularly matters burn away, and most of the carbon remains. used for the carbonaceous residue of vegetable, This is the principle of the process of charcoalanimal, or mineral substances when they have burning in countries where wood is abundant. undergone smothered combustion.

Billets of wood are built up vertically in two or ANIMAL CHARCOAL, BONE-BLACK, or IVORY. three rows into a large conical heap, which is BLACK, is prepared from bones by heating them in covered over with turf or moistened charcoalclose retorts till they undergo the process of ash, and holes left at the bottom for the air to destructive distillation, when combustible gases get in. An open space is also left in the middle and water, together with the vapours of various of the heap to serve as a flue. The heap is set salts of ammonia, and oil, are given off, and bone. on fire by putting burning wood into the top black is left in the retort. It is generally reduced of the central opening. The combustion pro. to coarse grains from about the size of small peas ceeds gradually from the top to the bottom, and down to large pin-heads, and is extensively used in from the centre to the outside of the heap; and the arts for decolourising liquids, such as the syrup as the central portions burn away, fresh wood of sugar, and solutions of argol (impure cream of is continually thrown in at the top, so as to turtar) and of the alkaloids, as also in filters (see keep the heap quite full. The smoke is thick and FILTER) for separating chemical impurities from white when the process is going on properly ; if it water. The general mode of using the bone-black becomes thin, and especially if a blue flame apis to allow the coloured liquid to percolate through pears, the wood is burning away too fast, and the a layer of the charcoal, when all colour is arrested, combustion must be checked by closing the holes and the syrup or water runs clear and colourless at the bottom, or by heaping fresh ashes on the from under the stratum of charcoal. This power top and sides. As soon as the combustion is comof absorbing colouring matters is also observable in pleted, the heap is completely covered with turf or vegetable (peat or wood) charcoal, but not to such ashes, and left to cool for two or three days. It is an extent as in bone-black. The application of then taken to pieces, and the portions still hot are heat to the liquids before filtration greatly facili. cooled by throwing water or sand upon them. It tates the decolourisation, and where the volume of is found that 100 parts of wood yield on the average liquid to be operated upon is not great, the most from 61 to 65 parts by measure, or 24 parts by expeditious method is to boil the liquid and bone. I weight, of charcoal. The charcoal thus prepared CHARCOAL



is the best suited for fuel. In England a large for decolourising purposes, but likewise for assist. quantity of charcoal is obtained in the dry dis. ing in purifying water for domestic use. It is also tillation of wood in cast-iron cylinders, for the pre. successfully used to prevent the escape of noxious paration of crude acetic acid. The charcoal thus vapours at the ventilating openings of sewers, prepared is preferable for making gunpowder, but as it allows the free passage of air, but condenses is inferior for other purposes. A peculiar kind of the offensive effluvia in its pores, where they are charcoal of a reddish brown colour, and hence destroyed by a process of oxidation. Besides its terined charbon roux or red charcoal, is frequently employment in the manufacture of gunpowder it prepared for the manufacture of the gunpowder has many applications in the arts. In medicine it used for sporting purposes, by subjecting wood in is used to destroy fetor, applied in the form of iron cylinders to the action of superheated steam powder or poultice to gangrenous sores, ulcers, under a pressure of two atmospheres. Powder &c. ; it is also largely employed in tooth-powders. made with this charcoal absorbs moisture more In indigestion accompanied by flatulence it may rapidly than ordinary gunpowder.

be given in doses of two or three teaspoonfuls The general properties of wood-charcoal are, that suspended in water, or as charcoal-biscuits (see it is black and brittle, and retains the form of the Biscuits). For the charcoal blacks, see BLACK. wood from which it is derived ; it is insoluble in

Charcot, JEAN MARTIN (1825–93), pathologist, water, infusible and non-volatile in the most in.

was born at Morvan (in Nièvre), studied at Paris, tense heat; its power of condensing gases is

where he became a professor, doctor at the Sal. noticed under Carbon (q.v.); and from its power of pêtrière hospital, and a meinber of the Institute. destroying bad smells it has been regarded as He contributed much to our knowledge of chronic possessing considerable antiseptic properties. It is

and nervous diseases, their diagnosis and pathology, frequently stated that charcoal is a bad conductor

and made hypnotism a scientific study. He pubof heat, but a good conductor of electricity. These

lished numerous works on these subjects. properties depend upon the nature of the charcoal, the lighter wood, such as willow, yielding a porous

Chard, a municipal borough of Somersetshire, charcoal, with little power of conducting heat or | 15 miles SSE, of Taunton by rail, with manufacelectricity ; while boxwood yields a very compact tures of lace. Pop. 2575. charcoal, which is a good conductor of heat and Chardin, Sir John (1643–1713), traveller, was electricity, and is admirably adapted for the exhi. born in Paris, travelled as a trader in jewels in bition of the electric light. Charcoal never consists | India, Persia (where he resided four years), Ar. entirely of pure carbon, the degree of purity vary| menia, Turkey, and published his Voyages (4 vols.). ing directly with the temperature at which it is in 1686–1711. To escape the persecution of Protes. formed ; thus, charcoal charred at 480° (249° C.) | tants, he settled in England in 1681, became courtcontains 65 per cent. of carbon, while that charred jeweller, was knighted, and for some years lived in at 750° (399® C.) contains 80, and that charred at | Holland as agent of the East India Company. 2730° (1499° C.) contains 96 ; but the loss of char. coal occasioned by these high temperatures is very

Charente, a department of France, formed great, the percentage yield of charcoal correspond.

chiefly out of the old province of Angoumois.

Area, 2285 sq. m. Pop. (1866) 378,218 ; (1891) ing to these temperatures being 50, 20, and 15.

360,259. It is generally level, with granite offThe uses of wood-charcoal are numerous and extensive. It is very largely employed as a fuel,

shoots of the Limousin" range in the north, and taking the same place in many countries that coal

chalk-hills in the south, abounding in marine de. occupies here. From its being proof against all

posits; and it is watered by the river Charente and ordinary chemical agencies, superficial charring is

its tributaries, with the rivers Vienne and Dronne. often employed to protect wood from decay, as in

The hills are in many places clad with chestnut

forests. The climate is generally mild and healthy, the case of fence-posts, of telegraph poles, or of piles which are driven into mud or into the beds of

and a sixth of the surface is devoted to vines, which

flourish in the dry, hot limestone soil. The wines rivers to serve as foundations. With the same

grown are spirituous and fiery in flavour, and design it is not unusual to char the interior of tubs and casks destined to hold liquids. In a finely

are chiefly distilled into brandy, which fornis the divided state it is commonly regarded, as has been

most important of the exports. Truffles grow already stated, as an antiseptic ; and there is no

| abundantly in several parts. The principal manu. doubt that the offensive effluvia from animal

factures besides brandy are paper, leather, felt, matter in an ailvanced stage of putrefaction dig.

and pottery. Charente is divided into the five appear when the putrefying substance is covered

arrondissements of Angoulême, Cognac, Ruffec, with a layer of charcoal ; but in reality the decay

Barbezieux, and Confolens. Angoulême is the goes on, without the emission of any odour, till at

chief town. length the whole of the carbon is dissipated as Charente-Inférieure, a maritime depart. carbonic acid gas, and the hydrogen as water, ment of France, formed principally from the former while the nitrogen remains as nitric acid. It provinces of Saintonge, Aunis, and a small portion has been shown that the action consists in a rapid of Poitou, The Bay of Biscay washes its western process of oxidation, dependent upon the power boundary. Area, 2625 sq. m. Pop. (1866) 479,529; which finely-divided charcoal possesses of condens.

(1891) 456,202. It is watered on its boundaries by ing oxygen. In a finely-divided state, charcoal not | the Sèvre-Niortaise and the Gironde, and in the only condenses gases to a marvellous extent, but centre by the navigable Charente and the coasthas the power of absorbing colouring matters, bitter

stream Seudre. The surface is level; the soil, near principles, &c. ; and hence it is of extensive use in the coast protected from the sea by dikes, is inostly the laboratory. From the rapidity of its absorbing chalky and sandy, but very fertile. The commerce action, the use of a respirator filled with charcoal is mainly in brandy and sea-salt; the evaporation has been suggested to protect the mouth and from the salt-marshes from which the latter is nostrils in an infected atmosphere ; trays of pow.

taken rendere some parts of the coast very un. dered wood-charcoal in dissecting rooms, in the healthy. The oyster and pilchard fisheries are wards of hospitals, and in situations where putres.

important. The chief harbours are those of Roche. cent animal matter is present, exert a most bene. fort and Tonnay-Charente. La Rochelle is the ficial influence in sweetening the atmosphere, by chief town. ansorbing and decomposing the offensive gases. Charenton-le-Pont, a town in the French Cnarcoal is accordingly valuable in filters, not only department of Seine, on the right bank of the

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