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to putrefaction, and the consequent development extremely simple, and their church government was of offensive odours, it is customary to subject the by bishops (each with two assistants, the Filius catgut to the funnes of burning sulphur-i.e. sul- | Major and the Filius Minor) and deacons. phurous acid, which acts as an Antiseptic (q.v.), | Seac Sohmilt Le Sorte de Cathare (1849). 1

See C. Schmidt, La Secte des Cathares (1849); Lombard, and arrests decomposition. The best strings come

Pauliciens et Bons-hommes (1879); Lea, History of the Infrom Italy, and are used for musical instruments.

quisition (1888); and Döllinger, Sektengeschichte (1889). These are known as Roman strings, but they are

Catharine, the name of several Christian made in several Italian towns, the most valuable

saints: (1) St Catharine proper, a virgin of coming from Naples. About 10 per cent. of the

royal descent in Alexandria, who publicly conviolin strings manufactured are false-i.e. they produce two sounds. Gut strings for musical

fessed the gospel at a sacrificial instruments become useless after being kept a few

feast appointed by the Emperor

Maximinus, and was therefore put years. Cord for clockmakers is made from the smallest of the intestines, and occasionally from

to death, after they had vainly K o larger ones, which have been split longitudinally

attempted to torture her on toothed into several lengths. The catgut obtained from

wheels, 307 A.D. Hence the name the intestines of horses, asses, and mules is prin

of Catharine wheel.' No less than cipally made in France, and is employed in the

fifty heathen philosophers sent by the em. same way as leather belts for driving lathes and

peror to convert her in prison were themselves

converted by her winning eloquence; whence she is other small machines.

the patroness of philosophers and learned schools. Catha, a genus of Celastracea, often reckoned | Having steadily rejected all offers of earthly marunder Celastrus. C. edulis, Arabian Tea, the Khât riage, she was taken in vision to heaven, when of the Arabs, is a shrub highly valued by them on the Virgin presented her to her son, and Christ account of its leaves, which are chewed or infused plighteď his troth to her with a ring. This subject like coffee or tea, to which its properties seem | has been a favourite one with many artists (as Essentially similar. It is cultivated along with signifying the union of the redeemed soul with coffee.

Christ); the Christ being usually represented as an Cathari (Gr., 'pure'), or CATHARISTS, a name

infant. It has been suggested that the attributes assumed by a widely diffused Gnostic sect of the

of the unhistorical St Catharine seem to have been

derived from those of the actual Hypatia (q.v.), middle ages, which took its rise most probably among the Slavs in Southern Macedonia, and spread

a heathen who suffered death at the hands of over the whole of Southern and Western Europe.

Christian fanatics. St Catharine's festival falls on In Thrace it found a kindred sect in the Paulicians

25th November.—(2) St Catharine of Sienna, one of (9.v.), who had been transported thither about

the most famous saints of Italy, was the daughter 970, and they were there known as Bogomili

of a dyer in Sienna, and was born there in 1347. (9.v.). In the second half of the 12th century

While yet a child she practised extraordinary they were in great strength in Bulgaria, Albania,

mortifications, and devoted herself to perpetual and Slavonia, and divided into two branches,

virginity. She became a Dominican, and therefore distinguished as the Albanensians (the more ex

afterwards a patron saint of the Dominicans. Her treme section), and the Concorezensians (named

enthusiasm converted the most hardened sinners, from Goriza in Albania). It is remarkable that

and she was able to prevail upon Pope Gregory XI. the naine Bulgari, by which they were known to

for the sake of the church to return from Avignon the returning French crusaders, is the origin of the

to Rome. She was favoured, it was said, with low French word Bougre, just as the German word

extraordinary tokens of favour by Christ, whose for heretic' (Ketzer) is derived from Gazzari,

Stigmata (see STIGMATISATION) were imprinted the Lombard form of Cathari. In Italy the heresy

upon her body. She wrote devotional pieces, letfirst appeared at Turin about 1035, and existed

ters, and poems, an edition of which is Tomasseo's down to the 14th century. Its adherents were called

(Florence, 1860). Her festival falls on 30th April. Patarini, from Pataria, a street in Milan frequented

See Drane's History of St Catharine of Sienna (3d by ray-gatherers, where they held their secret

ed. 2 vols. 1899).-St Catharine of Bologna (1413– meetings in 1058. The Cathari reached their

63; festival 9th March) and St Catharine of Sweden greatest numbers in Southern France, where they

(died 1381, festival 22d March) are of less note. were commonly called Albigenses (q.v.) or Pobli Catharine de' Medici, the wife of one king of cants, the latter term being a corruption of Pauli France, and the mother of three, was the daughter cians, with whom they were confounded. After of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and was the great Albigensian wars, they were gradually born at Florence in 1519. In her fourteenth year rooted out by the Inquisition, and after the first she was brought to France, and married to Henry, half of the 14th century they disappear from the second son of Francis I. The marriage was a history. The Cathari based their teaching on the part of the political schemes of her uncle, Pope New Testament and an apocryphal Vision of Clement VII., but as he died soon after, she found Isaiah' and 'Gospel of John.' "The only extant herself friendless and neglected at the French court. Catharist writing is a short ritual in the Romance | In these circumstances she conducted herself with language of the 13th-century troubadours (printed a submission which seemed even to indicate a want at Jena in 1852 by Professor Cunitz from the MS. / of proper spirit, but which gained her the favour at Lyons). All the Cathari held more or less of the old king, and in some measure also of her Manichæan views, and practised a rigid.asceticism. | husband. The accession of the latter to the throne Deliverance from evil was only to be attained by of France, however, made very little difference in renunciation of the (material) world, including her situation. It was not till the accession of her marriage, property, and the use of animal food. ) eldest son, Francis II., in 1559, that she found They distinguished between the great mass of their some scope for her ambition. The Guises at this Credentes or · Believers,' and the Perfecti, who had time possessed a power which seemed dangerous to received the Baptism of the Spirit by the laying on that of the throne, and Catharine entered into of hands, called Consolamentum, because in it the a secret alliance with the Huguenots to oppose Comforter was imparted. These pure' ones, esti. them. On the death of Francis II. in 1560, and mated at only 4000 in all Europe about the year accession of her second son, Charles IX., the govern. 1240, formed the Catharist Church-the 'only true ment fell entirely into her hands. Caring little for and pure church on earth.' Their worship was I religion in itself, although she was very prone to

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superstition, she disliked the Protestants, chiefly cerned in promoting the reforms of Peter the Great because their principles were opposed to the abso. supported Catharine's claim to be his successor, and lute despotism which she desired to maintain. Yet she was acknowledged Empress and sole Ruler of she sought to rally the Protestant leaders around All the Russias. Under Menschikoft's direction, the throne in order to serve as a counterpoise to the affairs of government went on well enough for the Guises. This attempt having failed, and the a time; but the empress ere long began to yield to civil war which ensued having ended in the peace the influence of a number of favourites, addicted of Amboise, highly favourable to the Protestants, herself to drunkenness, and lived such a life as she became alarmed at the increase of their power, could not fail to hurry her to the grave. She died and entered into a secret treaty with Spain for the 17th May 1727. See PETER THE GREAT extirpation of heretics ; and subsequently into a Catharine II., Empress of Russia, was born plot with the Guises, which resulted in the fearful at Stettin in 1729. Her father, the Prince of Anhaltinassacre of St Bartholomew's Day. This event | Zerbst, was a Prussian field-marshal, and governor brought the whole power of the state into the of Stettin. She received the name of Sophia hands of the queen-mother, who boasted of the Augusta ; but the Empress Elizabeth of Russia deed to Roman Catholic governments, and excused having selected her for the wife of her nephew and it to Protestant ones, for she now managed all the intended successor, Peter, she passed from the correspondence of the court. About this time she Lutheran to the Greek Church, and took (like succeeded, by gold and intrigues, in getting her the Empress Catharine I.) the name of Catharina third son, afterwards Henry III., elected to the Alexievna. In 1745 her marriage took place. Polish throne. But her arbitrary and tyrannical She soon quarrelled with her husband, and administration roused the opposition of a Roman both of them lived a life of unrestrained vice. Catholic party, at the head of which was her own | Among his attendants was a Count Soltikoff, with fourth son, the Duke of Alençon. It was very whom her intimacy soon became scandalous ; and generally believed that she was privy to the machina- | Soltikoff was sent on an embassy abroad. But the tions that led to his death. When, after the death young Polish count, Stanislaus Poniatowski, almost of Charles IX., Henry III. returned from Poland to immediately supplied his place. After the death of be king of France, his mother still ruled the court, the Empress Elizabeth in 1761, Peter III. ascended and had the principal share in all the intrigues, the Russian throne ; but the conjugal differences treacheries, and political transactions of that became continually wider. Catharine was banished wretched time. Having betrayed all who trusted to a separate abode ; and the emperor seemed to them, she and her son found themselves at last for entertain the design of divorcing her, declaring her saken and abhorred by all. The League and the only son, Paul, illegitimate, and marrying his Guises had no more confidence in them than had mistress, Elizabeth Woronzoff. The popular disthe Protestants and Henry of Navarre. Vexation like to Peter, however, rapidly increased; and at on this account preyed on the proud heart of the | length, he being dethroned by a conspiracy, queen-mother in her last days; and ainidst the Catharine was made empress. A few days after. confusion and strife of parties, she died at Blois wards Peter was murdered (July 1762). What on 5th January 1589, unheeded and unlamented. participation his wife had in his murder has never Catharine de' Medici may fairly be regarded as a

| been well ascertained. representative woman of an age when the first prin Catharine now exerted herself to please the ciples of human conduct were hopelessly con. | people, and among other things, made a great founded by religious strife and the intrigues and show of regard for the outward forms of the Greek corruptions of courts. Virtue had given place Church, although her principles were, in reality, to luxury, extravagance, cunning sensuality, and those prevalent among the French philosophers of cruelty. She was only a prominent example of the 18th century. The government of the country qualities which the prevailing conditions of the was carried on with great energy; and her reign time tended to develop. See Reumont's Jugend was remarkable for the rapid increase of the Caterinas de' Medici ( Berlin, 1854), T. A. Trollope's dominions and power of Russia. Not long after Girlhood of Catharine de' Medici (1856), Capefigue's her accession to the throne her influence secured Catherine de Médicis (Paris, 1856), and La Fer- the election of her former favourite, Stanislaus rière's Lettres de Catherine de Médicis (4 vols. Paris, Poniatowski, to the throne of Poland. In her own 1880-92).

empire, however, discontentment was seriously Catharine I., wife of Peter the Great, and manifested, the hopes of the disaffected being Empress of Russia. She was a peasant's daughter, centred in the young prince Ivan, who was forth and her original name was Martha Skavrouska. with murdered in the castle of Schlüsselburg. The date of her birth is about 1680. Being From that time the internal politics of Russia conleft an orphan, she was brought up chiefly by å sisted chietly of court intrigues for the humiliation Lutheran pastor, Glück, in Marienbury, Livonia. l of one favourite and the exaltation of another. In 1702 she married a Swedish dragoon, but Marien. The revolt of the Cossack Pugatchefrin 1773, burg being taken by the Russians in the same year, though for a time it looked serious, only served to she was made prisoner, and became the mistress of fortify her throne. The first partition of Poland in Prince Menschikoff. She then attracted the notice 1772, and the Turkish war which terminated in the of Peter the Great. In 1703 she went over to the peace of Kainardji in 1774, vastly increased the Greek Church, and took the name of Catharina empire. In 1787 she made a progress in her southern Alexievna. After being for some years the em- provinces through flourishing towns, villages, and peror's mistress, she was privately married to him festive scenes : but the whole was a sham. having in 1707 ; and the marriage was publicly avowed in been got up for the occasion by Potemkin to impress 1711. When Peter the Great and his army seemed Catharine with the prosperity of her empire. The entirely in the power of the Turkish army on the Turkish war which terminated in the peace of Jassy Pruth in 1711, Catharine, according to the common in 1792 had similar results, and also the war with account, managed by skilful bribery to procure the Sweden, which terminated in 1790. The second deliverance of the Russians. Catharine was now and third partitions of Poland, and the incorporareceived into greater favour than ever, and was tion of Courland with Russia, completed the solemnly crowned in 1712. The story, however, triumphs of Catharine's reign. She also began a does not rest on sufficient evidence. At anyrate war with Persia, and cherished a scheme for the Catharine continued to enjoy her high position till overthrow of the British power in India ; but a the death of Peter in 1725. The new party con. I stroke of apoplexy cut her off, 17th November 1796.




She was a woman of great ability, but she had in a the beginning of the 12th century. See CHINA; large measure the vices of the time and station in and Yule, Cathay and the Road Thither (Hakluyt which she lived. Her gallantries were both liberal Society, 1866). and systematic. She always had a paramour who

Cathcart, WILLIAM SCHAW, first Earl Cathdwelt in her palace, and might be regarded as filling

cart, a British general and diplomatist, son of the an acknowledged office of state, with large revenues

ninth Baron Cathcart of Cathcart, Renfrewshire, and fixed privileges. Of these Potemkin (q.v.) is best remembered. Yet distinguished authors flat

was born September 17, 1755. Educated at Eton

and Glasgow, and admitted an advocate in 1776, tered her; and she invited to her court some of the

when he succeeded his father, he next year entered literati and philosophers of France. She professed the desire to model her rule on the enlightened

the army, took a prominent part in the American theories of these men, and she did effect some real

war, and fought with distinction in Flanders and

North Germany. In 1803 he was made commanderimprovements; but the French revolution made

in-chief in Ireland. In 1805 he was engaged on a her reactionary. See RUSSIA ; Catharine's own

diplomatic mission to Russia ; in 1807 commanded Memoirs (Eng. trans. 1839); Carlyle's Friedrich;

the land-forces co-operating with the fleet in the and works by Waliszewski (trans. 1893 and 1894).

attack on Copenhagen, and, for his services, was Catharine Archipelago. See ALEUTIAN made a British peer, with the title of viscount, and ISLANDS.

received a vote of thanks from both Houses of Catharine Howard. See HOWARD.

Parliament. Sent in 1813 as ambassador to St Catharine of Aragon, Queen of England,

Petersburg, he accompanied the Czar Alexander in the first wife of Henry VIII., and fourth daughter

the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, and was present at of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of

the congresses of Chatillon and Vienna. In 1814 Castile and Aragon, was born December 1485.

he was raised to the rank of earl ; and he died June

16, 1843.-His eldest son and successor, CHARLES She occupies a prominent place in English history,

| MURRAY, long known as Lord Greenock, was born not for what she herself was, but for what she was the occasion of the Reformation. Married on 14th

| in 1783, served in Spain and at Waterloo, after. November 1501, when scarcely sixteen, to Arthur

wards acted in Canada, and was made a general, (1486-1502), Prince of Wales, son of Henry VII.,

He died 16th July 1859.-A younger son, SIR she was left a widow on 20 April, and on 25th

GEORGE CATHCART, was born in 1794. Educated June was betrothed to her brother-in-law Henry, as

at Eton and Edinburgh, he entered the army in

1810, served with the Russians in the campaigns of yet a boy of only eleven years old. The pope's dispensation enabling such near relatives to marry | Wellington, was present at Quatre Bras and Water.

1812 and 1813, and as aide-de-camp to the Duke of was obtained in 1504, and the marriage took place in June 1509, seven weeks after Henry's accession

loo. After helping to suppress the Canadian reto the crown as Henry VIII. Between 1510 and

bellion of 1835, and after holding the post of deputy. 1518 she bore hiin five children, one only of whom,

lieutenant of the Tower for five years, in 1852 he the Princess Mary, survived ; but, though Henry

was made governor at the Cape, with command of was very far from being a model husband, and

the forces, and brought to a successful end the though he had conceived a passion for Anne Boleyn

harassing Kaffir war. He returned to England in

1854 in time to be sent out to the Crimea as general (4.v.) as early as 15:22, he appears to have treated

of division. His bravery here was conspicuous, Queen Catharine with all due respect, until 1527.

especially in the battle of Inkermann (November He now expressed doubts as to the legality of his

5), where the odds were so terribly against the marriage, and set about obtaining a divorce, which, all other means failing, was at length pronounced

British, and where he fell, shot through the heart. lry Cranmer in May 1533 (see HENRY VIII.).

He was buried on the spot where he fell, which in

his honour was named Cathcart's Hill. Cathcart Queen Catharine, who had offered a dignified pass. ive resistance to all the proceedings, did not quit

was the author of a very valuable work entitled the kingilom, but took up her residence first at

Commentaries on the War in Russia and Germany

in 1812-13 (Lond. 1850). See vol. v. of Kinglake's Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, and afterwards at Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, where she led an

Invasion of the Crimea. austere religious life until, on 7th January 1536, Cathe'dral, from a Greek word cathedra, she died, by poison said rumour, but most likely of signifying a seat. Thus, 'to speak ex cathedrá,' cancer of the heart. Queen Catharine's personal is to speak as from a seat of authority. The character was unimpeachable, and her disposition cathedral city is the seat of the bishop of the gentle. See Froude's monograph (1891).

diocese, and his throne is placed in the cathedral Catharine of Braganza. See CHARLES II.

church, which is the parish church of the whole Catharine Parr. See PARR (CATHARINE).

diocese. The diocese was, in fact, anciently called

parochia, until the application of this name to Cathartics (Gr. kathairo, 'I purify'), a name

the smaller portions into which it was divided. originally for all medicines supposed to purify the

Cathedrals vary in rank with the dignity of the see system from the matter of disease (materies morbi),

to which they belong, and may be episcopal, archi. which was generally presumed by the ancients to erist in all cases of fever and acute disease, and to

episcopal, metropolitan, or patriarchal. Anciently

only a cathedral was styled matrix ecclesia, but now require to be separated or thrown off by the differ.

this title is applied to all churches, even parochial ent excretions of the body. Ultimately the term

only, which have other churches or chapels depend. cathartics became limited in its signification to

ent on them. When two cathedrals are found in remedies acting on the bowels, which are popularly

the same town (as is sometimes the case), they are called Purgatives (9.v.)-a mere translation of the

called 'con-cathedrals.' In the Roman Church the Greek word. See also CONSTIPATION.

establishment, suppression, or union of cathedrals Cathay is the name by which the Chinese em. is reserved to the pope alone. A cathedral town pire was commonly known in Europe during has generally been understood to be entitled to medieval times-in connection with Marco Polo's the honours of a city, even although the town be travels, for example ; and Kitai is still the Russian not a borough incorporate ; but in the case of Man. name for China. Cathay, originally Khitaï, is chester the claim was disallowed by a court of law. derived from the Khitan, the earliest of the northern The distinction between cathedral and collegiate ruces known to have conquered China (possibly churches consists principally in the see of the akin to the Tunguses), who disappeared about | bishop being at the former. The governing body




of a cathedral is called the dean and chapter-i.e. mortally wounded by a musket-ball, and his troops the dean and canons who meet for corporate pur immediately dispersed. He was carried to St poses in the chapter-house of the cathedral. The Florent, where he died twelve days later, July 11, property of the cathedral vests in this body. In 1793. Cathelineau was a man of great simplicity England they elect the bishop of the diocese on the and honesty of character, and his piety was such issue of a congé d'élire from the crown, but as the that he was called the Saint of Anjou. person to be elected is always named, and they | Catherine. See CATHARINE. may be compelled by a mandamus to elect that person and no other, the election is merely a form.

Ca'theter (Gr. kathičmi, 'I thrust into') was a The bishop is visitor' of the dean and chapter. | name applied indifferently to all instruments for and the metropolitan is visitor of all cathedrals passing along mucous canals. In modern times, within his province: while the crown holds that however, it has generally been reserved for tubular office during the vacancy of the archbishopric. In

rods through which fluids or air may pass, and England, all cathedrals are distinguished as being

is now restricted to those used for emptying the either of the old or the new foundation. The

urinary bladder, and those used for injecting air cathedrals of the old foundation are those which

or fluids into the Eustachian tube (Eustachian have from the first been served by secular canons ;

Catheter). The catheter for the former purpose those of the new foundation were originally

is a very old surgical instrument. The ancients monastic churches, and served by monks. These m

made theirs of copper, which accumulated verwere dissolved at the Reformation, being then

digris. In the 9th century silver was substituted refounded on the footing of the secular churches.

by the Arabian surgeons as a cleanlier metal, and By the Act of 1840, all members of cathedrals,

is still used by all who are not obliged, for economexcept the dean. are styled canons. Their seat ical reasons, to have their catheters made of in the cathedral is called their stall. They are

German silver or pewter. The urinary catheter no longer called prebendaries in most cathedrals,

for the male varies in length from 10 to 11 inches; but this title is retained in the cathedrals of York,

the female catheter need not be more than 4 or 5 London, Wells, Chichester, Exeter, Hereford,

inches. The form is a matter of less importance, Lichfield, St Davids, and St Asaph.

at most surgeons prefer an instrument straight to

In two cathedrals, Lincoln and Salisbury, both titles are

within the last few inches of its length; the latter used simultaneously, and the holders are styled

should be curved into the segment of a small circle. 'canons and prebendaries.' In all these cases,

Others, however, use a double curve, and indeed however, the prebendaries rank below the canons

nearly every surgeon has a peculiar fancy in this residentiary, and save for their slender prebends,

respect. Flexible catheters are made of gum are on almost the same footing as the honorary

elastic (see BOUGIES), which may be used either canons' of recent institution, who have no share in alone or supported on a wire. Many other materials the cathedral revenues or government. At St

have been proposed, but vulcanised india-rubber is Davids the first ‘cursal prebend' vests in the

the only one generally in use. The Eustachian crown, and the sovereign is senior prebendary of

catheter is generally made of metal or vulcanite, 6 that cathedral. The French kinys enjoyed similar

or 7 inches in length, with the last inch or less privileges in six chapters, and the German emperor

slightly curved. It is introduced into the Euswas ex officio canon of St Peter's at Rome. Canons

tachian tube along the floor of the nose, and air must reside three months in each year. The Act of

or fluid, as may be necessary, forced along it by 1810 allows to the canons of Durham, Manchester,

an india-rubber bag which can be attached to it. St Paul's, and Westminster, an income of £1000

| See DISEASES OF THE EAR, Vol. IV. p. 158. per annum ; to those of every other cathedral in Ca'thode. See ANODE. England, £300. The bishop was always considered Catholic and Apostolic Church is the of common right to have the patronage of canonries, only name recognised by those often termed ‘Irvingbut formerly there were exceptions. Now, the ites'-a name which they repudiate as implying appointment to all canonries is vested either in that they are sectarians and followers of a man. the bishop or in the crown. Where the bishop is In the winter of 1829-30 the Rev. Edward Irving patron, he collates,' and the dean and chapter (q.v.), then a minister of the Scotch Church,

induct,' by placing the new canon in a stall in the Regent Square, London, delivered a series of church. The crown appoints by letters-patent, and lectures on spiritual gifts, in which he maintained the canon is installed without collation. Honorary that those which we are in the habit of calling canons have no emoluments, but rank after the extraordinary' or 'miraculous' were not meant canons residentiary. Minor canons, of whom there to be contined to the primitive church, but to be are from two to six in each cathedral, perform the continued through the whole period of the present daily choral services; see SERVICE (MUSICAL). dispensation. About the same time, as if to conFor the general plan of cathedral buildings, see firm the views of the great preacher, there occurred CHURCH. The English and Welsh cathedrals, | at Port-Glasgow, in the west of Scotland, and else. some forty in number, are noticed under their re- where, certain strance phenomena. It was allecred spective cities.

that miraculous acts of healing had happened, and See Dean Goulburn's Cathelral System (1871); F. H. | that the gift of tongues had returned. After Allen, The Great Cathedrals of the World (Boston, 1888); what seemed to be a suficient investigation on the W. J. Loftie, The Cathedrals of England and Wales part of some of the members of Mr Irving's church, (1892); Mrs Rensselaer, English Cathedrals (1892).

it was concluded that the manifestations were Cathelineau, JACQUES, leader of the Vendeans genuine. Similar manifestations shortly after in their resistance to the Republic, was born at Pin. occurred in his own church, which were also proen-Mauge, Anjou, in 1759. A poor linen-merchant | nounced to be genuine. They were held to be of at the outbreak of the Revolution, in the spring | two kinds : Ist, speaking in tongues, and 2d, proof 1793 he put himself at the head of a handful of phesying. As the former bore no resemblance to stubborn recruits, and soon became famous for the any language with which men were conversant, it courage and success of his exploits, the greatest of was believed to be strictly an unknown tongue,' which was the storming of Cholet. Spite of his the Holy Ghost 'using the tongue of man as a sign own modesty, the supreme command was forced in a manner which neither his own intellect could upon him after the victory of Saumur. He immedi. dictate, nor that of any other man comprehend.' ately determined to make an attack upon Nantes, | The latter, 'prophesying,' consisted chiefly of 'exand managed to penetrate into the town, but was l hortations to holiness, light upon Scripture, open.

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ings of prophecy, and explanations of symbols.' In are services daily at 6 o'clock A.M. and 5 P.M. ; 1831 Irving was deposed from his office for heresy prayers at 9 A.M. and 3 P.M. ; the litany every by the Church of Scotland, but meanwhile the Wednesday and Friday; and the eucharist is cele. truths of which he was so eminent an exponent brated every Lord's Day, or, where there are clergy had been assuming a more definite shape. He died | enough, daily. The liturgy, dating from in 1834. It was not till July 1835 that the Catholic mainly based on those of the Greek, Roman and and Apostolic Church took definite ecclesiastical | Anglican liturgies, with additional prayers. Lights shape. With this organisation Irving had no con and incense are used ; and the vestments (surcern, nor had he anticipated it.

plice, alb, cope, chasuble, and stole) are similar The organisation comprises a fourfold ministry to those of the Roman communion. The Catholic (Ezek. i. and Eph. iv.)-1st, •Apostle ;' 2d, | and Apostolic Church has established itself not * Prophet;' 3d, 'Evangelist ;' and 4th, Pastor.' only in the United Kingdom and its colonies, but The apostles are invested with spiritual preroga- | on the Continent and in the United States. tires; they alone can minister the Holy Ghost by See the Liturgy of the Divine Offices, and The the laying on of hands, directly or by delegation ; | Purpose of God in Creation and Redemption (6th through them the mysteries of God are unfolded to ed. 1888). Miller's History and Doctrines of the churchı; and they decide on matters of order and Irvingism (1878) is not authoritative, but contains discipline. Nothing that occurs in any church in much matter of interest. the way of prophetic utterance' can be authorita

Catholic Church. The term catholic litertively explained save by them; and the various

ally signifies 'universal.' The phrase Catholic 'angels of the churches' are bound to bring all such utterances under their cognisance. The func

Church is therefore equivalent to 'universal church,'

and cannot properly be applied to any particular tion of the prophet' has been already indicated.

sect or body, such as the Roman, Greek, Anglican, The work of an evangelist' consists in declaring

Reformed, Lutheran, or Presbyterian, all of which the truths of the gospel, and bringing home to

form merely portions more or less pure of the the church generally the principles taught by

church universal.' It occurs for the first time in the apostles. The office of the pastor' is that of

pseudo-Ignatian Epistle to the Smyrnæans. It was ministering to the help and comfort of the vari.

first employed from about 160 A.D. to mark the ons members of the flock. The 'angel' of the

difference between the orthodox universal’ Chris. Catholic Apostolic congregation corresponds in a

tian church and the various sects of the Gnostic limited sense to the bishop of other Christian

heretics ; though, afterwards, it served also to denominations ; but he has only the rank of angel.

distinguish the all-embracing Christian church pastor in the universal church. The ministers of

from the religious exclusiveness of the pre-Christian each full congregation comprise an angel, with a

ages, in which the church was restricted to a single joor-fold ministry (consisting of elders, prophets,

nation. The formal principle of the Catholic evangelists, and pastors), and a ministry of deacons

Church is thus expressed in the famous canon of to give diaconal instruction and to take charge of

Vincentius of Lerínum (434 A.D.), •Quod ubique, teniporal matters. The ministry is supported by

quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est'tithes, the people giving a tenth of their income

i.e. the marks of the Catholic Church are uni. for the support of the priesthood. The ordinary

versality, antiquity, and unity. The name has been atlairs of the church are managed by the angel in

retained by the Church of Rome, which claims a council of deacons, or if needful, of priests and

to be the visible successor of the primitive one; deacons. The whole organisation is based on the

and although Protestant divines have been careful types of the Mosaic tabernacle, in which the con.

to deny its applicability to a church which they stitntion of the Christian church is held to have

consider essentially changed by the corrupt accrebeen shadowed forth. The congregation of this communion do not arro.

tions of centuries, yet the term Catholic is still used

by the populace of almost every Protestant country rate to themselves the title of the Catholic Apos.

as synonymous with Roman Catholic, so that from tolic Church. There is but one church built on

their minds all conception of the literal meaning the foundation of the apostles and prophets; the

of the word has vanished. For an account of the members of it throughont the world are not bap

Church of Rome, see article ROMAN CATHOLIC tised into any section-Greek, Roman, Protestant,

CHURCH. established, or non-established-but into the Eternal Trinity. A community of thein holding the

Catholic Creditor, in the law of Scotland, views above indicated regard themselves as a

is one whose debt is secured over several or the congregation of the Catholic and Apostolic Church

whole subjects belonging to the debtor-e.g. over assembling at a given place.

two or more heritable estates. Questions of diffi. The Catholic and Apostolic Church does not differ

culty arise where one of these subjects is also from other Christian bodies in regard to the com

burdened with other securities, but the other is mon doctrines of the Christian religion; it only

burdened only with the catholic security. In such screpts, in what it considers to be a fuller and more

circumstances the catholic creditor is bound so to real sense, the phenomena of Christian life. It

exercise his right as not unnecessarily to injure the believes that the wonder, mystery, and miracle

securities of the other creditors. Thus, if he draw of the apostolic times were not accidental, but

his whole debt from that subject on which there are essential to the divinely instituted church

are other burdens postponed to his security, he must of God, and expressive of its supernatural life,

assign to the postponed creditors his security over whereby a people are preparing for the second | the unburdened subject. advent of Christ, the hope of which is held in Catholic Emancipation. After the Reinstant expectation. It is held that the end of formation, both in England and in Scotland, this dispensation has two phases-the gathering of Roman Catholics were subjected to many penal a first-fruits, and the subsequent great harvest, regulations and restrictions. As late as 1780 the of which it is the earnest. The doctrine of Symbol: law of England—which was actually enforced iern is firmly maintained, of which the most marked in 1764-65—made it felony in a foreign Catholic feature regards the mystical presence of the Lord priest, and high treason in one who was a native under the elements of bread and wine, duly con. of the kingdom, to teach the doctrines or perform secrated by the words of the institution and the divine service according to the rites of his church. presence of the Holy Ghost. Both transubstantia. | Catholics were debarred from acquiring land by tion and consubstantiation are repudiated. There I purchase. Persons educated abroad in the Catholic

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