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faith were declared incapable of succeeding to real tion of saints, and the sacrifice of the mass.

In property, and their estates were forfeited to the the early part of this century many measures next Protestant heir. A son or other nearest rela- were proposed for the removal of these disqualifition being a Protestant, was empowered to take cations, and in 1813 and succeeding, years one possession of the estate of his Catholic father or bill after another for this end was thrown out. other kinsman during his life. A Catholic was Fox, Grenville, Canning, Castlereagh, and Burdett disqualified from undertaking the guardianship were among those who made efforts in the direc. even of Catholic children. Catholics were excluded tion of emancipation. Meanwhile, the agitation from the legal profession, and it was presumed on the subject among the Catholics themselves that a Protestant lawyer who married a Catholic greatly increased, and in 1824 it assumed an organ. had adopted the faith of his wife. It was a capital ised shape by the formation of the Roman Cathooffence for a Catholic priest to celebrate a marriage lic Association' in Ireland, with its systematic between a Protestant and Catholic. Such was the collections for the Catholic rent.' The Duke of state of the law, not only in England but in Ireland, Wellington, who for a long time felt great repugwhere the large majority of the population adhered nance to admit the Catholic claims, was at last to the old faith. În Scotland, also, Catholics were brought to the conviction that the security of the prohibited from purchasing or taking by succession empire would be imperilled by further resisting landed property: The inexpediency and irrational them, and in 1829 a measure was introduced by the ity of imposing fetters of this description on persons duke's ministry for Catholic emancipation. An not suspected of disloyalty, and from whom danger act having been first passed for the suppression was no longer apprehended, began about 1778 to of the Roman Catholic Association-which had occupy the attention of liberal-minded statesmen; already voted its own dissolution—the celebrated and in 1780 Sir George Savile introduced a bill for Roman Catholic Relief Bill was introduced by the repeal of some of the most severe disqualifica- Peel in the House of Commons on the 5th of tions in the case of such Catholics as would submit March, and after passing both Houses, received the to a proposed test. This test included an oath of royal assent on the 13th April. By this act (10 allegiance to the sovereign, and abjuration of the Geo. IV. chap. 7) an oath is substituted for the Pretender, a declaration of disbelief in the several oaths of allegiance, supremacy, and abjuration, doctrines, that it is lawful to put individuals to on taking which Catholics may sit and vote in death on pretence of their being heretics; that no either House of Parliament, and be admitted to faith is to be kept with heretics; that princes ex- most other offices from which they were before communicated may be deposed or put to death; excluded. They, however, continue to be excluded and that the pope is entitled to any temporal juris. from the offices of Guardian and Justice or Regent diction within the realm. The bill, from the opera of the United Kingdom, Lord Chancellor, Lord tion of which Scotland was exempted, eventually Keeper, or Lord Commissioner of the Great Seal of passed into law. An attempt which had been Great Britain or Ireland, and Lord High Commis. made at the same time to obtain a like measure of sioner to the General Assembly of the Church of relief for the Catholics of Scotland, was defeated by Scotland. As members of corporations they could an outburst of religious fanaticism. The populace not vote in the disposal of church property or of Edinburgh, stirred up by a body called “The patronage. But the public use of their insignia of Committee for the Protestant Interest,' attacked office, and of episcopal titles and names, was denied and set fire to the Catholic chapel and the them; the extension of monachism was prohibited ; houses of the clergy and of such persons as were and it was enacted that the number of Jesuits suspected to be favourable to Catholic relief. The should not be increased, and that they should frenzy, spread to England, where a Protestant henceforth be subject to registration. By the Association' had been formed to oppose the resolu. Acts 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 Vict., most of the acts tions of the legislature. See GORDON (LORD still in force against Catholics were removed ; 30 GEORGE). In 1791 a bill was passed affording and 31 Vict. removed a still remaining disability, further relief to such Catholics as would sign a the office of Chancellor of Ireland being thrown protest against the temporal power of the pope, open ; though a Catholic priest may not sit in the and his authority to release from civil obligations; House of Commons. For the prohibition (ultiand in the following year, by the statute 33 Geo. mately repealed ) against the assumption of ecclesiasIII. chap. 44, the most highly penal of the restrictical titles in respect of places in the United Kingtions bearing on the Scottish Catholics were re- dom, see ECCLESIASTICAL TITLES ASSUMPTION moved without opposition, a form of oath and ACT. See also O'CONNELL, ABJURATION, ALLEGIdeclaration being prescribed, on taking which they ANCE; and the History of Catholic Emancipation, could freely purchase or inherit landed property. by W. J. Amherst, S.J. (2 vols. 1886).

Endeavours were made at the same time by the Catholic Epistles, the name given, according Irish parliament to get rid of the more important to Clemens Alexandrinus and Origen, to certain disqualifications, and place Ireland on an equality epistles addressed not to particular churches or in point of religious freedom with England., . In individuals, but either to the church universal or 1780 Grattan carried his resolution that the king to a large and indefinite circle of readers. Originand parliament of Ireland could alone make laws ally the Catholic Epistles comprised only the first that would bind the Irish, and separation from epistle of John and the first of Peter, but at least England was urged as the alternative with repeal as early as the 3d century, and especially after the of the disqualifying statutes. The agitation cul time of Eusebius, they included also the Epistles minated in the Irish rebellion of 1798 ; the union of of James, of Jude, the 2d of Peter, and the 2d and 1800 followed, which was partly carried by means 3d of John. These seven thus constituted the of virtual pledges given by Pitt-pledges which Catholic Epistles, although the genuineness and Pitt was unable to redeem owing to the king's authenticity of the last-mentioned five were not scruples about his coronation oath, and Pitt re- universally acknowledged; but the designation signed. Meantime, in England, Catholics con- commended itself as supplying a convenient distinued subject to many minor disabilities which tinction of these letters from the fourteen bearing the above-mentioned acts failed to remove. They the name of Paul; and this very incorporation with were excluded from sitting in parliament, and epistles whose canonicity was not questioned, natufrom enjoying numerous offices, "franchises, and rally had the effect of confirming their authority, civil rights, by the requirement of signing the so that in a short time the entire seven came to be declaration against transubstantiation, the invoca- I considered a portion of the canon.




Catholics, OLD. See OLD CATHOLICS. Catilinarium of Sallust is a masterpiece. For the Catholikos is the title of the head of the view that Catilina was a misrepresented democrat, Armenian Church. See ARMENIA.

see Beesly's Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius (1878).

Cat Island. See BAHAMAS. Catili'na, LuciUS Sergius, the Roman con. Catkin (amentum). Although the vegetative spirator, was born about the year 108 B.C. of an ancient patrician but impoverished family. His growth of all inflorescences tends to be more or less

shortened and compressed in consequence of their youth was stained with profligacy and crime, reproductive purpose, we have this peculiarly mani. He attached himself to the party of Sulla, and fested in the catkin, which is a crowded spike or revelled in the bloodshed and confusion that dis- tuft of small unisexual flowers with reduced scalegraced its triumph. His body was capable of like bracts. Examples are found in the willow, enduring any labour or fatigue, and his mind was

hazel, oak, birch, alder, &c. (q.v.). In some, masterful, resolute, and remorseless. Despite his

as in the hazel and oak, the male flowers only are infamies he was elected prætor in the year 68 B.C., and next year governor of Africa, but was disqualified as a candidate for the consulship in 66 by charges of maladministration in his province. Dis. appointed thus in his ambition, and burdened with debts, he saw no hope for himself ut in the chances of a political revolution, and therefore entered into a conspiracy, including many other young Roman nobles, in morals and circumstances like himself. The plot, however, was revealed to Cicero by Fulvia, mistress of one of the conspirators. Operations were to commence with the assassination of Cicero in the Campus Martius, but the latter was kept aware of every step of the conspiracy, and contrived to frustrate the whole design. In the night of November 6 (63 B.C.), Catiline assembled his confederates, and explained to them a new plan for assassinating Cicero ; for bringing up the Tuscan army (which he had

6 seduced from its allegiance), under Manlius, from the encampment at Fæsulæ ; for setting fire to Rome, and putting to death the hostile senators and citizens. In the course of a few hours, everything was made known to Cicero. Accordingly, when the chosen assassins came to the house of the consul, on pretence of a visit, they were immedi. ately repulsed. Two days later, Catiline with his 1, Shoot of Birch in spring, bearing large terminal Male usual reckless audacity, appeared in the senate,

(6) and Female (a) Catkins. 2, Shoot of Birch in when Cicero—who had received intelligence that

autumn with ripe Female Catkin. 3, Female Catkin

of Willow. the insurrection had already broken out in Etruria -commenced the celebrated invective beginning: in catkins, the female catkin of the flower being Quousque tandem abutêre, Catilina, patientia nostra? (How long now, Catiline, will you abuse reduced to a few brown scales, while the female our patience ?') The conspirator was confounded, flowers of the oak are solitary, each on its own not by the keenness of Cicero's attack, but by the branchlet. Male catkins fall off after shedding minute knowledge he displayed of the plot. His their pollen, and even during life are frequently attempt at a reply was miserable, and was drowned

weak and pendulous, like the stamens of grasses, in cries of execration. With curses on his lips, he but these consequences of extremely reduced vegerashed out of the senate, and escaped from Rome tative life become no doubt also of advantage at during the night. Catiline and Manlius were now

first in developing, and later in scattering, the denounced as traitors, and an army under the pollen. consul Antonius was sent against them. The Catlin, GEORGE, one of the first authorities on conspirators who remained in Rome, of whom the the habits of the North American Indians, was chief were Lentulus and Cethegus, were at once

born in Pennsylvania in 1796. He was bred to the arrested. After a great debate in the senate law, but soon turned to drawing and painting, (December 5), in which Cæsar and Cato took a which he had taught himself. In 1832 he went to leading part on opposite sides, the conspirators the Far West to study the native Indians, and spent were condemned to death. The sentence was the next eight years among them, everywhere executed that night in prison. The insurrections in painting portraits of individuals (not less than 470 several parts of Italy were meanwhile suppressed; full length) and pictures illustrative of life and many, who had resorted to Catiline's camp in manners, which are now in the National Museum Etruria deserted when they heard what had taken at Washington. Catlin next travelled (1852–57) place in Rome, and his intention to proceed into in South and Central America, and lived in Europe Gaul was frustrated. In the beginning of January until 1871. At London in 1841 he published his he returned by Pistoria (now Pistoja) into Etruria, learned and amply illustrated Manners, Customs, where he encountered the forces under Antonius, and Condition of the North American Indians, and and after a desperate battle in which he fought in 1844 The North American Portfolio. He died at with more than the courage of despair, he was Jersey City, December 23, 1872. Other books are defeated and slain. Catiline's appearance was in Notes of Eight Years in Europe (1848); The Breath perfect keeping with his character. His face was of Life, or Mal-Respiration (1861), on the benefit of reckless and defiant in expression, and haggard keeping one's mouth always closed. with a sense of crime; his eyes were wild and Catmint, or CATNEP (Nepeta Cataria), a bloodshot; his gait restless and unsteady from labiate herb, very common in North America, of nightly debauchery and the constant fever of in which the peculiar fragrance is very attractive to satiable and disappointed ambition. The Bellum cats, much in the same way as valerian.

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Cato, DIONYSIUS, is the name prefixed to a little (For the rest, I vote that Carthage must be de volume of moral precepts in verse, which was a stroyed '). Cato died in the year 149, at the age great favourite during the middle ages, but the of 85. He had been twice married, and in his author of which is unknown. Its usual title is eightieth year his second wife bore him a son, the Dionysii Catonis Disticha de Moribus ad Filium. grandfather of Cato. of Utica. Cato treated his It begins with a preface addressed by the supposed slaves with old-fashioned harshness and cruelty, author to his son, after which come fifty-six injunc. and in his old age became greedy of gain, althou sh tions of rather a simple character, such as par- it cannot be said that his avarice impaired his entem ama. Next follow 164 moral precepts, each honesty. He wrote several works, of which only expressed in two dactylic hexameters, the whole the De Re Rustica (ed. by Keil, 1882-94), a kisl monotheistic in tone without being distinctly Chris- of collection of the rules of good husbandry, tian. The book was early translated into most of has come down to us. There exist but a few frac the western languages. An English version by ments of his Origines, a summary of the Roman Benedict Burgh was printed by Caxton before 1479. annals. These are reprinted by Jordan (Leip. A good edition is Hauthal's (Berlin, 1869).

1860). Of his speeches, which were read witu Cato, MARCUS PORcius, frequently surnamed approval by Cicero, none remain. We possess his Censorius or Censor, also Sapiens ('the wise '), and life as written by Cornelius Nepos, Plutarch, and afterwards Priscus or MAJOR—to distinguish him Aurelius Victor. from his great-grandson, Cato of Utica-was born Cato, MARCUS PORCIUS, named CATO THE at Tusculum in 234 B.C. He was brought up on YOUNGER, or CATO UTICENSIS (from the place of his father's farm in the Sabine country, and here he his death), was born 95 B.C. Having lost, during learned to love the simple and severe manners of childhood, both parents, he was educated in the his Roman forefathers. He made his first campaign house of his uncle, M. Livius Drusus, and, even in in his seventeenth year, distinguished himself at his boyhood, gave proofs of his decision and strenyib the capture of Tarentum (209), at the defeat of of character. In the year 72 B.C. he served with Hasdrubal on the Metaurus (207), and in the later distinction in the campaign against Spartacus, but years of the second Punic war. At the same time without finding satisfaction in military life, though he had been making himself a reputation as an he proved himself a good soldier. From Mace. orator and statesman. He became quæstor in 204, donía, where he was military tribune in 67, he went and served under the pro-consul Scipio Africanus in to Pergamus in search of the Stoic philosopher

, Sicily and Africa, denouncing his commander's Athenodorus. , He brought him back to his camp, luxury and extravagance on his return to Rome. and induced him to proceed with him to Rome, He was ædile in 199, and prætor the following where he spent the time partly in philosophical year, when he obtained Sardinia as his province. studies, and partly in forensic discussions. Desir. So high was his reputation for capacity and virtue, ous of honestly qualifying himself for the quester: that in 195, although his family had hitherto been ship, he commenced to study all the financial unknown, he was raised to the consulship. Spain questions connected with it. Immediately after fell to him as his province, and here he showed such his election he introduced, in spite of violent vigour and military genius in crushing a formidable opposition from those interested, a rigorous reform insurrection, that in the following year he was into the treasury offices. He quitted the quæstor. honoured by a triumph. In 191 he served in the ship at the appointed time amíd general applause, campaign against Antiochus, and to him the great In 63 B.c. he was elected tribune, and also devictory won at Thermopylæ was mainly due. He livered his famous speech on the conspiracy of now turned himself strenuously to civil affairs, and Catiline, in which he denounced Cæsar as an strove with all his might to stem the tide of Greek accomplice of that political desperado, and deterrefinement and luxury, and advocate a return to mined the sentence of the senate. Strongly dread. a simpler and stricter social life after the ancient ing the influence of unbridled greatness, and not Roman pattern. In 187 he opposed the granting of discerning that an imperial genius-like that of a triumph to M. Fulvius Nobilior after his return Cæsar-was the only thing that could remedy from Atolia victorious, on the ground that he was the evils of that overgrown monster, the Romas too indulgent to his soldiers, that he cherished Republic, he commenced a career of what now literary tastes, and even kept poets in his camp. appears to us blind pragmatical opposition to the These rude prejudices of Cato were not acceptable three most powerful men in Rome-Crassus, Pomto the senate, and his opposition was fruitless. In pey, and Cæsar, Cato was a noble but strait-laced 184 Cato was elected censor, and discharged so theorist, who lacked the intuition into circun. rigorously the duties of his office that the epithet stances which belongs to men like Cæsar and Censorius, formerly applied to all persons in the Cromwell. His first opposition to Pompey was same station, became his permanent surname. He successful ; but his opposition to Cæsar's consulate repaired the watercourses, paved the reservoirs, for the year 59 not only failed, but even served to cleansed the drains, raised the rents paid by the hasten the formation of the first triunvirate lepublicans for the farming of the taxes, and tween Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. He was after. diminished the contract prices paid by the state to wards forced to side with Pompey, who had withthe undertakers of public works. More question. drawn from his connection with Cæsar, and become able reforms were those in regard to the price of reconciled to the aristocracy. After the battle at slaves, dress, furniture, equipage, and the like. Pharsalia (48), Cato intended to join Pompey, but Good and bad innovations he opposed with equal hearing the news of his death, escaped into Africa, animosity and intolerance, and his despotism in where he was elected commander by the partisalenforcing his own idea of decency may be illustrated of Pompey, but resigned the post in favour of from the fact that he degraded Manilius, a man of Metellus Scipio, and undertook the defence of prætorian rank, for having kissed his wife in his Utica. Here, when he had tidings of Cæsar's daughter's presence in open day.

decisive victory over Scipio at Thapsus (46), Cato, In th year 175 Cato was sent to Carthage to finding that his troops were wholly intimidated, arbitrate between the Carthaginians and King advised the Roman senators and knights to escape Masinissa, and was so impressed by the dangerous from Utica, and make terms with the victor, lut power of Carthage that ever afterwards he ended prohibited all intercessions on his own behalf. He every speech in the senate-house-whatever the resolved to die rather than surrender, and, after immediate subject might be-with the well-known spending the night in realing Plato's Phædo, coinwords: 'Ceter im censeo Carthaginem esse delendam', mitted suicide by stabbing himself in the breast CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS



His example was more fruitful in results than the anthus, or of minute hollow tubules similarly achievements of his life, for he became the typical arranged. It is of various colours, and is obtained example of the stoic that kindled to imitation the chiefly from India and Ceylon, but occurs also in imaginations of the noblest Romans for two cen- the Harz. A chatoyant variety of felspar has been turies under the empire.

sometimes confounded with cat's-eye. Cat-o'-nine-tails See FLOGGING.

Catskill, a village of New York, on the Hud. Catoptrics is that division of geometrical son, 34 miles by rail below Albany. P. (1890) 4920. optics which treats of the phenomena of light

Catskill Mountains, a group of mountains incident upon the surfaces of bodies, and reflected in the state of New York, U.s., west of the therefrom. See OPTICS.

Hudson River, and south of the Mohawk. They Cato Street Conspiracy, a plot formed in tinuous northward with the Helderbergs, south

belong to the Appalachian system, and are coni London in 1820 by a handful of crazy ruffians for ward with the Shawangunks, south-westward with

the murder of Lord Castlereagh and the other the Delaware Mountains, and westward with a

ministers of the crown, so called from the place of high plateau which occupies much of the region of IT- meeting in Cato Street, Edgeware Road. As usual the plot was revealed beforehand to the police by of the northern counties of Pennsylvania. The

the southern half of Western New York, and a part one of the gang, and accordingly the conspirators Catskills proper cover about 5000 sq. m., chiefly in were seized, after a short scuffle, in a stable in Cato Street Arthur Thistlewood, the ringleader, 4000 feet in height.

Greene County, N.Y. Some peaks reach nearly

The mountains generally and four of his dupes, were hanged, while five more

have steep and often precipitous ascents, and their were transported for life.

summits are broad and rocky. The deep valleys Catrail (also known as the Picts' Work or Picts' or cloves of this region, with almost perpendicular T'ork Ditch) is the name applied to the remains of walls, form a remarkable scenic feature. What is 8 large earthwork, about 50 miles in length, which, known as the Catskill red sandstone' is regarded beginning at Torwoodlee Hill, near the junction of by most geologists as the very latest formed of the the Gala Water with the Tweed, runs with a semi. Devonian strata of North America. The mouncircular sweep southward through the counties of tains are well wooded, and afford many summerSelkirk and Roxburgh to a point under Peel Fell, reserts for the people of the larger cities. See in the Cheviots. The earthwork consisted of a Searing's Land of Rip Van Winkle (1885). deep ditch, with a rampart on each side, and varied

Cat's-tail. See BULRUSH. in breadth from 20 to 26 feet. The cultivation of land and other causes have resulted in the destruc

Cat's-tail Grass. See TIMOTHY GRASS. tion of the ramparts in many places. The Catrail Cat'taro, a strongly fortified port in the Auswas first described by Gordon in his Itinerarium trian crown-land of Dalmatia, lies at the head Septentrionale (1726), and since then has been the of the Gulf of Cattaro, 40 miles SE. of Ragusa, subject of much speculation among antiquaries. under the steep Montenegrin hills. Cattaro has For a full description of the Catrail, see paper in a cathedral, a naval school, and a population of Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 5453, chiefly engaged in the Montenegrin trade. for 1880, by James Smail, F.S.A. An account of At one time the capital of a small republic, the the various theories which have been promulgated town in 1420 joined the republic of Venice, and regarding the Catrail will be found in Blackwood's after varied fortunes was handed over to Austria in Magazine for 1888.

1814 by the treaty of Vienna. - The Gulf of Cattaro, Cats, JACOB, a Dutch statesman and poet, was an inlet of the Adriatic, consists of three basins or born at Brouwershaven, in Zeeland, in 1577, and lakes, connected by straits of about half a mile in after studying law at Leyden and Orleans, finally breadth. Its length is 19 miles, and its depth from settled at Middelburg. He rose to high offices in

15 to 20 fathoms. the state, and was twice sent as ambassador to Cattegat, or KATTEGAT, the bay or arm of the England, first in 1627, and again in 1652, while sea between the east coast of Jutland and the west Cromwell was at the head of affairs. From this coast of Sweden, to the north of the Danish islands. time till his death, September 1660, he lived in It is connected with the Baltic Sea by the Great retirement at his villa near the Hague. Here he and Little Belt (q.v.), and by the Sound ; and the wrote his autobiography, which, however, was not Skager Rack (9.v.) connects it with the North Sea. published until 1709. As a poet, “Father Cats' The length of the Cattegat is about 150 miles, and enjoyed the highest popularity; His poems are its greatest breadth 85 miles. Its greatest depth is characterised by simplicity, rich fancy, clearness, 36 fathoms, but it has numerous sand-banks; and horely vigour, and purity of style, and by their navigation is rendered more dangerous by its strong excellent moral tendency; while throughout are currents and violent storms. The Danish shores are richly scattered those shrewd maxims and worldly low, with stretches of sand or reefs, but the Swedish wise axioms which have been so dear to his prac. shore is very steep and rocky. tical countrymen. The most highly prized of his

Cattermole, GEORGE, water-colour painter and productions were the Houwelyk, and the Trouwring book-illustrator, was born at Dickleborough, Nora series of romantic stories relating to remarkable folk, 8th August 1800. He began life as a topomarriages), and the Spiegel van den Ouden en graphical draftsman. At the age of sixteen he was Vieuwen Tyd. His works were first collected in a folio volume in 1658. A late edition is that by in 1830 he visited Scotland to obtain materials for

engaged upon Britton's English Cathedrals, and Wolterink (Dordrecht, 1878–82).

his fine series of illustrations to the Waverley Cat's-eye, a beautiful variety of chalcedonic Novels. He was soon known as a brilliant designer, quartz receiving its name from the resemblance and was largely employed by the publishers, conwhich the relection of light from it, especially tributing to the annuals, his best work of this when cut en cabochon, or in a convex form, is class being the illustrations to his brother, the Rev. supposed to exhibit to the light that seems to C. Cattermole's Historical Annual, dealing with the emanate from the interior of the eye of a cat. It period of the Civil War. In 1822 he was elected an has a sort of pearly appearance, and is chatoyant, associate exhibitor, and in 1833 a member, of the or characterised by a fine play of light, which is Water-colour Society, to whose exhibitions he consappaseai to result from the parallel arrangement of tributed Sir Walter Raleigh witnessing the Executiae tibres of some foreign substance, such as ami- | tion of the Earl of Essex' (1839), «Old English




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Hospitality' (1839), "The Castle Chapel' (1840), The brothers Charles and Robert Colling were the

The Assassination of the Regent Murray' (1843), first to begin the systematic improvement of the 'Cellini defending the Castle of St Angelo' (1845), breed. In those days the rank and file' of shortand others of his best water-colours, examples of horn cattle were large, high-standing cattle, good which may be studied in the South Kensington milkers, but rough in form and slow in fattening. Museum. He retired from the society in 1850, and The Collings would seem to have at once directed turned his attention to oil-painting, exhibiting A themselves to the improvement of the native cattle Terrible Secret,' a work in this medium, in the where they were most defective, and they were Royal Academy of 1863. He died at Člapham successful in establishing a stock of cattle of a Common, 24th July 1868. As an artist he was dis- decidedly more profitable character-wider in the tinguished by great versatility, and by considerable rib, more symmetrical in the frame, shorter in the power of grouping and composition. He was learned leg, slightly smaller in size, heavier in flesh, and in costume, and his works show much dramatic more speedy in maturing and fattening. It has feeling. He gained a first-class gold medal at the been said, but not established beyond contention, Paris Exposition of 1855, and was a member of the that in effecting this improvement the Collings Royal Academy at Amsterdam, and of the Belgian made use of an infusion of blood from some of the Society of Water-colour Painters.

other smaller breeds. It is more likely that Çatti, or CHATTI, a German people, erroneously they, relied upon selection' in breeding-the included by Cæsar under the name Suevi (q.v.), mating of animals of the shorthorn breed which who inhabited a country pretty nearly correspond most nearly approached to their ideal character, ing to the present Hesse. They took part in the and fixing the type by pursuing what is desig. general rising of the Germans under Arminius; nated as 'in-and-in' breeding-i.e. mating animals and during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, in the end which are closely related to each other, a system of the 2d century, they made incursions into Roman that is known to assist greatly in stamping or Germany and Rhætia. In the 3d century their name fixing peculiar features and characteristics upon began tỏ give place to that of the Franks (q.v.). races of stock. The success of the Collings was

Cattle. In the United Kingdom there are speedy and complete, for the fame of their cattle twelve native breeds of cattle. England claims spread so rapidly that even earlier than 1810, the exactly one-half of these-namely, the Shorthorn, year of the first great public sale of shorthorns, Hereford, Devon, Norfolk and Suffolk Red Polled, they had sold cows and bulls at £100 each, and Sussex, and Longhorn breeds. There are two or

had hired bulls for use to other breeders at prethree varieties of cattle in Wales, but for practical miums of from £50 to £100 a year. At Charles purposes they may be reckoned as one breed. Four Colling's historical sale at Ketton in 1810, 29 cows distinct breeds have arisen in Scotland, these being and heifers realised an average of £140, 4s. 7d. ; the Polled Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Ayrshire,

and 18 bulls £169, 8s. each. Eight years later, and West Highland breeds. The remaining one

at Robert Colling's sale at Barmpton, in a time is the native breed of Ireland, the hardy little of great depression, an average of £128, 9s. 10d. Kerry, regarded as one of the purest and truest

was obtained for 61 animals. The sensational existing representatives of the ancient Bos longi- event of the memorable sale at Ketton was the frons. In addition to these twelve native races, purchase of the celebrated bull Comet' at the other two very useful breeds, the Jersey and fabulous price of 1000 guineas. Guernsey, have become domiciled in the British

The importance and interest attaching to the Isles, and there are also a few of the famous operations of these two great pioneer breeders will at Dutch milking cows scattered over the country.

once be understood when it is mentioned that there These various races, with an almost endless is not at the present day a well-bred living shortvariety of crosses between two or more of them,

horn in whose pedigree Colling blood does not figure make up the entire cattle stock of the United prominently. Colling's successors were, on the Kingdom, which, according to the official agricul. one hand, Thomas Bates ; on the other, the tural returns, numbered 10,753,314 head in 1895.

Booth family, whose representatives then were The Shorthorn is by far the most numerous and Thomas and John Booth. At the Ketton sale most widely diffused. It has not inaptly been (1910) Thomas Bates purchased the two-yeartitled the "Cosmopolitan Shorthorn. It has found old heifer Young, Duchess' for 183 guineas

. a home in almost every county in the United King: Thomas Booth bought the bull-calf · Albion' for 60 as the "cradle of shorthorns ; indeed, they have brother, John Booth, secured the

yearling bull often been spoken of both at home and abroad as

Pilot' for 270 guineas. With these purchases the the 'Durham breed.' But the valuable race of shorthorn breed drifted into two great channels, .native cattle from which the improved shorthorn which by degrees absorbed the main current of the

race, so that for many years the terms 'Booth’and
Bates' shorthorns have been as applicable in
relation to the bovine world as Whig and Tory to
the political. These two strains of Bates and
Booth, as has been seen, had one common origin in
Colling's blood, but in course of time they developed
distinctive shapes and characteristics which in the
purer representatives are still well maintained.
Mr Robert Bruce, than whom there is no higher
authority, thus describes the characteristics of

Booth' and 'Bates,' speaking in the first place of
Bates 'cattle : They are higher standing, better

milking, and perhaps gayer looking cattle than Fig. 1. -Shorthorn Bull and Cow.

the Booths. They have as a rule more upright

shoulders, flatter foreribs, opener sides, with long was raised abounded freely in adjoining counties hindquarters less fully packed with flesh than the as far back as reliable history enables us to trace rival strain. As a rule their heads are clean cut their career. Early in the 19th century they were and pretty wide, while the bulls have long arched also known as “Teeswater' cattle, the first famous muscular necks and keen tempers. The prevail. shorthorns having come from the valley of the Tees. ing colours in this strain of blood are, generally

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