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full milk, whole herds of Jersey cows give an aver- Quebec as early as 1608; and towards the close of age of 94 lb. of butter each cow per week, an excep: the 17th century fresh importations of European tional cow occasionally giving as much as 16 lb. of cattle poured into the great American continent.

butter in one week. It so happens, however, that while importations of Good Jersey cows yield cattle were made from all the countries named, from 500 to 700 gallons and perhaps from others also, the existing cattle of milk, and from 300 stock of America— leaving out the Mexican, now to 350 lb. of butter in more commonly called Texan, cattle, which are twelve months. Guern. still a race by themselves, are largely of British sey cows have exceeded origin. In the earlier importations, again exclud. 800 gallons of milk in a ing Mexico, British cattle preponderated ; and just year, and the noted cow as the English language has submerged all others *Select,' when six years in the gradual development of the American contiold, gave 224 15. of nent, so has British blood become the dominating

butter in seven days, element in the main bulk of the cattle stock of Fig. 6.—Jersey Cow. this quantity being ob- the country. There is no authentic information as

tained from 19 quarts to the character of the cattle first introduced into of milk per day. In America still higher records America, but all the leading breeds of the British have been obtained.

Isles, as well as the chief milking breeds of the It has been stated that the improvement of European continent, are now strongly represented cattle-breeding on scientific principles was begun in North America. There, as at home, the English by Bakewell in 1755. Almost continuously since shorthorn predominates, and there are also strong then the good work has been prosecuted with representations of the Hereford, Polled Aberdeen energy and success, and for many years the British Angus, Galloway, Devon, Norfolk and Suffolk Red Isles have been regarded as the origin and head. Polls, Jersey and Dutch breeds. The cattle of quarters of almost all the most valuable varieties America are being speedily improved, chiefly by of farm live-stock. For generations foreign the use of well-bred bulls, either imported from countries have freely resorted to these islands the British Isles or bred from imported cattle. for improved live-stock, and this export trade Still

, the majority of them are of an inferior goes on as briskly and as extensively as ever. character — quite unworthy of the rich country The United States of America have in particular which they occupy. The Texan cattle still retain drawn very largely upon British herds, and a the rough coarse character which distinguished great stimulus to this trade with the United their Spanish ancestors. Improvement amongst States has been given by the extension of the the Texan cattle is proceeding very slowly. ranching system. "Vast areas of grazing land in The cattle of Australia, which are small, slowthe western states and territories have been growing, and of inferior quality as beef-producers, acquired by syndicates for the breeding and rear- have also been greatly improved by the introducing of cattle; and with the view of improving tion of British stock, chiefly of the Shorthorn, the stock of native cattle, large numbers of well. Hereford, and Polled Aberdeen-Angus breeds. bred bulls of the leading British varieties, either In the management of cattle there is perhaps even imported from the United Kingdom or descended greater variation than in the character of the cattle from imported stock, have been sent to the West themselves. A full description of the various for use on ranches.

methods of management would itself occupy a The cattle of the United States and Canada moderate volume. It must suffice here to mention present almost endless variety of form and two or three leading features in cattle economy. character. This is what might be expected in the British Isles the ox is no longer a beast when it is remembered that they are descended of burden, save in a very few localities. The from importations of cattle from Spain, Holyoke has fallen upon the horse, except where land, Sweden, Denmark, France, and England, both have been relieved by the steam-engine. Scotland, and Ireland. About the year 1525, The two main purposes for which cattle are now some six years after the discovery of Mexico by reared are the production of milk and butcher. the Spaniard Cortes, cattle were introduced into meat. Certain breeds, as already indicated, are that country from Spain, and in the abundant peculiarly adapted for milk-production, such as the pasturage of the Mexican territory they increased Jersey and Guernsey and Ayrshire cattle ; others, rapidly, spreading with the enterprising Spanish notably the shorthorn and red-polled breeds, are settlers into Texas, California, and other parts of distinguished for the combination of both milking the Far West. Exactly a hundred years later and fattening properties of the highest order ; while the Dutch settlers in New York brought cattle others again, such as the Polled Aberdeen-Angus, thither from Holland, and a few years earlier the Hereford and Devon, &c., display remarkable small importations of cattle had been made from aptitude to fatten, and yield meat of the choicest the West India Islands into Virginia. The earliest quality. The farmer of course selects the breed of these arrivals in Virginia are assigned to 1610 best adapted to the locality in which he lives, and and 1611, but that colony was broken up in 1622 to the purposes he has in view. As a rule cattle of by the Indians, who massacred 347 men, women, all kinds, whether dairying or fattening, spend the and children, and, it is presumed, also destroyed summer on the pasture fields; and it is only in their cattle. In 1624—four years after the land. exceptional cases, either where there is a deficiency ing of the English Plymouth colony there--cattle of grass, or where it is desired to force the growth, were introduced into Massachusetts from England, fattening, or milking of the animals, that any food and many other importations followed during the beyond what they can pick up for themselves is next few years. The Swedes brought cattle into given to cattle on the fields." Oil-cake, cottonDelaware in 1627, and in 1631 and two following cake, and bruised grain-partly imported, mostly years Danish emigrants introduced cattle froni home grown-are the principal auxiliary foods on their native country into New Hampshire. Eng. pasture. Where a careful system of management lish emigrants settled in Maryland in 1633, in prevails, the cattle are put into comfortable houses North and South Carolina in 1660 and 1670, and overnight as soon as the chill autumnal evenings in Pennsylvania in 1682, and took with them, or set in ; and throughout the winter they are kept had sent after them, large numbers of English almost entirely in the houses, store-cattle getting cattle. The French colonists brought cattle into out now and again about mid-day when the weather

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CATTLE

CATTLE-PLAGUE

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is favourable. As winter food, turnips and straw originated. These are B. primigenius, B. longi. or hay preponderate, but in the improved practice of frons, B. frontosus. The first became virtually recent years smaller quantities of roots and more of extinct within historic times, is known as the the concentrated foods, such as cake and grain, are Ur in the Nibelungenlied, was domesticated in being given to cattle. Silage is fast becoming an Switzerland in the Neolithic period, was common ini portant article of food for cattle. Now cattle in Britain and on the Continent in the time of are fattened off at from eighteen to thirty months Cæsar, seems to have persisted in Poland till the old, instead of from three to five years, as prior to 17th century, and still survives in a semi-wild 1850. The essence of the feeder's art is to produce stage, though much degenerated in size,' in Chil. the maximum quantity of first-class meat in the lingham Park in the north of Northumberland. In shortest possible time and at the lowest possible 1692 the flock numbered but 28; in 1875, 62 in all. cost; and in the struggle after this the maturing At Cadzow near Hamilton is another herd, differing and fattening properties of cattle have been greatly somewhat from those of Chillingham, þut presumed accelerated. The young or baby-beef,' as it has to be also representatives of a detachment of the been called, is more tender and perhaps more palat- wild cattle that roamed the Caledonian Forest. able than the substantial 'rounds' of the slow- Other herds are still found at Chartley (Stafford. growing five-year-old beeves of fifty years ago ;' shire), Somerford (Cheshire), and Kilmory (Argyllbut it is questionable if it is either so wholesome or shire); whilst that at Gisburn (Yorkshire) became so strength-giving. Be that as it may, the popular extinct in 1859, and that of Lyme (Cheshire) . taste is entirely in favour of the baby.beet; and dwindled from 34 head in 1850 to 4 in 1875.

what the public desire the feeder must endeavour to Though the interesting survivals preserved at supply.

Chillingham “are less altered from the true primiSince 1880 there has been considerable growth in genius type than any other known breed,' there is dairy-farming throughout the British Isles. When some reason to suppose from their white colour and it is mentioned, however, that in 1895 butter to the some other features that they are descended from value of £16,802,400, and cheese to the value of a partially domesticated ancestry. As to other £4,674,181, were imported into the United Kingdom, descendants of B. primigenius, which have diverged it will be seen that there is room for still further further from the primitive type, it is generally extension. The system of management on dairy- supposed that the Podolian cattle of South Russia, farms varies according to the locality and objects Hungary, &c., the larger breeds in Friesland, of the farmer. Where the milk can be conveniently Holland, and other parts of the Continent, and disposed of or despatched to towns, attention is given the Pembroke breed in England, are to be referred mainly to milk-selling, which is the least trouble. back to the same source. some, and perhaps also the most profitable system of B. longifrons or brachyceros was a smaller animal dairying. In other cases butter is the staple pro with short body. It was domesticated in Switzer. duce of the dairy ; in other parts again, cheese land in the Neolithic period; it was early intromaking is the prevailing feature. The consumption duced into Britain (vast quantities of its bones of milk as human food has vastly increased in recent having been found in remains of a lake-dwelling at years. The rate of consumption keeps on growing, Croyland); and it has its probable descendants in and ingenious facilities are devised for bringing some of the mountain breeds of Switzerland, the fresh milk from distant dairies—dairies from 50 to Tyrol, and Bavaria (e.g. the Appenzell cattle), and, 60 miles distant-into towns every morning. As according to Owen, in some of the Welsh and would be expected, the calves bred on dairy-farms Highland cattle. get little of their mothers' milk. They are reared B. frontosus is found along with the latter principally on milk substitutes,' either prepared species, to which it is closely allied. It occurs in at hoine or by firms who make the production of the peat-mosses of Scandinavia, and also in Ire. eattle foods their sole or chief business. Linseed land. It is regarded as the probable ancestor of in various forms is very extensively used in calf. the Norwegian mountain cattle, of the Bern cattle, rearing.

and, according to Owen and others, of some of the Cattle are very variously used, and are the only Scotch Highland varieties. In regard to many of or the chief beasts of draught in many countries, as these pedigrees, dogmatic statement is quite imCape Colony and large part of America. In India possible, and much difference of opinion obtains. also horned cattle are the only beasts used for the most divergent opinion is that of Wilckens, ploughing, and are chiefly valued as draught who maintains that some of the European domestic animals. A famous breed was formed for military breeds are descended from the European bison. purposes; and in the Central Provinces there is a Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication, high-class breed of trotting bullocks. The best vol. i., may be conveniently consulted for facts and referghee of India is obtained from the milk not of cows See the articles BovidÆ, BREED, BULL-FIGHT, but of buffaloes. In China, no use whatever is GAUR, MUSK Ox, RANCHING, YAK, ZEBU, &c.

The made of cow's milk, though human milk is some

diseases of cattle are discussed under their own headstimes given to old people as a restorative. Nearer CATTLE-PLAGUE, PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, ANTHRAX, MURhome, in Italy eren, milk and butter are but little rain, Bor, Black QUARTER, &c. ; the law thereof under used, and cows are in request mainly for rearing (1871-82). See also DAIRY, BUTTER, CHEESE, and Milk.

Contagious DISEASES; and G. Fleming's Animal Plaques calves. The large Italian breed can do little more on cattle generally, see Youatt's Complete Grazier ( 13th than feed their young; and milch cows, if wanted, ed., rewritten by Dr Wm. Fream, 1893); Pringle's Live are brought from Switzerland. In Italy and some Stock of the Farm ; Wallace's Farm Live Stock of Great other countries, cattle are all stall-fed, vine, elm, Britain ; Stephens's Book of the Farm (new ed. by Macand oak leaves forming an important part of their donald); and Allen's American Cattle (New York). For food.

Wild Cattle, see Wilckens, Rinderrassen Mittel-Europas Wild Cattle.-In various parts of the world, Vienna, 1876); J. A. Smith, Ancient Cattle of Scotland species occur of cattle niore or less wild, which are

(1873); and Harting, Extinct British Animals (1880). certainly different from any of the domesticated Cattle, in English Law. See CHATTEL. European breeds. Such are the Banteng (Bos Cattle-plague (Ger. Rinderpest ; Lat. Typhus banteng), the Gaur Ox (B. gaurus), the Gayal Bovis Contagiosus). This is a specific malignant and (B. guvaus). But besides these extra-European contagious fever indigenous to the Asiatic steppes wild cattle, there are abundant remains of three of Russia, India, Persia, China, Burma, Ceylon, virtually extinct European species, from which the &c. ; never occurring in Britain but as a result domesticated breeds are believed to have gradually of direct or indirect communication with imported

ences,

24

CATTLE-PLAGUE

CATULLUS

cattle, or with hides and offal which have been until an Order in Council was issued making it
exposed to the contagion; and is hitherto unknown compulsory to slaughter and bury all diseased
in America, Australia, and New Zealand. It is cattle, as well as those which had been in contact
essentially a disease of the bovine family (ox, with them. The beneficial effect of this order was
aurochs, and zebu), but may be communicated soon made apparent, as the disease gradually
to the sheep, goat, deer, caniel, giraffe, antelope, diminished and eventually died out.
gazelle, and even the peccary.

Had the restrictions upon cattle traffic been
Records of fatal plagues in cattle have been removed, there would have been another visitation
handed down from very early, dates, but the in 1872, for in July of that year, animals affected
descriptions are so meagre that it is possible only with the disease were sent to Deptford, Hull, and
to surmise their nature. It is probable that one Leith, but owing to its swift recognition, were not
of the plagues of Egypt was a form of anthrax, allowed to land in Scotland. From Hull, however,
but in the reign of Nero (69 A.D.) Columella it spread to Bridlington, Pocklington, and two
describes a disease which resembles cattle-plague. other parishes in the East Riding of Yorkshire,
He says : The fever is present when tears are but through the activity of the authorities was
trickling down the face, when the head is carried prevented from spreading further.
low and heavily, and the eyes are closed ; when Sheep do not readily take the disease when kept
the saliva flows from the mouth, when the respira- in fields with affected cattle, but if kept together
tion is shorter than in health, and seemingly em. in close sheds, they take the disease in a short
barrassed or sometimes accompanied by groaning.' | time.
About 400 A.D. Vegetius Renatus describes, under Symptoms.—The virus absorbed into the blood
the term Malleus, a disease which might have been gives rise to elevation of temperature (fever),
cattle.plague. In 809-10 A.D., during the wars of which precedes all other symptoms, and occurs in
Charlemagne, occurred a great outbreak of cattle from 36 to 48 hours after an animal has been
plague, which spread over nearly the whole of inoculated. It will be thus seen that the period of
Europe, and particularly Britain. In 1348-49 a | latency-incubation—is very short. Two days
plague broke out amongst the cattle in England, after this elevation of temperature, the mucons
just after the black death had destroyed thousands membrane of the mouth, as well as that of the
of human beings; it seems to have been similar to vagina in the cow, assumes a salmon colour, and
cattle-plague. Even in those days the stamping. is covered with an eruption. Even at this time
out system was understood, as the diseased cattle the pulse is but little affected, but on the fourth
were slaughtered, and infected herds, and the day from the first rise of temperature there are
herdsmen attending them, were kept from coming marked signs of illness; the constitution is
into contact with sound animals.

thoroughly invaded, and now ensue the drooping In 1480 another outbreak occurred which com- head, hanging ears, distressed look, with rigors mitted great devastation. It cannot be stated and twitching of the muscles, failing pulse, oppositively that these outbreaks were cattle-plague, pressed breathing, diarrhæa, fetid breath, disas the symptoms have not been clearly handed charge from the eyes, nose, and mouth, and condown, but there is evidence to prove that out. stant moan so characteristic of this dreadful breaks occurring in 1715, in 1745, and which con- malady; death usually occurs on the seventh day tinued until 1757, were those of the veritable from the first perceptible elevation of temperature, plague. That of 1745 was brought from Holland but the third or fourth after the illness is apparent either by two white calves, or by a parcel of dis- to ordinary observers. tempered hides brought from Zealand. The disease Cause and Cure. -As long ago as 1872 the disease broke out near London, continued for twelve years, was believed, and has since been proved, to be and was only suppressed by most vigorous measures. caused by microbes (see GERM). The awful epiIt again made its appearance in 1865, and was demic which, entering Africa from the north-east introduced by 331 cattle shipped at Revel, and about 1889, desolated a great part of South Africa, landed at Hull. Amongst these were 13 Russian gave appallingopportunities forstudyingthe malady cattle, the remainder of 46 which had been and attempting cures. The disease reached the brought from St Petersburg and its neighbour- Zambesi in 1895; in Matabeleland between March hood. The cargo arrived on 29th May, and a lot 1896 and January 1897 it left of all the vast herds of of 146 were disposed of at Hull on the 30th. The horned cattle probably not 500 alive, buffaloes and remaining 175 were sent to London. Amongst antelopes being also exterminated. Bechuanaland, them were 330 sheep which were sold at Hull to the Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Cape Colony the butchers and killed, and all the 175 cattle (1897) were successively desolated. In 1897 Koch of except 20 were sold for killing, but the remaining Berlin was at work, and his inoculative methods 20 were sent to Gosport. From this source the (with cultivated microbes, serum, &c.) were believed disease spread rapidly, and by the end of July it to lend belp if not immunity; and Edington obappeared in Aberdeenshire, brought by 4 calves tained success by inoculating living animals with sent to Huntly from the south. By the beginning the blood of those dead of the disease after treating of November the plague was present in 30 counties it with citric acid, as also by inoculating with in England, 17 in Scotland, and 1 in Wales ; and glycerine and bile, &c. on December 30 the disease had appeared on 7443 farms or in cattle-sheds in England, 2065 in Scot

Cattoʻlica, a town of Sicily, with sulphurland, and 245 in Wales; total-9753 centres of works, 14 miles NW. of Girgenti.” Pop. 6591. infection. The total number of cattle on farms, in Catullus, GAIUS VALERIUS, the greatest lyric sheds, or other places where the disease had been poet of ancient Italy, and one of the greatest poets officially reported to exist, was-England, 110,647 ; of all ages, was born at Verona either in 87 or, Scotland, 44,527 ; Wales, 4536; total, 159,710. more probably, in

Few of the incidents in And the number of healthy animals in contact his life are known to us, and the dates assigned and slaughtered were-England, 10,636 ; Scotland, to these are in most cases only conjectural. He 6578; Wales, 152; total, 17,366. The number appears to have belonged to the equestrian order, attacked were-England, 48,964 ; Scotland, 22,298 ; and his years were spent mainly at Rome, where Wales, 2287; total, 73,549. Out of this number he settled about 62 B.C., and at his villas, to which 7045 recovered, 41,491 died, 13,931 were killed, and he was fond of retiring, at Tibur and Sirmio. He 11,082 remained diseased at this date. The plague began to write verses when a boy of sixteen or continued to spread and to commit great havoc, I seventeen. • When my primrose youth was in its

B.C.

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CATULLUS

CAUCASUS

25

pleasant spring,' he says, 'I played enough at The text of the works of Catullus, after having rhyming.' 'In Rome he mingled with the best been lost for more than three hundred years, was society, becoming intimate with the two Ciceros, discovered in the 14th century at Verona. The the Metelli, Hortensius, and probably with Lu- original manuscript was again lost, and until cretins. And in Rome he met the lady whom, lately only one copy of it, which was preserved at under the name of Lesbia, he has sung in verses St Germains, and is now in Paris, was believed to which stand at the head of the lyric poetry of be in existence. A manuscript in the Bodleian passion. It is almost certain that the Lesbia of Library, however, has been discovered by Dr Catullus was none other than Clodia, the sister Bährens to be a sister copy of the St Germains of Cicero's enemy, Publius Clodius Pulcher. One manuscript. The best editions are by Mr Robinson of the most beautiful and accomplished women of Ellis (1867; new ed. 1878; Commentary, new ed. her time, she inspired Catullus with a passionate 1889), Bährens (Leip. 1876 ; new ed. 1885); Postlove of which the changing phases are mirrored in gate (1889); and S. G. Owen (1893). Among Eng. a wonderful cycle of poems. There is first a time lish verse translations are those of Martin (1861), of rapturous joy; then come doubts, quarrels, and Cranstoun (1867), Ellis (1871), Hart Davies reconciliations, and in the end betrayal and de. (1879), and Grant Allen (the Attis, 1892). See spair. The final rupture seems to have happened also Munro's Criticisms and Elucidations (1878); in 57 B.C., and in that year Catullus accompanied Sellar's Roman Poets of the Republic (new ed. the proprætor Gaius Memmius to his province of 1881); and Lafaye, Catulle et ses Modèles (1894). Bithynia. He returned to Rome disappointed in Catydid. See KATYDID. his hopes of enriching himself, and entered im. petuously into the contest which was then being Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 30 miles

Caub, a town in the Prussian province of Hessewaged between the senatorian and the democratic WNW. of Wiesbaden by rail. Here Blücher parties. Like Cicero and most of the men of crossed the Rhine with his army, January 1, 1814; letters of his day, he espoused the cause of the and here, too, till 1866, toll was levied by the Duke senate. A tiery, unscrupulous partisan, he assailed of Nassau-the only ruler who kept up this feudal his enemies with equal scurrility and wit, and privilege-from vessels navigating the Rhine.. Caub directed one of his coarsest lampoons at the head has underground slate-quarries ; and opposite, on of Julius Cæsar. His closing years were darkened

an island in the river, where Louis le Débonnaire by the loss of a favourite brother, on whose tomb died in 840, is a castle called the Pfalz, built in in the Troad, which he visited when returning 1326, which is said to have been resorted to for from Bithynia, he wrote one of the most exquisite safety by the Countesses Palatine during childbed. of all poems that breathe regret for the dead. He In 1876 and 1879 Caub was the scene of two serious was himself cut off in early life, for, though the landslips. Pop. 2179. exact date of his death can only be conjectured, in all probability he did not survive the year which, after a northerly course of 600 miles, falls

Cauca, a river of Colombia, in South America, 54 B.C.

The extant works of Catullus comprise 116 into the Magdalena. Its valley is one of the pieces, many of which are extremely brief, while richest and most populous districts of the continent, the longest of them contains only some 400 lines.

and it gives name to the largest of the Colombian There is considerable variety, however, in this states, traversed by the Andean coast-range, and somewhat slender body of poetry. There are

extending along the Pacific from Panama to

Ecuador. graceful, playful verses of society, and there are

Area, 260,000 sq. m. ; population estiverses, struck out in the heat of party warfare, mated at 460,000. It is rich in minerals, and in which satiric wit sparkles through fescennine possesses the most productive platinum mine in raillery. There are elaborate descriptive and

America. Capital, Popayán. mythological pieces, such as the Coma Berenices Caucasus and the Caucasians. The great and the stately and richly-coloured Peleus and mountain-range of the Caucasus forms, the back. Thetis, which appear to have been translated or bone of a well-marked geographical region, nearly adapted from the Greek. There is the Attis, a corresponding with the Russian governor-generalstrange poem, unlike any other work of a Latin ship or lieutenancy of Caucasia. The natural and writer in its wild imaginative power and in the administrative northern limit is the great Manitch magnificent sound and sweep of its galliambic verse. depression, extending from the Sea of Azov to the And there is the crowning series of love poems, in Caspian, and including the basins of the Kuban which the incarnation of burning passion in ex- and Terek rivers. The southern natural limit is quisite language, the mastery of verbal music, are along the basins of the Rion and Kur rivers. The carried to what is seemingly the highest attain. Russian province comprises all the Russian terri. able point of perfection. In these Lesbia tory to the Turkish and Persian frontiers, including poems' there is no sign of the laborious art which also part of the Armenian highlands and the produced the mosaic-work of the Horatian odes. mountain masses adjoining them, now known by They seem to have flowed forth—thought, feeling, the infelicitous name of Little Caucasus, south of phrase, and cadence combined in a perfect whole the Rion and Kur rivers. Little or Anti-Caucasus -at a single creative impulse. Their author's is connected with Caucasus proper by the narrow mastery of the Latin tongue was unerring and Mesk ridge crossing the Rion-Kur Valley between unbounded. In his works it seems endowed with the headwaters of those streams. The Sea of Azov the elastic and radiant strength of the Greek. He and the Caspian seem at one time to have been revealed all it had of energy, sonority, and sweet connected by the Manitch depression ; south of ness, of monumental dignity and laughing grace. which extend vast steppes of Hat treeless landHe moulded it into lines which neither Lucretius fertile, but with little or no water. South of the Dor Virgil has surpassed for majesty of rhythm ; he steppe to the northern spurs of the mountains is wove it into lyrics which for "lightness of move. luxuriant park land covered with magnificent ment and caressing sweetness of cadence are grasses, and also quite level. Beyond this rise the unmatched in all the fields of Latin verse. For mountains in successive terraces. On the south breadth of vision, fertility of thought, insight into side, towards the Rion and Kur, the mountain face human character, we must turn to other writers is much steeper and more sudden. than Catullus. For fire and music and unlaboured The Caucasus occupies the isthmus between the jelicity of phrase he has no superior among the Black Sea and the Caspian, its general direction lyric poets of all time.

being from west-north-west to east-south-east.

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From the peninsula of Taman on the Black Sea, to bach (q.v.) for one of his main ethnological divisions the peninsula of Apsheron on the Caspian, it has a of mankind; and as the Georgian skull he had was length of about 750 miles. The breadth, including the finest in his collection, the Caucasian was taken the secondary ranges and spurs, is about 150 miles, as the finest type of the Indo-European stock. Subbut that of the higher Caucasus does not exceed 70 sequent ethnologists have, mainly on philological miles. This range is sometimes treated as part of grounds, broken up the Caucasian variety of the boundary line between Europe and Asia, but Blumenbach into two well-marked philological the region is really Asiatic in character (see Asia); groups, the Aryan (q.v.) and the Semitic peoples The higher and central part of the range is formed iq.v.). The name Caucasian was clearly a mis. of parallel chains, not separated by deep and wide nomer when it suggested affinity in blood or in valleys, but remarkably connected by elevated language between the very various races of the plateaus, which are traversed by narrow fissures of Caucasus, classified below, and Aryans or Semites; extreme depth. The highest peaks are in the most and Prichard and others proposed actually to central ridge or chain, at least six of them well connect most of the Caucasus peoples with the over 16,000 feet, much exceeding the highest Alps. Mongolian races of Asia. Later anthropologists, Mount Elburz attains an elevation of 18,540 feet finding the word convenient, use Caucasian or above the sea; Kazbek reaches a height of more Caucasic for the Fair type of man as opposed to than 16,500 feet; and between these come Koshtan. the Mongolic or Yellow type. But they distau and Dikh-tau. Here the line of perpetual snow tinctly repudiate any suggestion of community is between 10,000 and 11,000 feet high ; but the of race or of language between the peoples so whole amount of perpetual snow is not great, nor named ; and desire to indicate a physical fact and are the glaciers very large or numerous.

an anthropological type. See ETHNOLOGY; also than 100 miles' length of the main ridge there are

PHILOLOGY. no passes lower than 10,000 feet. The central The Caucasus has been called the Mountain of chain, in its highest part at least, is granitic or Languages from the multiplicity of tongues spoken even pure granite. On either side of the granitic in this narrow area-tongues many of them totally axis are metamorphic rocks, such as mica-schists distinct from one another, and, with one exception, and talc-schists; and beyond these, clay-slates and apparently unconnected with the languages of any schists. The secondary parallel chains on both other part of the globe, or race of men; though sides of the central ridge are of limestone. The both Aryan and Turkoman affinities have been spurs and outlying mountains or hills are of less alleged for Georgian, and Sayce has suggested extent and importance than those of almost any that the ancient Hittites (q.v.), whose empire in other mountain-range of similar magnitude, sub- | Asia Minor rivalled that of the Assyrians, were siding as they do until they are only about 200 of the same stock. There are certain well-marked feet high along the shores of the Black Sea. Some groups amongst them, within which manifest parts are entirely destitute of wood, but other parts affinity prevails. (1) The Southern division or are very densely wooded, and the secondary ranges Kartveli stock comprises the Georgians or Grusi. near the Black Sea exhibit most magnificent forests ans, mainly in the upper and middle basin of the of oak, beech, ash, maple, and walnut; grain is Kur; the Imeritians, west of the watershed becultivated in some parts to a height of 8000 feet, tween the Kur and Rion; the Mingrelians, farther while in the lower valleys rice, tobacco, cotton, west reaching to the Black Sea ; the Gurians, south indigo, &c. are produced. As might be expected of the Rion; the Laz, on the Turkish frontiers; and from the geographical situation of the Caucasus, the Svans or Suanetians, between the Mingrelians the climate, though it is generally healthy, is very and the higher Caucasus. (2) The Western different on the northern and southern sides, the division contains the Tcherkess or Circassian race, vine growing wild in great abundance on the south, formerly on the left bank of the Kuban, north of which is not the case on the north. The south Caucasus; the Abkhasians in the narrow strip of declivity of the mountains towards Georgia presents land between the Caucasus and the Black Sea on much exceedingly beautiful and romantic scenery. the south; and the Kabards, north and east of

There are no active volcanoes in Mount Caucasus, Elburz. (3) The Eastern division contains the but every evidence of volcanic action. Elburz and Chechenz or Tchetchens on the northern slopes of Kazbek are both of volcanic origin. There are hot the Eastern Caucasus down to the Terek; and the springs and mud volcanoes at each end of the Lesghians farther east and south. It is doubtful range, and there are also famous petroleum wells whether the numerous small tribes called Lesghians in the peninsula of Apsheron (see BAKU). Mineral have any affinity with the Tchetchens, or how far springs also occur in many places, notably at Vla- they are related to one another; only one, the dikavkaz. The bison, or aurochs, is found in the Avars, have a written language, and they use mountains; bears, wolves, and jackals are among Arabic characters. (4) The Ossetes or Ossetians in the carnivorous animals. Lead, iron, sulphur, the centre of Caucasus, on both slopes about coal, and copper are found.

Kazbek, are unquestionably a race of the Aryan The waters of the Caucasus flow into four prin stock, and the language has affinity with the cipal rivers—the Kuban and the Rion or Faz (the Persian branch; they call themselves Irun (probPhasis of the ancients), which flow into the Black ably meaning Aryan). The Kartveli group may

and the Terek and the Kur, which flow into contain 850,000 persons; the Western group, the Caspian. Kuban and Terek are north, Rion 130,000; the Eastern, 520,000; the Ossetian, and Kur or Kura south of the mountains. The 120,000. All the Caucasian languages are Russians have with great labour carried a military tremely harsh. Some of them are partially in. road through a valley somewhat wider than most flectional ; all save the Ossetian are substantially of the Caucasian valleys. This is the tremendous agglutinative. fissure or ravine of the Dariel gorge about half- In various portions of this territory there are way from the Black Sea to the Caspian. The road of course other intrusive elements of population of passes over a height of about 8000 feet, and is foreign race : Russian Slavs; Tartars; numerous protected by many forts. The only other road is Armenians ; Kurds; Greeks; Tats and other by the Pass of Derbend, near the Caspian Sea. Iranians or Tajiks; and a German colony from There is a railway from Baku by Tiflis to Poti and Würtemberg, east of Tiflis. Not merely do the Batoum ; Vladikavkaz is the terminus of the rail. inhabitants of the Caucasus differ widely in race, way from the north.

but they represent great variety of stages of culture, CAUCASIAN was the name adopted by Blumen. ) from the indolent, music-loving Georgians to the

Sea;

ex

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