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CAUCHY

CAULIFLOWER

27

wild and semi-barbarous Suanetians. Christianity John Smith (1609) having Cawcawwassoughes for is the faith of some races, as the Georgians and the Indian councillors of Virginia, and Caucorouse Ossetes; Mohamınedanism of a fanatical type that for an Indian captain. of others, as the Lesghians; while primitive pagan

Cauda-galli Grit, the basement subdivision superstitions seem largely to underlie both religious

of the Devonian system of North America. The professions. One Kartvelian tribe, the Khevsurs,

n tribe, the Khevsurs, name (lit. 'cock's tail') is derived from the feathery has in some measure combined Christianity with

forms of a common fossil, supposed to be a seaweed. Moslem usages. The resistance which the Caucasian peoples for

Caudebec, two places in the French departmore than half a century offered to the arms of

ment of Seine-Inférieure. Caudebec lès Elbeuf, 12 Russia attracted to them the attention of the

miles S. by W. of Rouen, has a pop. (1886) of world. But with the capture in 1859 of Shamyl,

11,038, and manufactures cloth. Caudebec-enthe prophet chief of the Lesghians, who for more

Caux, a pretty antique village of 2200 inhabitants, than twenty years withstood the armies sent

| is on the Seine, 31 miles WNW. of Rouen. against him, the power of the Caucasians was Caudine Forks (Furculæ Caudince), two shattered ; by 1870 it was completely broken. The high, narrow, and wooded mountain-gorges near bulk of the Circassians migrated to Turkish terri. | the town of Caudium, in ancient Samnium, on the tories in Asia or Europe ; most of the Abkhasians borders of Campania; noted for the defeat of the have done the like. The ancient divisions of Romans in the second Samnite war (321 B.C.). the country, Georgia, Imeritia, Svanetia, Mingrelia, See ROME. &c., were based on tribal distinctions. These have

Caul, a portion of the amnion or thin membrane disappeared from the Russian administrative

enveloping the fætus, sometimes encompassing the system. According to the latter, the main range

head of a child when born, mentioned here on acof Caucasus divides the province into Ciscaucasia,

count of the extraordinary superstitions connected Dorth of the mountains, and Transcaucasia to the

with it from very early ages almost down to the south of them; the former comprising the govern. |

present day. It was the popular belief that chi). ments of Stavropol, Kuban, Terek; the latter,

| dren so born would turn out very fortunate, and those of Dagbestan (really north of Caucasus), that the caul brought fortune even to those who Sakatal, Tiflis, Kutaïs, Sukhum, Black Sea, Elisa

purchased it. This superstition was so common betpol, Baku, and Erivan. Add Batoum and Kars in the primitive church, that St Chrysostom (Russian Armenia), and the Transcaspian terri.

inveighed against it in several of his homilies. In tory, and then Caucasia in the widest sense has an

later times midwives sold the caul to advocates area of 308,000 sq. m., and a pop. of 6,290,000. The

at high prices, as an especial means of making chief town in Ciscaucasia is Vladikavkaz; in Trans

them eloquent, and to seamen, as an infallible caucasia, Tiflis; the two connected by the great

preservative against drowning (cf. Dickens's David military road through the Caucasus. The old

Copperfield). It was also supposed that the health capital of Georgia was Mtzkhet, a good specimen

of the person born with it could be told by the of a Georgian word. For Caucasus and Caucasia,

caul, which, if firm and crisp, betokened health, see the map of Russia in Vol. VIII., and the articles

but if relaxed and flaccid, sickness or death (Notes CIRCASSIANS, GEORGIA, TRANSCAUCASIA, and, for

and Queries, 1884-86). During the 17th century the wars with Russia, SHAMYL; also Freshfield,

cauls were often advertised in the newspapers for The Exploration of the Caucasus (1897); Cuning.

sale—from £10 to £30 being the prices asked ; hame, Erstern Caucasus (1872); Bryce, Transcau.

and so recently as 8th May 1848, there was an casia (1878); Philipps - Wolley, Savage Svanetia advertisement in the T'imes of a caul to be sold, (1883); Mourier, Contes et Légendes du Caucase

which was afloat with its late owner thirty years (1888); Abercromby, A Trip through the Eastern in all the perils of a seaman's life, and the owner Caucasus (1890).

died at last at the place of his birth.' The price Cauchy, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, asked was six guineas. born in Paris, 21st August 1789, published in 1815 Caulaincourt, ARMAND DE, Duke of Vicenza, # Mémoire sur la Théorie des Ondes, which con

c.la Theorie, des Ondes, which con- a statesman of the French empire, born at Caulain: tributed greatly to establish the undulatory theory court (Aisne), in 1772, early distinguished himself of light. Between 1820 and 1830 he wrote several as an officer, was made a general of division in important treatises; and at Prague, where he 1805. and shortly after created Duke of Vicenza. resided as tutor to the Comte de Chambord, he pub- Faithful to the last to Napoleon, he was made lished his Mémoire sur la Dispersion de la Lumière Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1813, and during (1837). From 1848 to 1852 he was professor of the Hundred Days resumed the office, receiving Astronomy at Paris, but refused the oath of alle a peerage of France, of which he was deprived after giance to Napoleon III., and lived in retirement till the restoration. He died in Paris, February 19, his death, 230 May 1857. A reissue of his works, 1827. See his Souvenirs (1837-40). in 26 vols., was commenced by the Academy in

| Cauliflower, a variety of the common kale or 1882. See his Life by Valson (2 vols. Paris, 1868).

cabbage. It was cultivated by the Greeks and Caucus, a private meeting of politicians to Romans, but was little attended to in England till agree upon candidates to be proposed for an ensuing the end of the 17th century; yet prior to the election, or to fix the business to be laid before a French Revolution cauliflower formed an article general meeting of their party. The term origin of export from England to Holland, whilst English ated in America, where the caucus has taken fast cauliflower seed is still preferred on the Continent. root, the ticket,' or list of candidates for federal, The deformed inflorescence or heads of the cauli. state, and municipal offices, being always decided flower only are used. Its cultivation for the supply upon by the party leaders; but of late years the of Covent Garden and other markets occupies the system has been introduced into England, and attention of the market-gardeners of London, Cornalopted by the Radicals, especially in Birmingham, | wall, Devonshire, and the Channel Islands to a though the word is there used rather for the regu- | very large extent during winter and spring. It is larly constituted party organisation. In Notes and much more tender than Broccoli (q.v.), and the Queries for 1885 there is a long discussion as to the plants that are reared in August for the purpose origin of the word, which Sydney Smith used in of supplying the first crop of the following summer 1518, and John Adams in 1763. Professor Skeat is require to be protected under hand-glasses or frames inclined to refer it to an Indian source, Captain | during winter. They require to be freely exposed

28

CAULKING

CAUSALITY

to air in mild or comparatively mild weather, but Causality, or the theory of the relation besevere frost must be prevented from entering the tween cause and effect, is one of the most intricate glasses or frames. From the middle of August to and important questions of philosophical doctrine. the 24th of that month, make two or three sowings All scientific investigation is occupied with the at intervals of three or four days. The plants search for the causes of given events, or for the reared from these sowings are planted out, a cer: effects of given causes, and with the generalisation tain portion of the strongest under hand-glasses to of these into laws of nature. But the nature and furnish the earliest crop; and an abundant reserve ground of the relation between cause and effect are of the smaller plants are planted a few inches apart obscure and disputed. in frames, to be planted out finally in the spring in The difficulty of the question is largely increased the open ground. To succeed these a sowing may by the uncertain signification of the word cause. be made in a hotbed in January or February; and Thus the investigation into the cause of things, again in March and May, plants should be reared with which early Greek speculation was occupied, for successional crops, these later sowings being was really an inquiry for the ultimate constituent made in the open ground. The ground must be or element from which the variety of actual rich and the cultivation high to produce cauliflower existence had proceeded ; and from this inquiry of first-rate quality; there is some risk, however, the quest for a principle of change or development in having the ground too rich for the winter crop was only gradually distinguished. The first imin the case of severe weather occurring; if the portant step in the direction of clear discussion plants are extra luxuriant, they will the more was made in Aristotle's doctrine of the four readily succumb to frost.

causes :' the material cause, out of which a thing Caulking, in wood shipbuilding, is the opera

is framed; the formal cause, or the essence or tion of driving oakum or untwisted rope into the

idea of the thing; the efficient or active cause, by seams of the outside planks, or of the deck plank.

means of which it took its present form ; and the ing, to render them watertight. The quantity

final cause or purpose it subserves. These, it is thus driven in depends on the thickness of the

to be observed, are not so much causes in the planking; it varies from 1 to 13 double threads of

modern sense of the term, as principles which enter oakum, with 1 or 2 single threads of spun yarn.

into the existence of everything. In modern The caulker first raims or reems the seam-that is,

science the meaning of the term is much more drives a caulking-iron into it, to widen the seam as

restricted, corresponding in some degree to what much as possible, and close any rents or fissures in

Aristotle called the efficient cause. Thus both the wood; he then drives in a little spun yarn or

Bacon and Descartes wished to banish the notion white oakum with a wood mallet and a caulking.

of final cause from the scientific interprechisel, and afterwards a much larger quantity of

tation of nature; and although, in Bacon's own black or coarse oakum. The fibres are driven in

method, science was treated as an inquiry into until they form a densely hard mass, which not

the form or true nature of things (corresponding only keeps out water, but strengthens the plank

thus to Aristotle's formal cause), this notion has ing. The seam is finally coated or payed with hot

had little influence. What Descartes sought, and pitch or resin.

what science still seeks, is the connection rather In iron or steel shipbuilding and boilermaking than the essence of things; and its ideal is a the term covers the operation of driving the edge

mechanical interpretation of nature in terms of of one thickness of plating firmly against the other

matter and motion. In modern science cause thickness upon which it is superimposed, or to

may therefore be said to mean the explanation which it is adjacent, thus rendering the joints

of change. To some extent it corresponds with watertight. The tool employed is a specially

Aristotle's efficient cause. But the notion of formed chisel, struck by a metal hand-hammer;

efficient cause has itself undergone a profound but endeavours have been made to supplant this

modification, which seems to have been carried by steam-driven machines, so far with but indiffer

out alongside of the formulating of the principle ent success.

of the conservation of energy. The tendency in

science has been to replace the notion of power or Caulop'teris, a generic name for the stems of

efficiency by that of order or constant sequence. certain extinct tree-ferns, which range from the

The genesis and justification of the notion of Devonian to the Permian system. They are

efficiency are matters of dispute : whether it is an hollow, and covered with markings similar to

a priori intuition, or derived from the conscious. the leaf-scars on recent tree-ferns.

ness of the voluntary direction of attention, or Caura, a considerable river of Venezuela, rises from the sensations of innervation and muscular among the sierras of the southern frontier, and resistance. Both Berkeley and Hume directed a flows NNW. to the Orinoco. On both sides vigorous polemic against the doctrine of power stretches the territory of Caura (22,485 sq. m.), expressed by Locke, as going beyond the observed with immense forests of tonka beans.

facts of the motion of bodies, and Hume refused Caus, CAULX, or CAULS, SALOMON DE, en to see in mind any more than in matter anything gineer, born at Dieppe in 1576, was a Protestant, else than a succession of impressions and ideas. and lived much in England and Germany. He was Into the rights of this controversy it is impossible in the service of the Prince of Wales in 1612, and to enter here. But clearness of scientific stateof the Elector Palatine, at Heidelberg, in 1614-20; ment has certainly been gained by the extrusion but by 1623 he returned to France, and became of the notion of power, and substitution for it of engineer and architect to the king. He died in that of regular sequence. It is in following out Paris, 6th June 1626. At Frankfort in 1615 this view of the physical as distinct from the appeared his Raisons des Forces Mouvantes, &c., a efficient cause that the term comes to be defined work in which is described an apparatus for forcing as the aggregate of the conditions or antecedents up water by a steam fountain, differing only in necessary to the production of the effect : meaning one detail from that of Della Porta (see STEAM by necessary conditions those conditions without ENGINE). There is no reason to suppose that the which the effect either would not have existed at apparatus ever was constructed; but on the strength all, or would have been different from what it is. of the description, Arago has claimed for De Caus in popular language, however, and even in most the invention of the steam-engine. See the article scientific inquiries, the term cause is restricted to De Caus in vol. xiv. of the Dict. of National the one or two conditions by the intervention of Biography (1888).

| which amongst other more permanent conditions

CAUSALITY

CAUSTICS

29

the effect is produced. Thus it is noticeable that phers and others, as well as Kant, had attempted while the former or more complete definition replies to Hume, contending that cansality is an corresponds with that expressly given in J. S. intuitive judgment antecedent to experience. But Mill's Logic, his inductive methods are entirely such a reply remains an arbitrary assertion until it devoted to explaining modes of discovering causes is shown how the causal judgment is connected in the narrower or popular signification.

with experience. In Kant's Critique of Pure It is in this meaning of the term that science Reason this connection is thoroughly investigated; investigates causes. In doing so, it goes on the the refutation of Hume is only part or consequence presupposition that every event or change has a of a complete inquiry into the relation of reason cause. This has been called the Law of Uni- to experience. It was, however, largely Hume's versal Causation, and may be expressed by doctrine of causality that led to Kant's new point saying that the explanation of every event is of view, and to the doctrine that experience is the to be found in antecedent conditions. Scientific product of the understanding, the realisation of its investigation also presupposes the Law of the a priori forms. It is not the sequence of events in Uniformity of Nature, that the same conditions | time, Kant holds, that gives rise to the principle of or cause will be followed (at all times and places) causality ; but the pure notion of causality finds by the same effects. The grounds and mutual its realisation in this time-sequence, in which each relation of these two assumptions form the chief event is determined by its antecedent. Kant's subject of controversy in the philosophical theory doctrine, as thus stated, is in full harmony with of causality. It is to Hume that the credit is due the principles and methods of modern science ; of having drawn attention to the difficulties in asserting the principle that every change-i.e. each volved in the principle of causation, in such a way successive state-of the universe is the result of its as to determine the whole course of subsequent preceding state, and at the same time leaving to philosophy. All reasoning about matters of fact, empirical investigation the connection in experi. he shows-all physical science, therefore-depends ence of any one definite thing with any other." on the relation between cause and effect. Yet, The most important discussions of causality are between the canse and the effect there is no dis. those of Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, book i. coverable connection. There appears not, through part iii., and Essay of the Idea of Necessary all nature, any one instance of connection which is Connection; Kant, Critique of Pure Reason ; and conceivable by us. All events seem entirely loose J. S. Mill, System of Logic, book iii. chaps. iii.-v. and separate. One event follows another; but we There is also elaborate treatment of the subject in never can observe any tie between them. They the works of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton. Dr seem conjoined, but never connected.' Hume's own Thomas Brown's Inquiry into the Relation of solution of the difficulty is found in the law of Cause and Effect contains much acute analytical Inental association. The mind,' he says, 'is thinking. carried by habit upon the appearance of one event

| Cause Célèbre, a convenient French term for to expect its usual attendant, and to believe that a specially interesting and important legal trial. it will exist. This connection, therefore, which we

criminal or civil, such as the Douglas Cause feel in the mind, or customary transition of the (1769–71), the Dred Scott case in the United imagination from one object to its usual attendant, States as to the possession of a negro (1856), the is tlie sentiment or impression from which we form Tichborne case (1871-74). There is a great French the idea of power or necessary connection. Nothing

collection of Causes Célebres et interessantes ( 22 vols. further is in the case. ... When we say, there. | 1737-45), by Gayot de Pitaval, with modern con fore, that one object is connected with another, we

tinuations. See TRIAL. mean only that they have acquired a connection in

Causerie, a name applied to a somewhat short our thoughts, and give rise to this inference by

and informal essay on any subject in a newspaper which they became proofs of one another's exist.

or magazine. More familiar in manner and slighter ence : a conclusion which is somewhat extra

in structure than the formal essay as usually under: ordinary, but which seems founded on sufficient

stood, it is an excellent medium for a writer whose evidence. The conclusion to which Hume is

personality interests the reader as much as the driven is thus that, while all reasoning about

value of his thoughts. The name owes its literary matters of fact is founded on the principle of

currency mainly to the famous Causeries du Lundi cansality, this principle has itself no other basis

of Sainte-Beuve; hardly less valuable examples than the mental tendency to pass from one inipres.

were many of Matthew Arnold's occasional essays. sion to the idea of another impression previously experienced in conjunction with the former.

Causses, Les. See FRANCE (p. 770), and Bar. Hame's solution is thus not sceptical (except as

ing-Gould's Deserts of Southern France (1894). regards the application of causality or any other

Caustic (Gr., 'burning'), a term for substances principle beyond experience), but it is subjective :

that exert a corroding action on the skin and flesh. the connection of things is resolved into a customary

Lunar caustic (so called because silver was called succession of ideas. Of the numerous theories of

luna, 'the moon,' in the alchemists' mystical causation put forward since the question was thus

jargon) is nitrate of silver, and common caustic is opened, the two most important are J. S. Mill's

potash. When used as a caustic in medicine, rehabilitation of Hume's doctrine to suit the re.

the substance is fused and cast into moulds, quirements of scientific investigation, and the

which yield the caustic in small sticks the thick. opposed doctrine of Kant and his philosophical

ness of an ordinary lead pencil, or rather less. —

Caustic is also used in chemistry in an adjective successors.

It is characteristic of Mill's doctrine that the sense-thus caustic lime, or pure lime, Cao, as principle of causality is made a consequence of the

distinguished from mild lime, or the carbonate of Law of the Uniformity of Nature : the familiar

lime, CaCO3, caustic magnesia, MgO, and mild truth that invariability of succession is found by

magnesia, MgCO3, caustic potash, caustic soda (for observation to obtain between every fact in nature

these, see POTASH, SODA, &c.). See CAUTERY. and some other fact which has preceded it.' This Caustics. When the incident rays are parallel principle, which is assumed in every scientific in to the principal axis of a reflecting concave mirror, dnction, is itself held to be the generalisation of a they converge, after reflection, to a single point, wide and uncontradicted experience.

| called the principal focus. In the case of parabolic A different position is given to the causal prin mirrors this is rigorously true. For, as is easily ciple in Kant's philosophy. The Scottish philoso. | seen from the fundamental property of the para

30

CAUTERETS

CAUTION

bola, any ray falling on the mirror parallel to the made of hollow platinum, so arranged that a flame axis is reflected so as to pass excactly through the of benzole can be kept burning in its interior. The focus. For other mirrors it is approximately true galvano-cautery consists essentially of a platinum only when the breadth of the mirror is very small wire which can be heated to any required degree in comparison with its radius of curvature. When by passing a strong galvanic current through it. the breadth of the mirror is large in comparison | The cautery is used for three main purposes in with its radius of curvature there is no definite surgery : to produce counter-irritation over an inimage, even of a luminous point. In such cases flamed part (see BLISTERS) (actual cautery); to the image is spread over what is called a Caustic, check bleeding (actual or thermo-cautery), by or sometimes a Catacaustic.

slowly destroying the tissues at the bleeding point An example of the caustic is given in the annexed or surface; to perform operations, where the tissues figure for the simplest case-namely, that of rays | to be divided are either very vascular (thermofalling directly on a concave spherical mirror, BAB', cautery), or very difficult of access (galvanofrom a point so distant as to be practically parallel. cautery). See CAUSTIC.

Two very near rays, Caution, in the Law of Scotland, like Guaranty P and Q, will after (q.v.) in England, is an obligation undertaken by a reflection intersect second party, whereby he binds himself, failing the at C. By finding

primary obligant, to fulfil his obligation, whether in this way all the

it be of a pecuniary nature or otherwise. Cautionpoints of intersection ary obligations are thus essentially of an accessory of the reflected rays, nature, and cannot subsist apart from the principal we get a continuous obligation. The law of this subject is now largely curve, BCFB', which founded on the Mercantile Law Amendment Acts, is the section of the

1856, which assimilate the laws of England and caustic surface by Scotland, and according to which the creditor a plane passing | may proceed at once against the cautioner, just

through its axis. as `if he were a joint obligant, without suing The curve BCFB' varies of course with the form of the primary debtor, unless the cautioner has the reflecting surface. In the case under considera- expressly stipulated that this shall be done. tion it is known as an epicycloid.

The creditor, however, is in every case bound to The reader may see a catacaustic on the surface use proper precaution in retaining and making of tea in a tea-cup half full by holding the circular available securities. He is not, however, bound rim to the sun's light. The space within the caustic to make the same full disclosure of material curve is all brighter than that without, as it clearly facts as in insurance, and therefore a cautioner should be, as all the light reflected affects that should make careful inquiry for himself. Cautionspace, while no point without the curve is affected ary obligations are generally gratuitous, being, by more than the light reflected from half of the for the most part, undertaken from motives of surface. The rainbow', it may be mentioned, forms friendship; but it is by no means uncommon for one of the most interesting of the whole family of them to be entered into in consideration of a caustics.

premium paid by the person guaranteed, or by When a caustic is produced by refraction, it is those interested in his fortunes. Where a presometimes called a Diacaustic. No such simple mium is paid, the transaction becomes a mere example can be given of the diacaustic curve as insurance of solvency, honesty, or efficiency; and that above given of the catacaustic. It is only in associations of great public utility (see GUARANthe simplest cases that the curve takes a recognis. Tee) have been formed, both in England and able form. In the case of refraction at a plane Scotland, for the purpose of undertaking to surface, it can be shown that the diacaustic curve guarantee the fidelity of persons employed either is the evolute either of the hyperbola or ellipse, in public or private offices of trust. The tendency according as the refractive index of the medium is of judicial decisions, both in England and Scotland, greater or less than unity.

for many years past, has been to require greater Cauterets, a fashionable French watering.

strictness than formerly in the constitution of place in the department of Hautes-Pyrénées, lies

cautionary obligations; and under the statutes 3250 feet above sea-level, in the valley of the

already mentioned all such engagements must be Laverdan, 5 miles S. of Pierrefitte, the nearest

in writing, subscribed by the person undertaking railway station, and 42 SSE. of Pau. The

or making them, or by some person duly authorised stationary population of the place is only 1260,

by him, otherwise they shall have no effect. If a but it is annually swelled in summer by 15,000 to

càutionary obligation is dependent on a condition, 20,000 visitors, for whose accommodation numer

it will, of course, be ineffectual unless the condi. ous sumptuous hotels and bathing-establishments

tion be complied with. The cautioner may, in have been built. It is a good centre and guide.

general, plead every defence which was competent station for ascents among the Pyrenees. The

to the principal debtor, and the extinction of the sulphurous springs, twenty-five in number, and

primary obligation extinguishes the secondary one. varying in temperature from 60° to 131° F., are

The cautioner is discharged by any essential charge the most abundant in the Pyrenees (330,000 gallons

being made on the obligation of the debtor, or in per day), and have been known from Roman

respect of the person relied on, without his assent. times; though their modern reputation dates from

The statute expressly provides that changes of the 16th century, when Margaret, sister of Francis

partnership either of creditor or debtor will ex. I., held her literary court and wrote much of her

tinguish the guarantee. If the creditor gives time Heptameron at Cauterets.

-e.g. takes bills from the debtor of an unusual

currency—that will also operate discharge. The Cautery (Gr. kaio, 'I burn'), in Medicine, is discharge of one cautioner, moreover, unless con. nised of any substance which burns the tissues. sented to by the rest, is a discharge to all. The (The term potential cautery,' as applied to caustic cautioner is entitled, on full payment, though not substances, is becoming obsolete.) The actual on payment by a dividend, to an assignation of the cautery is an instrument with a head or blade of debt and diligence, by which means he comes, in steel, iron, or platinum, which is heated in a fire or all respects, into the creditor's place; and more spirit-lamp. In the thermo-cautery (or Paquelin's over, if the solvency or other conditions of the cautery, from its inventor), the head or blade is principal debtor should seem precarious, he may

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adopt legal measures for his relief. Co-cautioners, to his generalship. His task being done, he or persons bound together, whether their obliga- | resigned his power into the hands of the National tions be embodied in one or several deeds, are | Assembly, which appointed him President of the entitled to mutual relief. But where a co-cautioner | Council. As a candidate for the presidency of the obtains relief from the others, he must communicate republic, when Louis Napoleon was elected, he to them the benefit of any deduction or ease which received nearly a million and a half of votes out may have been allowed him in paying the debt. of 7,327,345. On the coup d'état of December 1851,

Letters of credit and recommendation raise much | Cavaignac was arrested, but released after a short the same relation of parties as a formal cautionary detention ; and though he consistently refused to obligation, but since 1856 a mere verbal introduc. | give in his adhesion to the Empire, he was per. tion cannot have that effect. For the forms and mitted to reside in France without molestation. effects of ordinary mercantile guarantees, and for He died, 28th October 1857, at his country house the forms of guarantee insurance of fidelity, see near Tours. Cavaignac was an able soldier, a GUARANTEE. For the Scottish cautionary obliga. zealous republican, and in every way an honourtion in cash-credit bond, see BANKING, Vol. I. 713. able man. See his Life by Deschamps (2 vols.

JUDICIAL CAUTION, in the Law of Scotland, is Paris, 1870). of two kinds—for appearance, and for payment. If

Cavaillon (ancient Cabellio), a town of the a creditor makes oath before a magistrate, that he | French den believes his debtor to be meditating flight (in medi- | Avignon by rail, with a cathedral, and some

| French department of Vaucluse, 18 nuiles SE, of tatione fugee), he may obtain a warrant for his

Roman remains. Pop. 5164. apprehension; and should he succeed in proving the alleged intention to flee, he may compel him

Cavalcanti, GUIDO, Italian poet, born in 1230, to find caution to abide the judgment of a court

was banished, for mercantile transactions with a (judicio sisti). The cautioner, or surety, under

Guelph, by the Ghibellines, a daughter of one of takes that the defender shall appear to answer any

whose chiefs he had married, and returned in action that may be brought within six months.

broken health to Florence only to die there, about The old Bond of Presentation, by which in order to

1300. His works —sonnets, ballads, and canzonigain time the surety undertook to produce the

are remarkable alike from their language and depth debtor or pay the debt at a future date, is now

of thought, although his epicurean philosophy superseded by the abolition of imprisonment for

gained him, among his contemporaries, the reputa. debt. There is also a form of judicial caution

tion of an atheist. See Ercole, Guido Cavalcanti called judicatum solvi, given in cases of general

e le sue Rime (Milan, 1885).-Another of the name, loosing of arrestment of ships, in which the surety

BARTOLOMMEO (1503-62), a noble and eloquent becomes liable for the whole debt. The commonest

Florentine, led à revolt against the Medici, and form of judicial caution, however, is the security

was afterwards employed by Pope Paul III. usually given in the Bill-chamber (9.v.), when a bill

Cavalcaselle. GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian or bond is brought under suspension; the security is art writer, born 22d January 1820, at Legnago, for the principal sum and expenses, if the suspen. early visited the art centres of Italy, and in 1846 sion should be refused. Interdict is also frequently proceeded to Germany, where he met J. A. Crowe granted upon caution for the damages that may 19.v.), with whom he returned to Italy. Banished result from the interdict, should it turn out to have

| for his share in the revolution of 1848, he accombeen wrongly obtained.

panied Crowe to London, and there their first joint Cauvery. See KAVERI.

work, Early Flemish Painters (1857 ; 3d ed. 1879), Cava del Tirreni, a town of Italy, in a lovely

was published. Cavalcaselle returned to Italy in

1858, and afterwards published with Crowe the valley, 57 miles NW. of Salerno by rail, with a cathedral, and manufactures of silk, woollens,

History of Painting in Italy (1864-71), Titian cotton, and linen. Pop. 6339. About a mile dis

(1876), and Raphaël (1883), besides independent tant is the Benedictine monastery of the Trinity,

works of less importance. He was head of the art

department of the ministry of Public Instruction celebrated for its archives.

at Rome. Died in 1897. Cavagnari, SIR LOUIS, born in France in 1841,

Cavalier (Fr., from Lat. caballus, 'a nag'), was educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and in 1857 was naturalised as a British subject. He had

from horseman'acquired the meaning of knight' seen twenty-one years' military and political service

or 'gallant,' in which sense it is used by Shake. in India, when on 3d September 1879 he was

speare (Henry V., III. 24), like cavalero, in Henry

IV., Part II., v. iii. 62." In 1641 ·Cavaliers' was murdered at Kabul. See AFGHANISTAN.

applied as a nickname to Charles's partisans in Cavaignac, Louis EUGÈNE, born in Paris, 15th

| opposition to the Roundheads, or friends of the October 1802, was a son of General Jean Baptiste Parliament; and from a term of reproach it came Cavaignac (1762-1829), a member of the National to be adopted as a title of honour, until, after 1679, Convention. Educated for the military profession, | it was superseded by Tory. For the “Cavalier he first served in the Morea, and afterwards in Parliament' (1661-79), see CHARLES II. Aírica, whither he was sent in 1832 into a kind of honourable exile, in consequence of a too free ex

Cavalier, JEAN, a journeyman baker, from pression of opinion in favour of republican institu

Ribaute, near Anduze, who, born in 1681, in 1702 tions. Here he won great distinction by his energy,

became a famous leader of the Camisards (9.v.), coolness, and intrepidity, was made chef de bataillon

withal a prophet and preacher. He surrendered in 1837, and rose to the rank of brigade-general in

to Villars in 1704, and entered the service of 1844. In 1848 he was appointed governor-general

Savoy ; but in 1711 we find him settled with a of Algeria, but in view of the impending revolu.

British pension in England, and he died at Chelsea, tionary dangers, was called to Paris and assumed

governor of Jersey, 17th May 1740. See a long the office of Minister of War. He was appointed

article in vol. ix. of the Dict. of National Biomilitary dictator in order to suppress the formid. grupy 100%). able insurrection of June, which he quelled only Cavaliere Servente. See CICISBEO. after a most obstinate contest continued from Cavalry is a general name for horse-soldiers or the 23d to the 26th June. It is estimated that a troopers trained to act in a body. In the British greater number of Frenchmen fell in the struggle army there are 31 regiments of European, and 30 of than in the bloodiest battles of the first Empire. native Indian cavalry. The former comprise 2 Cavaignac's clemency to the vanquished was equal / regiments of Life Guards (red), 1 of Horse Guards

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