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able reputation as a cure for toothache. It is also which the vigorous growth of the plant is preemployed in the scenting of soap, and by the vented, and crops are often much injured. It is distiller. Tincture of Cloves is obtained by treating common for gardeners to cut away these excres. cloves with alcohol for several days, and then cences, with their contained larvæ, in planting out straining, or by a solution of the oil of cloves in young cabbages, &c. ; and where they are not so spirits of wine. It is added, in medicine, to numerous that the injury done by the knife is stomachic, tonic, and purgative mixtures. Cloves necessarily great, this plan succeeds very well. are adulterated by adding to the fresh spice more Dressings of gas-lime applied to the soil some time or less of the buds from which the oil has been dis before planting is the best preventive of this evil; tilled, and which are thereby rendered practically but change of crop, when practicable, is of all worthless. The exhausted buds are made to things the most commendable. Clubbing is someappear fresh by rubbing them between the hands times confounded with Anbury (9.v.), from which moistened with sweet oil, or otherwise varnishing it is quite distinct. them with a thin coating of oil.

Club-foot (Lat. talipes) is a distortion of the Clovis (old Ger. Chlodwig, modern Ger. Ludwig, foot primarily due to shortening occurring in one or Fr. Louis), king of the Franks, was of the Mero- other of the groups of muscles which carry out its vingian race, and was born 465 A.D. By the death intricate movements; subsequently, this error in of his father, Childeric (481), he became king of the muscular activity becomes aggravated by the Salian Franks, whose capital was Tournai. shortening of the ligaments which bind the bones His first achievement was the overthrow of the together, and ultimately the shape of the bones Gallo-Romans under Syagrius, near Soissons. He themselves becomes altered so as to constitute a then took possession of the whole country between very serious deformity, difficult to correct. In the the Somme and the Loire, and established himself majority of cases the condition is congenital, and at in Soissons. In 493 he married Clotilda, daughter the time of birth it is usually only the muscular of a Burgundian prince. His wife was a Christian, structures that are affected. Thus it is of great and earnestly desired the conversion of her husband. importance to recognise its presence early in life; In a great battle with the Alemanni near Cologne, for until the ligaments and bones become altered, Clovis was hard pressed, and as a last resource it may be remedied by very simple means, such as invoked the god of Clotilda, offering to become a manipulation and electric stimulation of the affectel Christian on condition of obtaining the victory. groups of muscles. If these simple measures The Alemanni were routed, and on Christmas Day appear ineffectual, recourse must be had to the of the same year Clovis and several thousands of division of the tendons (Tenotomy, q.v.), by which his soldiers were baptised by Remigius, Bishop of the shortened inuscles are attached to the bones of Rheims. Most of the Western Christian princes the foot. The foot thus freed from the cause of the were Arians, but Clovis was strictly orthodox, and, distortion, should be placed at rest in good position in consequence, was saluted by Pope Anastasius within an immovable apparatus, such as a plaster as the Most Christian King. In 507, love of of Paris case, until healing of the tendons bas conquest concurring with zeal for the orthodox occurred. The weakened parts should then be faith, Clovis marched to the south-west of Gaul against the heretic Visigoth, Alaric II., whom he defeated and slew at Vouglé, near Poitiers, taking possession of the whole country as far as Bordeaux and Toulouse ; but he was checked at Arles in 507, by Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths. Clovis now took up his residence in Paris, where he died in 511. His great aim was the subjugation of all the Frankish princes, and the union of the whole Frankish people into a single powerful kingdom.Clovis II., son of Dagobert, reigned over the Franks from 638 to 656.

Clowes, WILLIAM, an Elizabethan surgeon of distinction, was born about 1540, became surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, served with Leicester in the Low Countries, and also on board the fleet

Club-feet: that defeated the Spanish Armada. He became

A, Talipes equinus; B, Talipes varus. surgeon to the queen, and after a prosperous practice in London retired to a country house in exercised by suitable manipulations which restore Essex, where he died in 1604. He wrote five books their strength. In very bad cases it may be in clear and vigorous English, of which two long

necessary to remove portions of the distorted bones continued popular : A Prooved Practise for all

Practise for all and thus restore the natural shape of the foot. Young Chirurgians (1591), and A Treatise on These affections are very markedly hereditary, the Struma (1602).

and they are in all probability due to disordered Clown. See JESTERS (COURT), PANTOMIME. function in the nerves leading to the affected

Cloyne, an ancient episcopal town of County muscles, or in the brain or spinal cord, in which Cork, 15 miles ESE. of Cork. The cathedral was these nerves have their origin. Four chief varieties founded in the 6th century by St Colman ; opposite

of club-foot are recognised by surgeons : (1) Talipes is a finely preserved round tower over 90 feet high. equinus (fig. A), in which the heel is drawn up, About 1430 the see was united to that of Cork, and the patient walks on the under surfaces of the separated in 1678, and reunited in 1835; the town toes ; (2) Talipes calcaneus, in which the reverse still gives its name to a Roman Catholic diocese. condition is present, and the patient walks on the Berkeley was Bishop of Cloyne (1734-53). Pop. | heel only ; (3) Talipes varus (fig. B), in which the

patient walks on the outer border of the foot; and Clubbing, in cabbages, turnips, and other (4) Talipes valgus, where the inner edge of the plants of the genus Brassica, a diseased growth of sole alone touches the ground. See DEFORNtubercular excrescences in the upper part of the

ITIES. root or lower part of the stem, caused by the larvae Club-moss. See LYCOPODIACEÆ. of the Cabbage-fly (9.v.) and of other insects, by | Club-rush. See SCIRPUS.



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Clubs. The word club is from the same root member. Some clubs have a dining-room to which as clump; and its secondary meaning of a collec. strangers may be invited; in others a select number tion of persons' is illustrated by a clump of of honorary members are admitted. House-dinners trees.' As specially applied to a select association are a revival of a former habit. Many of the recent meeting for social intercourse, it dates from the clubs contain bedrooms for members. Concerts and 17th century, and the use has since been extended entertainments are also innovations. Moderate to other bodies having a common object, such as card-playing is allowed, but games of chance are literature, science, amusements, politics, or the invariably forbidden in respectable English clubs. furtherance of material interests. The practice of Clubs have been instituted to unite persons of some kind of club-life is almost universal, and can every class, profession, and opinion. There are be traced in the earliest civilisations. Modern clubs for ladies alone, and some to which ladies travellers in Africa, the Pacific, and elsewhere, are admitted on equal terms with gentlemen. In constantly speak of a kind of club-houses where others ladies are allowed as guests. It is difficult the men meet for gossip and recreation. Vacancies to say where the club proper ends and the mere in the public tables among the Spartans were filled drinking saloon commences; some of the numerous up by ballot, and Aristotle refers to members of working-men's clubs and inferior political clubs fall the same locality in Greece as clubbing for merry in the latter class. Others are developments of making. Many such associations both in Greece the old betting and gambling rooms. and Rome were, however, really secret societies The best organised and finest clubs in the world for the cultivation of religious mysteries ; others | are in London, where there are over a hundred of a were more of the nature of Guilds (q.v.). But high class. The chief among them are the Albethere are records of social clubs more closely allied | marle (1875), for ladies and gentlemen ; Army and to the modern form, and Cicero tells of his pleasure | Navy (1838); Arthur's (1765), social; Arts (1863); in frequenting such gatherings. We also hear of Athenæum (1824), literature, science, and art ; a club of old soldiers belonging to the armies of Bachelors' (1881), ladies admitted ; Boodle's (1762), Augustus, and another among the officers of an social; Brooks's (1764), Liberal politicians; Bur. African legion. Women had their sociable collegia. lington Fine Arts (1866), exhibitions held; Carlton

In England the history of clubs dates from the (1832), for Conservatives; City Conservative (1883); Court de Bone Compaignie mentioned by Occleve City Liberal (1874); Conservative (1840); Con. in the early part of the 15th century. Nearly two stitutional (1883), for Conservatives; Cosmopolitan, hundred years later the symposia originated by | conversation ; Devonshire (1875), for Liberals; Raleigli made the Mermaid Tavern in Bread Street East India United Service (1849); Garrick (1831); famous, while Ben Jonson is said to have founded German Athenæum (1869), entertainments given; & similar gathering at the Devil Tavern. The Grillion's (1812), breakfast parties; Grosvenor Apollo is connected with Jonson's Leges Con. (1883), social; Guards' (1813); Hogarth (1870), viviales. The Rota (1659) and the clubs of the artistic ; Isthmian (1882); Junior Army and Navy Restoration were mainly political. The members (1869); Junior Athenæum (1864); Junior Carlton of the Calves'-head Club (9.v.) were supposed to (1864); Junior United Service (1827); Literary ridicule the memory of Charles I. The portraits of (1762); Lyric, entertainments given; National the members of the Kit Kat Club (1700) are still (1845), Church of England; National Liberal preserved. Addison, Steele, and the essayists of (1882); National Union (1887), for Unionists ; the Spectator and Tatler class have made us familiar New Athenæum (1878); New University (1863); with the coffee-house and tavern clubs of their | Oriental (1824); Orleans (1877); Oxford and time. The Royal Society Club (1743) is the Cambridge (1830); Press (1882); Reform (1836), earliest of the many dining.clubs associated with for Liberals; St George's (1874), social ; St Stethe learned societies. To Reynolds is due the phen's (1870), for Conservatives ; Salisbury (1880), institution of the still existing Literary Club (1762), ladies admitted ; Savage (1857), literature, drama, which numbered so many distinguished members, &c.; Savile (1868); Scottish (1879); Thatched among them Dr Johnson, who established the Ivy House (1865); Travellers' (1819); Turf (1868); Lane and other clubs of a less formal character. Union (1822); United Service (1815); White's Good fellowship and conversation were the leading (1730); Windham (1828). County clubs are to be features of these societies.

found in all English provincial towns. At Edin. The present type of English club is quite different burgh the New Club (1787), and in Dublin the from the earlier bodies bearing the same name. It Kildare Street (1790), are equal to the best arose about the commencement of the 19th cen. metropolitan clubs. The English in India and tury, and is characterised by dining and other the colonies possess luxurious club-houses in which arrangements whereby members seek to preserve bedrooms for temporary visitors are a convenience. their independence while sharing in the benefits to Well-appointed clubs in the English style have which their united subscriptions contribute. The been established in all the leading cities of the modern club-house is generally a spacious and United States. Among the best in New York are handsome building, with dining, smoking, billiard, the Lotos (1870), Union League (1863), Century, newspaper, writing, and drawing rooms, &c. Some Manhattan, Union, Knickerbocker, and University. possess libraries, the most extensive being that of Gambling and the giving of dramatic and musical the Athenæum, which owns one of the choicest entertainments and exhibitions of pictures are collections of books of reference in London. The special features of club-life on the European conGarrick is famous for its theatrical pictures. Por- tinent. The Jockey Club (1833) and the Union traits of eminent members are to be found on the Artistique Cercle des Mirlitons' (1863) at Paris walls of many club-houses. Clubs are usually are representative examples. The political assomanaged by a changing committee who submit ciations formed in Paris at the time of the first their accounts and report to an annual meeting. revolution exercised considerable influence on public Some are proprietary. The number of members is affairs. In 1848 similar bodies in Germany and generally limited. They are either elected by a Austria were suppressed by order of the police. ballot of the whole club, a certain number of black. Club' is frequently used as an equivalent to balls or contrary votes excluding, or by the com society, as in benefit societies, Alpine Club (9.v.), mittee, who sometimes choose all or a select Book-club (q.v.), and cricket, cycling, yachting, number. The revenue is derived from the sale of boating, and racing clubs. The word has been provisions, &c. consumed in the house, and from an adopted in most European langnages, although entrance fee and annual subscription paid by each | Cercle in France and Circolo in Italy are used.




See Ned Ward, The Secret History of Clubs of all and Records of Cluni (1888). See also the works Descriptions (1709); Ward, Account of all the most of Pignot, the historian of the order, Lorain, Remarkable Clubs and Societies in London and Westmin| Penjon, Cuchérat, and Champly. The ancient ster (1750); C. Marsh, The Clubs of London, with A nec. palace in Paris of the Abbots of Clugny became in dotes of their Members (2 vols, 1832); The London Clubs

1833 a museum of antiquities. (1853); Admiral W. H. Smyth, Sketch of the Royal Society Club (4to, 1860); J. Timbs, Club-life in London Clumber, a seat of the Duke of Newcastle (2 vols. 1866 ); J. Strang, Glasgow and its Clubs (1857); | 3 miles SE. of Worksop. It has given name to W. Arnold, The Sublime Society of Beefsteuks (1871); a breed of Spaniels. See SPANIEL. Col. G. J. Ivey, Clubs of the World (1880); Sir P. G.

| Clunes, a gold-mining township of Victoria, 119 Egerton, Grillion's Club (privately printed, 1880); Club-Almanach (Paris, 1883-84, discontinued); L. Fagan,

miles NW. of Melbourne. Pop. 4717. The Reform Club (4to, 1887); F. G. Waugh, Mem | Clupeidæ. See HERRING, SARDINE, SPRAT. bers of the Athenceum Cíub (1824-87; privately printed,

Clu'sia, a genus of tropical trees and shrubs 1888). The rights and obligations of members are discussed by A. F. Leach, Club Cases (1879), and J. Wer

of the order Clusiacea or Guttiferæ (q.v.), some theimer, Law relating to Clubs (1885).

of which are commonly called Balsam trees, from

their resinous or balsamic products. They are Clugny, or CLUNI, an industrial town in the very often epiphytes, growing on larger trees, French department of Saône-et-Loire, on the but also take root in the ground. C. rosea, a Grosne, 15 miles NW. of Mâcon by rail. Pop. native of the West Indies and tropical America, 3653. The famous Benedictine abbey, founded yields a resin, which is used as an external applica. here in 910 by the Duke of Aquitaine, had two tion in veterinary medicine, and for covering boats centuries later attained a degree of splendour and instead of pitch. The abundant resin exuding influence unrivalled by any similar institution of from the disc of the flowers of C. insignis, the the middle ages ; at its height, Clugny stood Wax-flower of Demerara, is used to make a gently second to Rome alone as a chief centre of the stimulating and soothing plaster. The name was Christian world. It was the asylum of kings, the given in honour of the botanist and traveller training-school of popes; its abbot took rank above Clusius, or Charles de Lecluse (1526–1609). all others, issued his own coinage, and was a power

Clusium. See CHIUSI. in the political world ; it was enormously wealthy, and covered Europe with its affiliated foundations.

Clwyd, a river of North Wales, rises on Craig Two hundred priors of subordinate houses assem

Bronbanog, in Denbighshire, and enters the Irish bled here in the 12th century, and in the 15th Sea after an irregular course of 30 miles. Below century there were said to be over 2000 religious | Ruthin it flows through the fertile Vale of Clwyd. houses that were offshoots of or connected with the | 24 miles long, and 2 to 7 wide. abbey in France, Italy, Spain, England, Germany, 1 Clyde (Welsh Cluyd, 'strong'), a world-famous and Poland ; although the alphabetical list of | river and firth of south-west Scotland. The river Clugniac foundations in the 15th century, at the rises as Daer Water at an altitude of 1600 feet, end of the Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, represents only and runs 106 miles northward and north-westward, 825. In England the extension of the order dates round Tinto Hill (2335 feet), and past Lanark, from the Conquest; William and his successors | Bothwell, Glasgow, and Renfrew, till at Dumbar. were devoted to Clugny, and numerous foundations ton it merges in the firth. Its drainage area is were shortly established, of which the priory of estimated by Sir John Hawkshaw at 1481 sq. m., Lewes (1077) became the chief. At their ultimate of which lil belong to the South, North, and suppression in 1539 these numbered 35, exclusive Rotten Calders, 127 to the Kelvin, 200 to the Black of such Scottish foundations as Paisley and Cross. I and White Carts, and 305 to the Leven and Loch raguel. In the 16th century, the conventual | Lomond. Tributaries higher up are Powtrail buildings at Clugny covered upwards of 25 acres. | Water, Little Clydes Burn, Donglas Water, MedThe grand basilica or abbey church, commenced by wyn Water, Mouse Water with its deep gorge St Hugh, the eighth abbot, in 1089, and dedicated through the Cartland Crags, and, near Hamilton, by Pope Innocent II. in 1131, was, until the con the Avon. Of these, Little Clydes Burn, rising struction of St Peter's at Rome, the largest church close to head-streams of the Tweed and the Annan, in Christendom. Of this magnificent and imposing is often wrongly regarded as the Clyde's true pile one tower and part of the transept alone source. In the four miles of its course near remain ; the site of the nave is traversed by a road. Lanark the river descends from 560 to 200 feet, The abbey, over which cardinal-ministers and and forms the four celebrated Falls of Clyde princes of the blood had once ruled as commendator Bonnington, Corra, Dundaff, and Stonebyres Linns, abbots (see COMMENDAM), had outlived both its of which the finest, Corra, makes a triple leap of utility and its importance; it was no longer a great 84 feet. Above the falls the Clyde is a beautiseat of learning, and its 300 monks had dwindled to ful pure trout-stream, traversing pastoral uplands ; 40, when in 1790 the order to whom Pope Urban II. below, it flows through a rich fertile valley, here had said, 'Ye are the light of the world,' was broadening out into plain, there pent between bold finally suppressed. Its library was the richest and wooded banks. But its waters become more and most important in France, and its archives are of more sluggish, begrimed, and polluted, the nearer the greatest value to monastic history and that of they get to Glasgow, where experiments made the early Norman kings of England. In 1562 the with Hoats in 1857-58 showed that the sewage Huguenots sacked the abbey and scattered its sometimes took a whole week to travel only 24 records; but most of this literary treasure was miles. Since 1765 upwards of ten millions sterling afterwards wonderfully recovered. Many records has been expended on rectifying and deepening the were burned along with religious books by the mob | channel from Glasgow to Dumbarton, no less than in 1793, and the library was again scattered ; it 32,261,776 cubic yards of materials having been was generally supposed that nothing had survived, lifted by steam-dredgers during 1844–87. The but in 1829 no fewer than 225 folio and quarto result has been that whereas a hundred years volumes of charters and MSS. were discovered in ago there was a depth at low-water of 15 inches, the town-hall, of which many are preserved in the now they have at Glasgow from 18 to 20 feet at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, and some have low-water;' and that whereas even lighters could found their way to the British Museum. For those once 'not pass to and from Glasgow except it be relating to England, see Sir G. F. Duckett's valu. in the time of food or high-water at spring-tides,' able Record-Evidence of Cluni (1886), and Charters | now a steamer has been docked at Glasgow that CLYDE



is second in size only to the Great Eastern. In Coaching. One of the most remarkable cir. 1812 Henry Bell (9.v.) launched on the Clyde the cumstances in connection with this subject is the first boat in Europe successfully propelled by comparatively short period in which its history is steam; and since then the river's shipping and comprised. It might very reasonably have been shipbuilding (the latter dating from about 1718) thought that the exigencies of commerce, no less have both grown enormously, 404,383 tons having than those of private requirements, would, even been launched from the Clyde yards in 1883.- The in the earliest times, have demanded a system of FIRTH, which some make begin at Glasgow (the communication as speedy as possible, and that highest point of the tide), and some not until some steps would have been taken to secure the Gourock, extends 12 miles westward and 52 south desired end. Such, however, scarcely appears to ward, and broadens from 1 mile at Dumbarton have been the case; and merchants and squires to la at Dunoon, and 37 at Ailsa Craig. It sends contented themselves with whatever facilities for off the Gareloch, Loch Long, Holy Loch, and the | travel were afforded by the stage-wagon, a cum. Kyles of Bute; contains the islands of Bute, Arran, brous vehicle drawn at a walk by six, eight, or and the two Cumbraes; is bordered along its more horses. Passing over all earlier attempts to ancient sea-margin with an almost continuous organise road traffic, we may come to the year fringe of seaports and watering-places (Greenock, 1659, when the first stage-coach-that from CovenRothesay, Ayr, &c.); and, like the last 14 miles try-was started. Its pace was probably not faster of the river, is one of the world's chief commercial than that of the Oxford coach, which went from waterways. See the reports of Smeaton (1755), London to Oxford in two days, at about 3 miles an Rennie (1799), Hawkshaw (1876), and Deas (1881- | hour, or that of the vehicles which occupied two 87); Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland days and a half in compassing the distance between (1874); W. J. Millar's The Clyde from its Source London and Dover. In 1700 a week was required to the Sea (1888); and Pollock's Dictionary of the to go from London to York; and two days from Clyde (1888). For the Clydesdales,' or famous London to Salisbury. The first mail-coach was not Lanarkshire horses, see HORSE.

put on the road until 1784, when Mr John Palmer, Clyde, LORD. See CAMPBELL (SIR COLIN).

manager of the Bath theatre, and M.P. for Bath, Clyster (Gr., from kluző, I wash out'), called

overcame strenuous opposition, and induced Mr Pitt

to supersede Allen's system of postboys, whose also enema, a medicine administered in the liquid

contract rate of speed was 5 miles an hour, by his form by the rectum, or lower end of the intestine.

(Palmer's) plan of carrying the mails by mail-coach, It is used either for the purpose of procuring evacu

The first experiment was made on the 8th of August ation of the bowels, or of conveying stimulants

1784, on which day Mr Palmer entered government (brandy, wine, &c.), other medicines, or nourishing

service as comptroller-general of the Post-office. substances into the system. A nourishing clyster,

A coach left London at 8 A.M. and reached Bristol in order to be effective, must be specially prepared

at eleven at night. The other coach left Bristol at or digested by means of pepsin, pancreatin, or some

four in the afternoon, arriving in London at eight such agent; for the rectum, though it has the

the next morning, the up journey thus taking sixpower of absorbing food already digested, is not

teen hours, or two hours longer than the down capable of performing the functions of digestion.

journey. The scheme appears to have worked so A nourishing or medicinal clyster must be adminis.

well from the beginning, that the municipal tered in as small bulk as possible ; no more than

authorities of the more important towns soon a wine-glassful should be introduced at one time,

petitioned for the adoption of Mr Palmer's plan or it will probably be rejected. For the purpose

in their districts, and in nearly every instance the of procuring evacuation, on the other hand, as large

request was complied with. It was part of the a quantity should be introduced as possible; simple

new scheme that the mails should be timed at each warm or cold water may be employed, or in special |

stage, so that they might all reach London at cases, various catharties may be used in addition,

about the same hour; and that the outgoing mail. such as colocynth, aloes, castor-oil, or turpentine

coaches should start at the same time from the made into an emulsion with yolk of egg; and

General Post-office. At the outset the regulation sometimes carminatives, to expel air. The intro

pace was 6 miles an hour ; but in course of time duction of a teaspoonful of glycerine is often very

this was increased until the coaches were rated at effectual in procuring an action of the bowels when

10 miles per hour. other methods fail. Medicinal clysters should only

This acceleration, however, was due to causes be used under medical superintendence. An in

other than the judgment and enterprise of Mr jecting syringe, with a flexible tube and a double

Palmer, the skill of coachmen and coach-builders, action valve, is usually employed for the adminis

and the employment of better horses. At the tration of remedies in this way.

period above mentioned the bad state of the roads Clytæmnes'tra, in Homeric legend, the wife precluded quick travelling, and although we find of Agamemnon. See AGAMEMNON, ÆSCHYLUS. that roads were the subjects of legislation as early Cnidus, or Gnidos, the chief of the cities of

as 1346, it was not till the days of Macadam and the Doric league in Asia Minor, stood on the pro

Telford that road-travelling was, so to speak, revomontory of Triopion (now Cape Krio), in Caria, lutionised. The former returned to Ayrshire from and, with its two harbours, was long a wealthy

America in the year 1783, and after studying roadand flourishing port. Here, in 394 B.C., a great

making as a science while one of the road commis. sea-fight took place between the Athenians under

sioners in Scotland, came south to Bristol in 1816, Conon, and the Spartans under Pisander, in which

became surveyor in that district, and was conthe former were victorious. The city was a princi.

sulted as to the making of other roads in all parts pal seat of the worship of Aphrodite, who was

of England. As soon as Macadam's plans were therefore sometimes called the Cnidian goddess.

carried into effect, good roads took the place of bad One of its many temples contained the famous

ones ; quick travelling commenced, and paved the statue in Parian marble of the naked Aphrodite way for the palmy days of coaching, until, in 1836, by Praxiteles. Excavations were made on the there were fifty-four mail-coaches in England, site in 1857-58, and many of the marbles then

thirty in Ireland, and ten in Scotland. Meantime recovered are in the British Museum.

the stage-coaches had grown in number, travelled

at a high rate of speed, and necessitated the Coach-building. See CARRIAGE.

employment of a vast amount of capital. Among Coach Dog. See DALMATIAN DOG.

the best-known London proprietors were Chaplin, 308



Horne, Sherman, Nelson, and Mountain ; the two fessional on the Brighton road, drove down with the first named having the judgment to discern that Queen's first speech in three hours forty minutes. the railways would eventually drive coaches off the The meets of the Four-in-hand Driving Club and road, threw in their lot with the London and the Coaching Club are justly regarded as among Birmingham Railway. It was not till after George the sights of the season. The former is the more exIV. came to the throne that coaching reached the clusive as well as the elder, having been established zenith of its fame in respect of organisation, pace, in 1856, chiefly at the suggestion of Mr W. Morritt. appointments, and one may, perhaps, say coachman: The club could not entertain one quarter of the ship as well. The palmy days,' concerning which applications for membership, so in 1870 the Coachso much has been written, began about 1820, and ing Club was established, and has been gradually coaching was possibly at its most perfect pitch increasing in size. For the first driving club of about 1836. For about four years it enjoyed this which we have any account, we must go back to repute, and then the downward journey, far niore the year 1807, the date of the establishnient of the rapid than the upward one, began : one by one Bensington Driving Club—the B.D.C. it was gener. coaches were taken off : coaching inns became road. ally known as—which was limited to twenty-five side public-houses ; coachmen and guards found members. For the first sixteen years of the club's other occupations, or migrated to the workhouse ; existence its members used to drive down two days stables were emptied, and admiration for coaching in the season to Bensington, near Wallingford, gave way to appreciation of railroad-travelling. in Oxfordshire, and twice to Bedford; but in 1823

Of amateur coachmen and coachmanship in the | the Bensington gatherings were given up. A last century comparatively little is known ; but, second club was founded in 1808 by Mr Charles when good roads were the rule instead of the Buxton. The new association was called the Four. exception, 'gentleman coaching' became a fashion horse Club; but it was sometimes, though wrongly, able amusement. Mr John Warde, the famous designated as the Whip Club, and the Four-in-hand master of foxhounds, was a renowned whip, to Club. The Four-horse Club was broken up in 1820, whom were due the thanks of the old coachmen for was revived in 1822, but became extinct altogether having originated the idea of placing springs under about 1829. The B.D.C. was then the only body of the coach-box. The name of Peyton has ever been the kind until 1838, when Lord Chesterfield estabconnected with the annals of the road ; the Messrs lished the Richmond Driving Club, the members Walker, Sir St Vincent Cotton, the Marquis of of which, after meeting at Chesterfield House, drove Worcester, Mr Henry Villebois, Mr Maxse, Mrto Richmond for dinner. This club, however, came Jerningham, Mr Sackville Gwynne, Sir Belling. | to an end after nine or ten years; and in 1832 han Graham, Mr Stevenson, Hon. Fitzroy Stan- the B.D.C. was broken up. From that time there hope, Hon. T. Kenyon, Colonel Sibthorpe, and Mr was no driving club until the present Four-in-hand C. Buxton are among the number of those who Driving Club was founded as already mentioned. patronised the road by every means in their power. See Driving, by the Duke of Beaufort (Badminton Others, scarcely less enthusiastic, succeeded them, series, 1888). until there were no road-coaches to be driven. Coadin'tor (Lat.), a fellow-worker. not as So far as London is concerned, the link between principal but as second, an assistant. Technically, the past and present was broken in the year 1858, it is applied in ecclesiastical law to one appointed when the Brighton 'Age,' under the management to assist a bishop, whom age or infirmity has dis. of Clarke, assisted by the Duke of Beaufort and abled. If a bishop or archbishop is too ill to Sir George Wombwell, was given up; and for eight execute a resignation, the crown may give the dean years there was no road-coach running out of and chapter power to appoint a bishop-coadjutor. London. But the love for the road was only

Coagulation, the amorphous (q.v.) solidifislumbering, it was not dead ; and it was on the

cation of a liquid, or part of a liquid, as when the Brighton road that the first step was taken in the

casein of milk is solidified by rennet in inaking coaching revival in 1866. In that year Captain

Cheese (q.v.), or the white of an egg by boiling. Haworth, Captain Laurie, and a few others, started the Old Times' to Brighton. At the end of the

The process varies in various substances. Albumen, season the confederacy was broken up, and in 1867

or the white of an egg, coagulates at a temperature

of 160° Milk is coagulated or curdled by the action the Duke of Beaufort, Mr Chandos Pole, and Mr

of rennet or by acids. The fibrin in the blood, B. J. Angel took the road, running a coach each

chyle, and lymph of animals is coagulated by the way daily. Between then and the present time

separation of these fluids from the living body. See coaches have been started to Sevenoaks, Tunbridge

Blood. Wells, Virginia Water, Dorking, Sunbury, High Wycombe, Westerham, Reigate, Watford, Windsor,

Coahuila, a state of Mexico, separated from Rochester, Guildford, Portsmouth, Maidenhead,

Texas by the Rio Grande, has an area of 59,280 &c. Some only lasted a short time, and since the

sq. m., partly mountainous, and forming in the revival began there have been many changes in

west a part of the wilderness of the Bolson de routes and proprietors. Thus in 1884 only four

Mapiini. The climate is healthy, although excoaches were left, the Brighton road being vacant ;

tremes of heat and cold are usual. The state is whilst in 1888 there were eight coaches running

rich in minerals, especially silver, and coal has been out of London, and three of them on the Brighton

found. It has valuable pasturage, and in many road. From time to time coaches have also been

parts a most fertile soil; but no district of Mexico put on in the provinces.

is so little known, or has been less developed. The The year 1877 was a somewhat memorable one in

construction of the National Railway has, however, the annals of modern coaching, as on 4th November

| prepared the way for a change, and already several the ‘Old Times' was put on to St Albans, and has

| cotton-factories and a large number of flour-mills run every lawful day' since without a break, |

are in operation. Pop. (1882) 144,594. Capital, though not always on the same route. In 1888 it / Saltillo (9.V.). was put upon the Brighton road, and on the 11th Coaita. See SPIDER-MONKEY. July James Selby, its coachman since 1877, drove Coal, in the sense of a piece of glowing fuel from Piccadilly to Brighton and back in seven (and hence a piece of fuel, whether dead or alive!, hours fifty minutes, the outward journey being is a word common to all the languages of the Gothic accomplished in three hours fifty minutes and ten stock (A.S. col, Icel. kol, Ger. kohle). The dif. seconds. This performance, though a good one, is ferent sorts of fuel are distinguished by prefixes, as not a “record,' as in 1837 Israel Alexander, a pro. I charcoal, pit-coal; but in England, owing to the

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