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England is 6000 miles. The intermediate coal. annually to £21,000,000. The defence of this ing stations now used are Lisbon, Gibraltar, important trade rests on Jamaica and St Lucia Madeira, St Vincent, and Sierra Leone. Lisbon, The defences of Jamaica have been modernised Madeira, and St Vincent being in foreign terri. and greatly improved in recent years. St Lucia tory, Sierra Leone is the first British coaling has been selected by the Admiralty as a coaling station. The harbour is capacious and secure, and station for the fleet in the Windward Islands. the works for its defence are nearly completed. It is not necessary to refer in detail to the land Ascension, distant from Sierra Leone 1000 miles, defences of the great ports of Australia. The from St Helena 680 miles, and from the Cape of combined expenditure of the several governments Good Hope 2380 miles, has a roadstead, or landing. may literally be reckoned by millions. The manplace, on its west or leeward side; there is no ning of the works and the general defence of the harbour. Ascension has been used as a depôt for colonies by land is guaranteed by an army of more stores and the supply of coals. By a wise decision than 30,000 volunteers, of splendid physique, weil of the Admiralty (1887) the stores were to be equipped, and provided with a small staff of officers removed from Ascension, which was henceforth to from the imperial service. A considerable flotilla be used only as a sanatorium for the benefit of for harbour defence has been created at Melbourne. ships whose crews have suffered from fever.

Adelaide has a powerful coast-defence vessel. St Helena, in the opinion of the Royal Com. | Brisbane has two efficient gunboats. Naval brimission, has many advantages over Ascension. It gades have been organised both in Victoria and is larger, has a cooler temperature, more vegeta | New South Wales. tion, and a better roadstead. Within a recent New Zealand is secured by its geographical period £30,000 has been expended on fortifications ; position from an attack in force. The defence and it has been decided to further strengthen the of a few principal ports has been taken in hand, defences, and to supply a modern armament. under the able advice of Sir William Jervois. A

The Royal Commission showed that the value considerable body of volunteers, both for the sea of British trade either with the Cape of Good Hope, and the land service, has been enrolled. or passing round it, amounted to £91,352,000 By an arrangement concluded by the administraannually, the whole, with the exception of about tion of Lord Salisbury, a joint agreement was in £4,000,000, being carried on directly with the 1887 entered into, with the approval of the legislaUnited Kingdom. Enormous, however, as is the tures in the Australias and at home. Under its provalue of this trade, it by no means represents that visions, by a colonial contribution from the several which, in the event of war with one or more of the governments, a special squadron of highly efficient great naval powers, might pass round the Cape. cruisers has been built for the defence of trade in The annual value of British trade with India, Australian waters and on the coasts of New Ceylon, China, and the East, conveyed through the Zealand. Suez Canal, falls little short of the trade by the Cape route. If the long sea-route became alone

Coalition, in Politics, is applied to the union available, the annual value of the traffic by the

of two parties, or, as generally happens, portions of Cape would amount to £150,000,000, exclusive of

parties who agree to sink their differences, and that of the shipping employed. The Cape penin

act in common. Pitt the elder, when he took sula, about 32 miles in length, is a rugged mountain

office in 1757, coalesced with the Whig aristocracy ous district, connected with the continent by a

represented by the Duke of Newcastle. The low isthmus, 13 miles in length (see map of CAPE

ministry always spoken of, however, as the Great COLONY). Simon's Bay affords a secure anchorage,

Coalition was formed in 1782, when Fox, the and naval establishments have been formed on

leader of the reformers, took office along with its shores. The anchorage in Table Bay, the

Lord North, the leader of the opposite party. scene of many disasters in former days, has been

When Lord Derby's ministry resigned in 1853, rendered secure by a noble breakwater. Docks

there was a short coalition between the Whig have been formed. The graving-dock is capable of

party under Lord John Russell, and the more receiving large ironclads. To make the Cape

moderate of the Conservative party under Lord thoroughly secure, it is necessary to fortify both

Aberdeen. The arrangement made between ConTable Bay and Simon's Bay. The defences at

servatives and Liberal Unionists in 1886 can Simon's Bay have been completed at the sole cost

scarcely be called a coalition, inasmuch as the main of the imperial government. At Table Bay the

responsibility of government rests on the former, works are being executed by the colony, while the

while the latter give them a general support. The

term is also used of alliances between separate armaments are provided by the imperial govern.

states. ment.

Mauritius lies nearly midway between the Cape Coal-tar, or GAS-TAR, is a thick, black, opaque and India, 4440 miles apart. The colony has a liquid, which comes over and condenses in the pipes trade of the annual value of £6,000,000. Port Louis when coal or petroleum is distilled. Now usually is a safe and commodious harbour. The Royal obtained in the manufacture of gas, tar was about Commission recommended additions to and im. 1782 extracted from coal by the ninth Earl of Dunprovements of existing defences. Mombasa (q.v.) donald under a patent, expressly for the purpose of was made a naval coaling-station in 1890.

being used for protecting ships from rotting. Coal. Having dealt with British trade with the East, tar is slightly heavier than water, and has a strong, we turn to the West. The trade of the United disagreeable odour. The amount of tar so obtained Kingdom with the United States and Canada ex: l of course varies with the nature of the coal em. ceeded, at the date of the Commissioners' report, ployed, but it is also dependent on the average £119,000,000 in annual value. The largest pro. temperature of distillation. With a low temperaportion is food and raw material supplied to the ture, a large quantity of tar is produced, along with United Kingdom. War with the United States a small yield of a highly illuminating gas. At first cannot be contemplated by practical British poli. this tar was regarded as a waste product, or, at ticians. In the event of war with any other power, most, as a source of pitch; but it soon became merchant-steamers would require protection only apparent that as a source of Benzene (q.v.), and near the coast at either end of their voyage, through it of the aniline dyes (see ANILINE), it trusting to their own speed for the intermediate was a commodity of great commercial value. portion.

When coal-tar is distilleil, a large number of British trade with the West Indies amounts | volatile substances pass over as the temperature




rises higher and higher. At first various gases, | gun-barges, to take part in the defence of certain ammonia and naphtha, are obtained to the extent important harbours, is also to be noticed. As a of about oth part of the original tar, and then dis. general defence against an attack in force, strong tillation ceases, although the temperature gradu. batteries in connection with mine-fields offer, perally rises. After a period of about an hour, more haps, the best security. Against depredations by oils, like the former, lighter than water, are isolated ships or cruisers, well-placed guns on obtained, and so on the distillation proceeds, with the disappearing system, with some fast torpedo. successive intervals, yielding what are known as boats, would probably be most efficacious. "The Creosote oils, and finally Anthracene oils, the question of the best system of defence, under the residue in the still being pitch.

| great changes which have taken place in the At first, when anthracene was of little import material of warfare, must probably remain unde. ance, distillation was not pushed so far, and the cided until more experience has been gained. anthracene oils were allowed to remain in the

Coastguard, an organisation formerly in. pitch; but since the discovery of the process for

tended to prevent smuggling merely, but now conmaking artificial Alizarin (q.v.), the heat is pushed

arın (9.V:?; the heat is pushed | stituted so as to serve as a defensive force also. as far as possible consistent with the production of

The old coastguardsmen were in the employment a pitch that will sell. The first light oils yield

of the Customs department; they were posted along chiefly benzol, carbolic acid, and naphtha. The

the shore at spots commanding extensive views of creosote oils yield creosote and naphthaline, while

the beach, and were expected to be always on the the anthracene oils produce anthracene and lubri.

lookout for smugglers. In 1856 the coastguard cating oils.

was transferred to the Admiralty, and under this After this enumeration of the chief coal-tar pro.

arrangement the Admiralty may, from time to ducts, it will be possible to realise the great im.

time, issue orders for the augmentation of the portance of this substance. The naphtha, besides

coastguard, not to exceed 10,000 men in all. being used as a solvent for india-rubber and gutta.

Lands not exceeding three acres each may be percha, is burned to produce a fine variety of carbon

bought by the Admiralty for coastguard stations. for printing-ink. The benzol, including in this

The coasts of the United Kingdom have been term many nearly allied substances, not only yields

divided into eleven districts. Each district is under many brilliant dyes, but is used for cleaning gloves,

a navy captain, who has an ironclad guardship at silks, &c., and other articles which would be injured

some port in the district. All the revenue cruisers by washing. The creosote in its crude form is

and defence-gunboats are attached as tenders to largely used for preserving wood, enabling it to be

the ships, and are manned therefrom. The able exposed in damp situations without rotting, while,

seamen, borne on the ships' books, and employed when burned, its smoke yields lampblack. The

on shore in coastguard service, are in three classes naphthaline, besides being a source of many dyes,

-chief boatmen, commissioned boatmen, and boatis employed in the Albo-carbon light to give to

men. They receive high-sea pay, besides ls. 4d. ordinary coal.gas very high illuminating power.

per day in lieu of provisions, and house-rent and Finally, the residual pitch is in constant requisition

medical attendance free. In war-time, all of these for making roofing "felt and asphalt pavement.

men may be called upon to serve as regular sailors Besides these .priinary products of coal-tar, there

on board ship; but their families are allowed to are of course numerous compounds derived more or

live rent-free during this time. The coastguard are less remotely from it. Such are the aniline dyes, the

taught naval gunnery, gunboat exercise, and the quinine substitutes, antipyrin, antifebrin, &c., and

serving of land-batteries. The guardships are also the sweetening substance, Saccharin (q.v.), which

employed as training ships for the navy. The whole may be used to replace sugar in many cases. For

of the coastguard now comprises some 4200 men ; further references, see ANILINE, ALIZARIN, BEN

and the charge for their maintenance and that of ZENE, CREOSOTE, and NAPHTHALENE ; also Lunge's

their ships is about £460,000. Coal-tar and Ammonia (1887).

Coast Range, a range of mountains nearly Coalvile, a village of Leicestershire, 16 miles NW. of Leicester by rail. Pop. 1904.

| parallel to the Pacific Coast in California (q.v.). Coänza, a river of West Africa, in the Portu

Coast Survey of United States. See CHART. guese colony of Angola, flows generally NW., and

Coatbridge, a thriving manufacturing town enters the Atlantic about 30 miles S. of St. Paul in Lanarkshire, 9 miles E. of Glasgow by rail, de Loando, by a mouth over a mile broad. It is and 32 W. by S. of Edinburgh. The centre of a navigable for light vessels as far as the Cambambe great mineral district, it is surrounded by nuner. cataracts, over 120 miles, and is regularly traversed | ous blast-furnaces, and produces malleable iron, as far as Dindo, a few miles below, by the trading

boilers, tubes, tin:plate, firebricks and tiles, and vessels of a steamship company established by the

railway wagons. Coatbridge has grown very Portuguese, who have many settlements on the

rapidly in size and prosperity-a growth largely banks.

due to the development of the Gartsherrie Iron.

works of Messrs Baird (q.v.), first put in blast, 4th Coast Defence. The character of the defence |

| May 1830. Pop. (1831) 741; (1851) 8564 ; (1871) provided for the coasts of a state must depend on 15.802 : (1881) 18.425 : (1891) 29.996. In 1885 Coat. the nature of the coast and of the attack to be anti. |

| bridge was made a municipal burgh. See A. Milcipated. In Germany a solution of the problem has

ler's Rise and Progress of Coatbridge (Glas. 1864). been sought mainly by means of submarine mines, associated with a strong flotilla of torpedo-boats,

Co'ati, or Coati-Mundi (Nasua), a genus of and, in certain spots, with powerful batteries.

the raccoon family (Procyonida), in the bear-like Italy intrusts the defence of her coasts chietly to

section of Carnivora. There are two species found her very powerful fleet of ironclads, which can move

in Mexico, Central America, and South America. from place to place as required. In France and Eng.

| They live on trees, feeding somewhat omnivorously, land all these methods are employed : mine-fields. / and grubbing with an upturned flexible snout. which to be effective must be protected by artillery ;

They are social in their habits, and readily adapt torpedo-boat flotillas; batteries; and a strong

themselves to domestication. See RACCOON. fleet of heavy ships, some of which have been Coat of Arms. See HERALDRY. specially designed for this purpose, though their Coatzacoalco, a river of the isthmus of usefulness has been much questioned. In Italy | Tehuantepec in Mexico, rises in the Sierra Madre, the unusual feature of 120-ton guns mounted in and falls into the Gulf of Mexico, 130 miles S. E. of




Vera Cruz. It is navigable for large vessels for 30 and grandson of a day-labourer. From scaring crows miles, and is interesting as part of a route which the boy rose to be ploughman; but a visit to was once surveyed for an interoceanic canal. Near Portsmouth and a sight of the fleet had spoiled him its course was Captain Eads's projected ship-railway. for farming, when, in May 1783, a sudden freak Cobalt (sym. Co, eq. 59, from Cobalus, 'a

took him to London. He reached it with just malicious sprite' or 'gnome ') is a metal the ores

half-a-crown, and for nine months was quill-driver of which are sparingly distributed. In the metallic

to a Gray's Inn attorney. Enlisting then in the state it is found in meteoric stones or aerolites to

54th Foot, he first spent a year at Chatham, where the extent of one per cent., but it generally occurs

he mastered Lowth's English Grammar, and read combined with arsenic as Speiss-cobalt, CoAsı, or

through a whole lending library-Swift's Tale of a as cobalt-glance, the arsenide and sulphide of the

Tub had been his boyhood's delight. Next he metal, COŠAs. To obtain the metal itself from its

served as sergeant-major in New Brunswick (1785– ores is a matter of some difficulty, and although it

91), meanwhile saving 150 guineas, and studying is more tenacious than iron, yet it has not been

rhetoric, geometry, logic, French, and fortification. applied to any practical use. It is of a gray

On his return he obtained a most flattering dis. colour with a reddish tinge, brittle, hard, and very

charge ; in February 1792 married ; but in March magnetic. Many of its compounds are valued on

went to France to get out of a court-martial on three account of the brilliance and permanence of their

of his late officers, whom he had taxed with peculacolours. The Protoxide of Cobalt, C00, is employed

tion. Six months later he sailed for America. At as a blue pigment in porcelain-painting. Zaffre is

Philadelphia he taught English to French refugees the impure oxide obtained by partially roasting

(Talleyrand wanted to be one of his pupils ); transcobalt ore previously mixed with two or three

lated from the French ; and, as 'Peter Porcupine,' times its weight of fine sand. Smalt is the term

wrote fierce onslaughts on Dr Priestley, Tom Paine, applied to a deep-blue glass, which owes its colour

and the native Democrats. Twice he was proto the presence of oxide of cobalt, and which, when

secuted for libel, and America got too hot for him, reduced to very fine powder, is employed occa

so in June 1800 he returned to England. The sionally by laundresses to correct the yellow colour

Tories welcomed him with open arms; and in 1802 of newly-washed linen, and by paper-makers as a

he started his famous Weekly Political Register, blue pigment for staining writing paper. Smalt is

which, with one three-months' break in 1817, conalso used in the production of the blue colours in

tinued till his death. But, Tory first, it altered its porcelain, pottery glass, encaustic tiles, fresco

politics in 1804, till at last it became the most painting, &c., and forms the principal ingredient in

fierce and determined opponent of the government, Old Sevres Blue, Thenard's Blue, Turquoise Blue,

| and the most uncompromising champion of Radical. &c. (see BLUE). A compound containing the

ism.' A great lover of the country, Cobbett oxides of cobalt and zinc is of a beautiful green

settled at Botley in Hampshire, where he planted, colour, and is known as Rinman's Green. The

farmed, and went in for manly sports ; a true chloride of cobalt dissolved in much water, may

soldiers' friend, he got two years in Newgate be employed as a sympathetic ink. In dilute solu.

(1810-12), with a fine of £1000, for his strictures tions, it is of a faint pink colour, which is not

on the flogging of militiamen by German mercenobservable when it is used for writing upon paper ;

aries. In 1817 money niuddles and dread of a but when heated before the fire, it loses water,

second imprisonment drove him once more across and becomes blue, and the writing is then capable

the Atlantic. He farmed in Long Island, writing of being read. On allowing the paper there

all the while for the Register, till in 1819 he after to lie in a damp place, or exposing it to

ventured back again, and came bringing Tom the vapour of steam from a kettle, water is again

Paine's bones—the one really silly action of his absorbed, and the writing returns to its invisible

life. Botley had to be sold, but he started a state. The addition of a little perchloride of iron

seed-farm at Kensington; and bent now on enterto the ink makes the writing appear green; a solu

ing parliament, stood for Coventry (1821) and tion of zinc imparts a red tint; and a salt of copper,

Preston (1826). Both times he failed; but his a yellow shade.

ill-advised trial for sedition (1831) was followed

next year by his return for Oldham to the first Cobán, capital of the department of Vera Paz,

Reformed parliament. His career there, if not in Guatemala, on the fertile Tierra Templada

quite a failure, was signalised chiefly by a crackplateau, about 85 miles N. of the town of Guate.

brained attack on Peel ; anyhow, the late hours mala. Pop. (1895) 27,700.

were too much for him, and on 18th June 1835 he Cobbe. FRANCES POWER, author, born near died at Normanby farm, near Guildford. He was Dublin, 4th December 1822, was educated at buried at Farnham. Brighton, and early had her interest aroused in

Coarse, virulent, braggadocio, inconsistenttheological questions. Her mother's death drove Cobbett was all this. He was often right, but he her for spiritual help to Theodore Parker, whose must have been oftener wrong, for oftener he came counsels are contained in his famous Sermon of to abuse what once he had eulogised than vice versti. the Immortal Life. She travelled in Italy and He was a very Ishmael of politics ; Lord Dalling the East, and wrote The Cities of the Past dubs him the contentious man. Still, a man he (1864), and Italics (1864). A strony Theist, a was, a genuine John Bull; and if he wrote nonsense supporter of women's rights, and a proniinent about Waterloo and the national debt, and more anti-vivisectionist, she published her Autobiography nonsense than sense about the Reformation, he in 1894. Among her other works are Friendless Wrote it in fine strong English. He loathed Whigs Girls, and How to help Them (1861); Broken and mock gentlefolks,' but he honestly loved the Lights: an Inquiry into the Present Condition and poor-loved Nature, too, and could paint her dear Future Prospects of Religious Faith (1861); Studies English scenery with a freshness and insight New and Old (1865); Criminals, Idiots, Women, wholly and solely his own. The Rural Rides (new and Minors: Is the Classification Sound? (1869); edition, with notes by Pitt Cobbett, 1885) are unDarwinism in Morals (1872); The Hopes of the surpassable. They were a reprint (1830) from the Human Race Hereafter and Here (1874); Re-echoes Register, and followed or were followed by Porcu. (1876); The Peak in Darien (1882); and The pine's Works (12 vols. 1801), the excellent and Scientific Spirit of the Age (1888).

entertaining English Grammar (1818), the savage Cobbett, WILLIAM, born at Farnham, Surrey, History of the Reformation (1824-27), the Wood. on 9th March 1762, was the son of a small farmer, 1 lands (1825), the shrewd, homely Advice to Young




Men (1830), and forty or fifty more works. Cobbett Lord Palmerston, who was at this time forming his was further the originator of Hansard's Debates ministry of 1859-65, with a just appreciation of (1806), and of Howell's State Trials (1809). See Cobden's great services, offered him a seat in the Lord Dalling's Historical Characters (5th ed. 1876), cabinet as President of the Board of Trade ; but and Edward Smith's Life of Cobbett (2 vols. 1878). Cobden, as the uncompromising opponent of Palm. Cobbold, THOMAS SPENCER, writer on parasitic

erston's policy, felt bound to decline the honour. worms, was born at Ipswich in 1828, studied medi.

| After his election for Rochdale, the state of his eine at Edinburgh, lectured in London on botany,

health did not permit him to take any part in parzoology, comparative anatomy, geology, and beliñin.

liamentary proceedings, but as Her Majesty's pleni. thology, in connection with various hospitals and

potentiary, he (1859-60) arranged and concluded colleges, and died 20th March 1886. He wrote Ento

the treaty of commerce with France. Cobden zoa (1864), Parasites (1879), Tapeworms (1866), and

spoke out strongly in favour of the North during numerous other works on kindred subjects.

the American civil war, and in 1864 strenuously

opposed intervention in favour of Denmark. He Cobden, RICHARD, a great English poli. | died in London, April 2, 1865, and was buried at tician, 'the Apostle of Free Trade,' was born at Lavington, Sussex. Few politicians have had such Heyshott, near Midhurst, Sussex, 3d June 1804. an honourable record as Cobden. In all the rela. His father, a thriftless yeoman, had to sell bis tions of life he was amiable, single-minded, and farm in 1814, and relations charged themselves earnest. In parliament and on the platform he with the maintenance of the eleven children ; ) was a master in the art of clear, persuasive, and Richard, the fourth, being sent to a ‘Dotheboys' convincing speech. He may be regarded as the school in Yorkshire. After five wretched years representative man of the Manchester school, and there, in 1819 he was received into a wholesale therefore as the most prominent champion of free warehouse in London, belonging to his uncle, trade, peace, non-intervention, and economy. where he soon showed great aptitude for business,

His Speeches on Questions of Public Policy were edited and as a commercial traveller he visited Scotland

by John Bright and Thorold Rogers (1870). See the and Ireland. In 1828 Cobden and two of his articles CORN LAWS and FREE TRADE; the publications friends entered into a partnership for selling cali. of the Cobden Club; his Life by John Morley (2 vols. coes by commission in London. They set up an 1881); Ashworth, Recollections of Coben (1877); Sir establishment for calico-printing in Lancashire in E. Watkin, Alderman Cobden (1891); A. J. Balfour's 1831, and in 1832 Cobden settled in Manchester,

Essuys and Addresscs ; Mrs Salis-Schwabe, Reminiscences the town with which his name is so closely asso- of Cobien (French, 1879; trans. 1895). ciated. He wrote a comedy which was rejected Cobet, CAREL GABRIEL, Dutch Hellenist, born by the manager of Covent Garden Theatre. In at Paris in 1813, studied at Leyden, travelled in 1835 he visited the United States, and in 1836– Italy, and in 1846 settled in a chair at Leyden, where 37 travelled in Turkey, Greece, and Egypt. The he died 6th October 1889. He published De Arte result of his travels appeared in two pamphlets, Interpretandi (1847); collections of Variæ Lectiones England, Ireland, and America (1835), and Russia and Miscellanea ; works on the comic poet Plato, (1836); the latter intended as an antidote against Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Xenophon; and the “Russophobia' then prevalent. In these pam | editions of Diogenes Laertius, Xenophon's Anabasis phlets he also ridiculed the workings of diplomacy, and Hellenica, Lysias, and Cornelius Nepos (1881). and asserted England's mission to be the avoidance

Cobham, LORD. See OLDCASTLE. of war and the extension of commerce. He contested the borough of Stockport unsuccessfully on

Cobi'ja, a seaport of the Chilian province of free-trade principles in 1837. In 1838 he carried

Antofagasta (q.v.), on a shallow, open bay. See in the Manchester Chamber of Commerce a motion

| ATACAMA. to petition parliament for the repeal of all duties Coble. See Boat. on corn. In the same year seven merchants of Coblenz, or KOBLENZ, a city of Rhenish Manchester formed the association which soon grew | Prussia, 56 miles SSE. of Cologne by rail, is beauinto the Anti-Corn-law League. Of this League tifully situated at the junction of the Rhine and Cobden was the most energetic and prominent the Moselle, the former of which is here crossed member. His lectures all over the country, and by a bridge of boats, and the latter by a fine his speeches in parliament (to which he was stone bridge, built originally in 1344. Both rivers returned in 1841 by the constituency which had are also spanned by railway bridges. Coblenz is rejected him in 1837), were characterised by clear, very strongly fortified with a wall and a series of quiet persuasiveness; and to them was in great part detached forts, including the almost impregnable due, as Sir Robert Peel acknowledged, the aboli. | castle of Ehrenbreitstein (9.v.), on the opposite tion of the corn laws at so early a period as 1846. side of the Rhine. In the old town, many of the

Cobden's zeal for free trade in corn had, however, streets are irregular, narrow, and dirty ; but the to such a degree withdrawn his attention from pri new town, which is situated nearer the Rhine, is vate business, that he was now a ruined man, and handsomely built, spacious, and clean. Among the a subscription of £80,000 was raised in recognition principal buildings are the church of St Castor, of his great services; and with this in 1847 he the oldest Christian church in the Rhine district, re-purchased Dunford, the farmhouse in which he founded in 836, though dating in its present form was born. As his health, too, had suffered, he from the 12th century; the Kaufhaus (1479); the re-visited the Continent, and during his absence Protestant Florins Kirche (12th century); the was elected both for Stockport and the West church of Our Lady (1250-1431 ); and the old Jesuit Riding of Yorkshire. He chose the latter con: College, now a gymnasium. The extensive palace stitnency, which he continued to represent till was built in 1778-86 by the last Elector of Trèves, 1857. He shared Mr Bright's unpopularity for and restored in 1845. The old archiepiscopal palace opposing the policy that led to the Crimean war; is now a factory. The favourable position of and on an appeal to the country by Lord the place secures it an active commerce in wine, Palmerston to support him in his Chinese policy, corn, mineral waters, &c. It manufactures cham. of which Cobden was a strenuous opponent, he pagne (about 1,000,000 bottles annually, exported retired from the West Riding and contested Hud. chietly to England), cigars, japanned goods, and dersfield, where, however, he was defeated. Cob. furniture. Pop. (1875) 29,290; (1890) 32,671. den spent his leisure in a second American tour. Coblenz (Fr. Coblence) was known to the Romans During his absence he was elected for Rochdale. I as Confluentes. From 1018 till 1796 it belonged to





Trèves. In 1798 it was made the capital of the Naja tripudians is found in India, Java, and new French department, Rhine and Moselle, and South China ; N. haje, an allied species, is common by the treaty of 1815 was given to Prussia.

in Egypt and parts of Africa. The coral snake Cob-nut, a name given to some of the largest (Elaps), the rock-snake (Bungarus), the venomons and finest cultivated varieties of the Hazel-nut water-snake (Hydrophis), are genera within the (q.v.).-In the West Indies the name cob-nut is same sub-order. given to the fruit of Omphalea triandra, a tree of See SNAKES, and works there quoted ; also Professor G. the natural order Euphorbiaceæ. It is also called Günther's Reptiles of British India (Ray Society, 1861), Hog-nut. The tree has a white juice, which turns and Sir Joseph Fayrer's Thanatophidia of India (1874). black in drying, and in Guiana is used instead of Cobre, a city of Cuba, 9 miles NW. by N. of ink. The albumen of the seed is eaten, after the Santiago de Cubă. In the vicinity are copper-mines. embryo, which contains a cathartic principle, is Pop. (1899) 1028. removed. Cobourg, a port of entry and capital of North

Coburg, the capital of the duchy of Coburg, umberland county, Ontario, on Lake Ontario, 69

| in the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is miles NE. of Toronto. It is a railway junction, and

picturesquely situated on the left bank of the contains a Wesleyan university, and several woollen

Itz, 81 miles SSE. of Eisenach by rail. The older mills, foundries, and breweries. Pop. (1891) 4829.

part of the town, which is fairly well built, is

surrounded by attractive modern suburbs. Coburg Cobra da Capello ("hooded snake'), the

is, alternately with Gotha, the ducal residence, Portuguese name for one of the most deadly of the

and the palace, erected in 1549, is one of the prinpoisonous Indian snakes, technically known as Naja

cipal buildings in the town. Among the others tripudians. It belongs to the sub-order of venomous

are the government buildings, the arsenal, contain: Colubrine snakes (Proteroglyphia), in which the

ing a public library, the town-house, and the palace fangs borne on the upper jaw are not perforated by of the Duke of Edinburgh. The old castle of a complete canal, but possess simply an anterior

Coburg, mentioned in 1057, beside which Coburg groove down which the poison trickles. The cobra

originally grew up, is situated on an eminence is a large snake, 5 feet or more in length; the

530 feet above the town. It afforded Luther a colour varies considerably

shelter during the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, and from pale yellow to dark | in 1632 successfully resisted a siege by Wallenstein.

In 1782 it was converted into a prison, but in 1838 tacle-like black markings it was thoroughly restored, and now contains on its neck. By the dila. | valuable collections of engravings, zoology, &c. tation of the anterior ribs | Luther's apartments are preserved as he used during excitement the neck them. Coburg has manufactures of woollen, can be distended so as to cotton, marquetry, baskets, porcelain, furniture, produce a hood-like appear

and carriages, and exports beer. Pop. (1875) 8.88 ance. It is by preference

14,567; (1895) 18,688. Prince Albert, to whom a nocturnal, and feeds on statue was erected in the market-place of Coburg

amphibians, reptiles, birds, by Queen Victoria in 1865, was born at Rosenau, a
eggs, small mammals, &c.

ducal seat 4 miles to the north.
It does not appear to be
naturally aggressive, but

Coburg Peninsula, the most northerly part instinctively assumes a

of Australia to the west of the Gulf of Carpentaria, threatening attitude when

runs out in a north-west direction towards Melville disturbed. It then dilates

Island, from which it is divided by Dundas Strait. its neck, hisses loudly, and

On its north side is the bay known as Port Essingprepares to strike by rais

ton, at the head of which was established, in 1831, ing its fangs in the usual

the settlement of Port Victoria-abandoned, on Head of Cobra. snake fashion. The habits

account of its insalubrity, in 1850. Swamp buffavary greatly in different

loes, originally brought from Java, have increased situations. It may haunt human dwellings for the

here enormously. sake of poultry and other food, and is said to occur Cobweb. See SPIDERS. 8000 feet up the Himalayas. Though essentially | Co'ca (Erythroxylon Coca—which has of course land animals and fond of concealing themselves no connection with Cocoa or with Cocoa-nuts), a among old masonry, stone heaps and the like, the shrub of the order Erythroxylaceæ, of which the cobras can swim and climb with ease. In graceful leaves furnish an important narcotic and stimulant. ness of movement they excel. The head and neck The shrub is 6 or 8 feet high, and somewhat reare often raised above the level of the rest of sembles a blackthorn bush ; the leaves are ovatethe body, which remains horizontal. In spite of lanceolate, simple, and with entire and slightly pictures to the contrary, they can only raise the waved margins, and strongly marked veins, of front part of the body to a very limited extent. which two on each side of the midrib run parallel

The bite of the cobra is as usual accompanied by to the margin. It has been in use from a very the compression of one of the salivary glands modi. remote period among the Indians of South America, fied as a poison bag. The secretion trickles down and was extensively cultivated before the Spanish the grooves of the fangs, and entering the wound conquest. Many of the Indians of the Peruvian produces rapid nervous paralysis, from which re Andes are to this day excessively addicted to it, covery is, to say the least, extremely rare. Great and its use is quite general among them, besides numbers of deaths occur annually in India from extending to men of European race. The dried cobra bites, but as the assailant often escapes, leaves are chewed with a little finely powdered identification is frequently a matter of conjecture. unslaked lime, or with the alkaline ashes of The victims are usually natives, despite the rattles the Quinoa (9.v.), or certain other plants. An they use to warn off the reptiles. No certain remedy infusion is also occasionally used. An habitual is known, but excision, cauterisation, ligaturing, coca-chewer takes a dose about four times daily. doses of ammonia, drugging with rum, &c. are In soothing effect it recalls tobacco, but its influoften resorted to. The cobra is the object of animal.ence is a much more remarkable one. It greatly worship, and the centre of numerous native super-| lessens the desire for ordinary food, and at the stitions, and is a favourite with snake-charmers. | same time permits of much more sustained exer

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