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Ecclesice in Unitate Fratrum Bohemorum (1632; orbits of various degrees of elongation; others, republished 1702); and his Pansophiæ Prodromus hyperbolas ; while the majority have a form of (1639), an attempt at a complete statement of the orbit not differing sensibly from the parabola, circle of knowledge. In 1641 Comenius was invited to which is the limiting form of curve to which both England by parliament, through the philanthropist the ellipse and hyperbola approximate under given Hartlieb, to assist in reforming the system of public conditions. instruction ; but as the breaking out of the Civil Let p be the point of perihelion passage of a War prevented the execution of this design, he went comet, and let the direction of its motion be in the to Sweden (1642). There he was patronised by direction indicated by the arrow. There is a Oxenstiern, who gave him a commission to draw up certain velocity of motion at this point which a plan for the organisation of schools in Sweden; would give the orbit the form of a parabola, pa', and this he completed at Elbing, four years after- the direction of motion always tending to parallelwards. He also put to press (1643) a treatise on ism with the straight line through ps. Any Pansophia. He returned to his Polish home at Lissa in 1648, and elaborated his work there. He next went (1650) to Saros-Patak, Hungary, for a similar purpose. Here he composed his celebrated Orbis Sensualium Pictus, or The Visible World (Nurem. 1658), the first picture-book for children, which has been often reprinted and imitated. Finally, he settled in Amsterdam, where he pub. lished several other works. He died at Naarden on the 15th November 1671. Bacon's speculations appear to have stirred the imagination of Comenius

Sc to the conception of universal and systematised learning, to which he gave the name of Pansophia or Encyclopædia.

His educational and pansophic works were pub, lished at Amsterdam (4 vols. 1657), and dedicated to the city of Amsterdam in recognition of his hospitable treatment there. In education he was a velocity less than this would cause it to describe a realist; he was also fervently evangelical, and his closed curve, pașa”, any greater velocity would whole system was intended to lead up to know. cause it to describe the hyperbola, pa, in which ledge, virtue, and piety. Late in life a mystical case it would approximate to the direction of the tendency was apparent in his works. Whatever straight line, CD, and would never return. This may be thought of his educational system, he first would be the case if there were no disturbing force fully developed educational method, made import: to interfere with the sun's attraction; and conant reforms in the teaching of languages, and versely, comets approaching the sun along the introduced into schools the study of Nature. See various paths above described would pass the Laurie's Comenius, his Life and Work (1881), a perihelion with the various velocities above indi. German Life by Kvacsala (1892), and Keatinge's cated. Any attraction, however, of an extraneous translation of The Great Didactic ( 1896).

body interfering with the attraction of the sun Comet. The word comet is derived from the might change the orbit from the ellipse to the Greek kómē, ‘hair,' a title which had its origin in hyperbola, and vice versû, or from the parabola to the hairy appearance often exhibited by the haze either. As, however, there is only one parabola or luminous vapour, the presence of which is at corresponding to infinite sets of ellipses and hyper. first sight the most striking characteristic of the bolas, an interfering cause is not likely to change celestial bodies called by this name. The general the orbit from an ellipse or hyperbola to the para. features of a comet are-a definite point or nucleus, | bolic form. a nebulous light surrounding the nucleus, and a There are twenty known periodical comets, eleven luminous train preceding or following the nucleus. of which have been observed at more than one Anciently, when the train preceded the nucleus- perihelion passage. These latter have periods in as is the case when a comet has passed its peri- years as follows : Encke's, 3:3 ; Winnecke's, 5:6 ; helion, and recedes from the sun-it was called the Brorsen's, 5.5; Tempel's I, 6; D'Arrest's, 6:4; beard, being only termed the tail when seen follow. Biela's, 6-8; Faye's, 7:4; Tuttle's, 13.8; Halley's, ing the nucleus as the sun is approached. This 76 ; Tempel's II, 5.2 ; Swift's, 5.5. distinction has disappeared from all modern astro- The orbits of forty-three comets appear to be nomical works, and the name tail is given to ellipses. These are probably periodical. The paths the appendage, whatever its apparent position. of about two hundred cannot be distinguished from Neither the tail nor the nucleus is now considered parabolas. These are possibly periodical, as the an essential cometary element, but all bodies ellipse, when very eccentric, cannot near perihelion visible in interplanetary space, which describe be distinguished from a parabola. Only six or orbits round the sun of an extremely elongated seven have orbits possibly hyperbolic. form, are classed as comets. There are several Elliptic comets in a large majority move directly plain points of difference between comets and -i.e. from west to east. Parabolic comets usually planets. The planets move all in the same move in the contrary direction. But, on the whole, direction, from west to east, which is astronomically there is no general tendency in these bodies to called direct motion ;' but the movements of move either way. Periodic comets have orbits but comets are often from east to west, or retrograde. little inclined to the ecliptic; but, on the whole, The orbits of all the planets are confined to a zone cometary orbits show a tendency to gather round of no great breadth on either side of the ecliptic; a plane inclined 50° to the ecliptic. The perihelia but the paths of comets cut the ecliptic in every gather about two opposite regions, in longitude direction, some being even perpendicular to it. 60° to 120°, and 240° to 300°. The nodes of the The orbits of all the planets are nearly circular; orbits gather also about two regions, not, however, or, more properly speaking, are ellipses of very directly opposite. small eccentricity. The orbits of comets, on the The discovery that comets are celestial bodies, other hand, present every variety of eccentricity, extraneous to our atmosphere, is due to Tycho some of thein being ellipses or ‘elongated closed Brahé, who measured the parallax of the comet

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of 1557. Newton succeeded in demonstrating that the orbit of Jupiter, and a slight acceleration in its they are guided in their movements by the same periodic times of return was regarded until lately principle which controls the planets in their orbits ; as suggesting the possibility of the space, within and Halley was the first, by determining the para. our solar system at least, being occupied by a bolic elements of a number of comets from the resisting medium, though of extreme rarity. (2) recorded observations, to identify the comet of That of Biela or Gambart, having a period of six 1682 with one which had been observed in 1607 years and three-quarters. During the visit of this and the observations recorded by Kepler and comet in 1846, it was seen first at New Haven, Longomontanus, and also with a comet observed in U.S., by Messrs Herrick and Bradley, on December 1531 by Apian, at Ingoldstadt, and thus confidently 29, 1845, in the act of separating into two distinct to predict the return at the end of 1758 or beginning comets, which kept moving side by side till they of 1759, of a comet which would have the same disappeared. On the return of the comet in the parabolic elements. These parabolic elements are autumn of 1852, the distance between the two elements of a parabola nearly coincident with the nuclei had much increased. Since then, although elongated elliptic orbit of the comet. They are : repeatedly due, it has not again been seen. (1) The inclination. (2) The longitude of the node. The celebrated comet of 1680, which furnished These two determine the plane of the orbit. (3) Newton with the occasion for proving that comets The longitude of the perihelion, or point of nearest revolve around the sun in conic sections, and that, approach to the sun. (4) The perihelion distance, consequently, they are retained in their orbits by or nearness of approach to the sun. (5) The time the same force as that which regulates the move. of perihelion passage. (6) The direction of motion, ments of the planets, appears to have been about whether direct or retrograde.

the most remarkable for brilliancy of any of which To determine these parabolic elements, three we have authentic accounts. This comet is supobservations of the comet are sufficient; and by a posed to be identical with the one that appeared table of such elements deduced from the recorded about the time observations, it is possible at once to ascertain of Cæsar's death whether any newly observed comet is identical with (44 B.C.), with

Jan. 25 any that have been previously observed. To pre- that which was dict, however, with accuracy the time of the return seen in the reign of a comet, a much more elaborate calculation of Justinian in must be made of the orbit, taking into account the the year 531, and perturbations of the planets to whose influence it is with another in subject. This difficult problem was solved, in the the year 1106, in case of Halley's comet, by the joint work of the reign of

Jan. 5. 1681 Laland, Madame Lepante, and Clairaut, who Henry II., the began to look out for the return of the comet, that tion, according Nov. 17 1680 DEC.29 announced, in November 1758, just as astronomers period of revolu- ORBIT OF THE EARTH it would take 618 days more to return to the peri. to the orbit cal. helion than on the preceding revolution. The culated for it by

Nov. 216 perihelion passage was fixed about the middle of Whiston, being April 1759, but Clairaut distinctly forewarned the about 575 years.

Dec 21 world that, being pressed for time, he had neglected There is, how.

Nov. 25 small values, which collectively might amount to ever, some doubt about a month in the seventy-six years. The among astronocomet passed the perihelion on the 12th March as to the 1759, exactly a month before the time announced, real form of its but within the assigned limits of divergence from orbit, the one

Dec 12 that date. The elements of its orbit proclaimed it assigned to it to be the comet of the former periods by their by Encke giving similarity. For the next perihelion passage, the it a period different calculations executed by MM. Damoiseau, of 8813 years. Rosenberger, Lehmann, and De Pontécoulant, fixed This comet aprespectively the 4th, the 26th, the 11th, and the proached nearer 13th November 1835. Subsequently, observations to the sun than indicated the 16th-that is to say, a deviation of any known, exonly three days from what turned out the most cept that of 1843. accurate calculation, and a deviation of twelve The comet of 1680 days from the most remote. We have adverted approached the to the perihelion passages of this comet in 1531, sun within the 163d of the semi-diameter of the 1607, 1682, 1759, and 1835. It is also now identi. earth's orbit. The annexed diagram shows a part fied with a comet observed in 1456, and one in 1378, of its path; the same diagram shows the direction recorded by Chinese observations. There are no of the tail. sufficiently reliable European observations previous In the first half of the 19th century, the comets to 1456, but it is conjectured by Arago that this chiefly notable are those of 1811 and 1843. The comet is the same with the comet of 1305; that of former was a most brilliant object for many weeks 1230; a comet mentioned in 1006 by Hali Ben in the northern heavens. It is periodic, though Rodoan; that of 885; finally, a comet seen in the travelling at aphelion to the enormous distance year 52 before our era.

from the sun of 40,121,000,000 miles. The latter This account of Halley’s comet has been given at was also remarkable for its brilliance, but chiefly length to illustrate the principles on which the for its very near approach to the sun, passing so calculations are made. A simple method, due to near that a trifling change in its direction of Olbers, enables the elements of cometary orbits approach would have caused a collision.

Not to be calculated in a comparatively short time, and more than 32,000 miles separated their surfaces almost all comets discovered have now their paths when nearest. Its tail also was enormous, reachroughly determined soon after they become visible. ing in length 200,000,000 miles. Since 1850 many

There are two other periodical comets of peculiar brilliant comets are recorded : Donati's in 1858; interest: (1) That of Encke, with a short period and the great comet of 1861, through the tail of of 1204 days. Its orbit does not extend so far as which our earth passed on June 30th of that year,



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with scarcely a sign observable of the passage; rewarded this diligent observer, a record equalled in also Coggia's comet in 1874, remarkable for the 1887 by Barnard, of Nashville, Tennessee. In 1888 series of envelopes of luminous matter which comets were discovered by Sawerthal on February seemed to combine to form its tail.

The great 18, and by Brooks, New York, on August 7. The comet of 1880 astonished astronomers by follow- returns of Encke's comet and of Faye's comet also ing the same track as that of 1843, almost grazing marked that year, as they again did the year 1895, the sun. That of 1881 iii followed the track of in which De Vico's comet was seen for the first that of 1807, for a return of which it was at first time since 1844. Seven new comets were seen for mistaken. These two examples demonstrated that the first time between Nov. 1895 and Nov. 1896. in some cases several comets travel on the same orbit, at great distances, however, from one another. The comet 1881 iii was the first successfully photographed, Janssen obtaining a picture including 21°, and Dr Henry Draper of New York one including 10°, of its tail. Dr Huggins and Dr Draper were also both successful in photographing its spectrum, with results confirming what eye observations already had revealed. Dr Schäberle at Ann Arbor, Michigan, discovered another bright comet, the fourth for the year 1881, which for a time accompanied 1881 iii, both being in the northern heavens together. At Dud. ley Observatory, U.S., a comparatively small comet was discovered soon after by Mr Wells, remarkable as the first

Comet of 1811. in whose spectrum the sodium line was seen. In 1882 the surprise of 1880 was The quantity of matter in even the largest comet repeated. Another bright comet appeared in is known to be very small, sob or so of that of the September, following the tracks of the 1843 and earth in a calculated instance, much less probably 1830 comets, making the third in an orbital pro: in many others. The nuclens, in which most of cession in space.

It was seen in New Zealand this is contained, is generally admitted to be a more on September 3, at the Cape of Good Hope or less close congeries of neteoric fragments. This on September 8, and at Rio de Janeiro on the is shown by the sinallness of its mass as compared 11th. “Mr Common at London had been seeking with its size, its spectrum, and the fact that comets for a short time to catch a bright comet near the I and meteors follow one another in similar orbits. sun in the daytime. Independently, on September 17, he discovered this one, close to and rapidly nearing the sun. Clouds prevented him from seeing the passage, but it was observed at the Cape of Good Hope by Messrs Finlay and Elkin, who were watching at the time. Passing in front of the sun, it disappeared from view, overpowered by the solar brilliance, to reappear shortly passing off the other edge of the disc. All next day it was clearly seen, only surpassed in brilliancy by thie sun itself. Though it had passed so close to the sun, it experienced no retardation of speed, proving that very near the solar

Donati's Comet, 1858. surface there can be no resisting medium of density to affect such a body. It was followed | Biela's lost comet is now probably scattered into the with the telescope to a distance from the earth meteor stream which pursues its track (see ante). of 470,000,000 miles. This long observation en- The close agreement of cometary and meteoric or. abled its period to be well ascertained as about bits may appear from the fact that Tempel's comet 700 years. It exhibited in a marked degree a ten (1866) has a period of 33-28 years, and the three dency to disruption. "Space appeared,' says Miss groups of November meteors, following the same Clerke, 'to be strewn with the filmy debris of this line, periods respectively of 32-25, 33-31, and 33:11 extraordinary body all along the track of its retreat years. Also just as these groups follow one another from the sun.' Its tails corresponded to types 1 in procession round the sun, so do the comets above and 2 (see post), and there was a vast outburst of mentioned of 1843, 1880, and 1882. Other systems luminous matter in October towards the sun, having of mingled comets and meteors are also known, and a diameter of 4,000,000 miles. Its spectrum showed the spectroscopic researches of Lockyer may be said the sodium line in addition to the usual cometary to have demonstrated that the peculiar spectrum of bands. The year 1883 was barren in coinetary comets can be produced from meteors. Carbon, results; 1884 saw three new comets discovered hydrogen, and sodium have been shown to enter respectively in Tennessee, Australia, and Europe by into the composition of cometary nuclei. A banded Barnard, Ross, and Wolf. In 1885, on the 27th spectrum of a hydrocarbon is the usual type, the November, there was a grand display of the meteors sodium line only showing when the nucleus is close into which Biela’s comet is now generally considered to the sun, and sweeping rapidly past it in a state to have broken up: 50 to 60 a minute being of great disturbance. Usually as the nucleus nears recorded. Brooks, of Phelps, New York, discovered the sun, it appears disturbed; then jets or masses of a comet 0:1 August 31 in that year. But in the luminous material, gas or fine dust, are thrown up. next year (1886), within two months, three comets Some repulsive force appears to seize these and 378




sweep them out into space with enormous rapidity, a native of Siberia, 6-10 feet in height, has been producing the splendid phenomena of the tail. The recoinmended for feeding cattle. The stamens researches of Olbers, Bessel, Norton of Yale College, are covered in this genus by five awl-shaped C.S., C. F. Pope, Zöllner, and especially Professor processes pushed in from the outside of the corolla, Bredichin, late of Moscow Observatory, have gone and meeting so as to form a false bottom far to establish the existence of this force, and impassable to ants, flies, and other small honeyto identify it with electric repulsion. Professor thieves, but which can be thrust aside by the Bredichinhas divided comets tails into three classes, those of hydrogen, of hydrocarbons, and of iron, due respectively to a repellent force (1) of 12 times solar gravity, (2) equal to it, and (3) { of it. The first material and force give straight, the second slightly curved, and the third strongly curved tails. The comet, 1886 f, showed three tails, one corre. sponding to each of these types. Observation and calculation have verified these conclusions as to the forces, and forms of tails, but not yet as to the electric nature of the forces. The light of comets is inainly due to electric discharges; a part, however, is reflected solar light, and a part perhaps due to incandescence. The tenuity of comets' tails is inconceivable to us, stars, which the slightest fog would conceal, shining clearly through a thickness of millions of miles of their material. Hence, although so great a display is caused by the matter swept away from the comet at perihelion, it loses but little in apparent bulk, though in the course of centuries the loss is abundantly perceptible. Some comets, Professor Kirkwood suggests, are probably asteroids, thrown out of their proper track by the disturbing force of Jupiter.

Comets have been alternately regarded with terror and with welcome in the popular mind. The appearance of Halley's comet in 1456, just as the Turks had become masters of Constantinople, and threatened an advance into Europe, was regarded by Christendom with a superstitious dread, and to the Ave Maria was added the prayer : 'Lord save us from the devil, the Turk, and the comet.' At Constantinople the occurrence of a lunar eclipse at the same time increased the portentousness of the

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale). event. The discoveries of science of the magnitude of the space filled by their bodies, and their pro humble-bees which alone fertilise the flower. digious velocity, together with the confessed impos. Many bees, however (especially B. terrestris and sibility of always predicting their approach, pro

one or two others), prefer to bite a hole in the side duced fears of another kind, which have sometimes of the corolla below this cover, and the flowers may been, especially in France, extravagantly exagger. thus be seen to be visited both in the legitimate ated in the public mind. The groundlessness of and illegitimate way. See, under FLOWER, Fertilisuch alarms, from the extreme improbability of sation of the Flower, vol. iv. p. 692. collision with the nucleus, the innocuousness of a Comines, a town on the borders of Belgium contact with the extremely attenuated surrounding and France, 15 miles SW. of Courtrai by rail, matter, and, possibly, to the greater part of the divided by the Lys into two parts, of which that on world, of a collision with the nuclens itself, will be the left (pop. 4381 ) belongs to Belgium ; the other, sufficiently evident from what has been said above. on the right (pop. 6355), to France. The town has It is certain that already, on many occasions, some some manufactures, and was the seat of the family of the attenuated vapour in the tail of comets must of Comines. have come within the earth's attraction, and been Comines, PHILIPPE DE, Sieur d'Argenton, a absorbed in its atmosphere. Whether the effect is French statesman and historian, who was born deleterious or salubrious, or whether it has any about 1445—at Renescure, in the neighbour. perceptible influence at all, is only matter of specu- hood of Hazebrouck. His ancestors had been lation. The salubrity of cometary influence is now citizens of Ghent. He joined the court of Bur. a popular idea ; and the vintages of 1811 and 1858 gundy, and was sent by Charles the Bold on were favourable seasons, whose produce has been important missions to France, England, and Spain. advertised as the comet wines. It is scarcely worth In 1472 he forsook Charles and entered the service while, however, to follow further speculation on of Louis XI. of France. He was rewarded with these subjects, and it has been considered prefer the rich fief of Talmont, and became one of Louis's able to confine this article chiefly to the description most trusted advisers. On the accession of Charles of the general characteristics of comets, and the VIII. he was deprived of Talmont, and cast into facts respecting them afforded by science.

prison for having incurred the displeasure of the Comfrey (Symphytum), a common palæarctic regent, Anne of Beaujeu. He accompanied genus of Boraginaceæ, somewhat coarse perennial Charles VIII. on his Italian expedition, was presherbs, although occasionally to be seen in flower- ent at the battle of Fornovo, and had an interborders. S. officinale (blue) and S. tuberosum view with Machiavelli in Florence. He held (yellow) are frequent in shady and moist places. sundry places and pensions under Louis XII., and S. officinale was formerly much esteemed as a died in 1509. His Mémoires consist of seven vulnerary. Its young leaves and its blanched books, six of which deal with the reign of Louis shoots are still occasionally used as boiled vege. XI., while the seventh treats of Charles VIII.'s tapies. The Prickly Comfrey (s. asperrimum), wars in Italy. They are the earliest example in




French literature of the history as distinguished manding in chief. In 1887 the title of commanderfrom the chronicle. Unlike the chroniclers, in-chief was revived ; and in 1895 (on the resignaComines cares little for the mere spectacle of tion of the Duke of Cambridge) effect was given to courtly and military life. His sympathies are the recommendations of the Hartington Commiswith the king against the nobles; his interest is sion, by a more perfect organisation of our national centred in statecraft; he takes keen delight in defences under one supreme authority- ugh nomseeing, the game of politics well played. His inally since 1855 the commander-in-chief has been reflections on men and affairs are always dispas- strictly subordinate to the Secretary of State for sionate, and often pregnant and acute. His Lettres War. His office, technically called the Horse et Negotiations were published in 1867-68. The Guards, is the military department of the War best edition of the Mémoires is that by Chantelauze Office (q.v.). At its head is the adjutant-general, (Paris, 1881). The English translation by Danett and its several branches are presided over by the (1596) was re-edited by Whibley in 1897.

quartermaster-general, the military secretary, the Comi'so, a town of Sicily, 37 miles WSW. of inspector-general of fortifications, the directors of Syracuse, with manufactures of soap and pottery. artillery, of military intelligence, of the army Cotton is largely grown here. Pop. 19,333.

medical department, and of military education,

the chaplain-general, and the principal veterinary Comitia were the legal or constitutional meet

surgeon. ings of the Roman people, convened by a magistrate,

All promotions and military appoint

ments are recommended by the commander-in-chief, usually for the purpose of putting a question to the those of great importance being supervised by the vote. According to the constitution of the several

war minister, and, if necessary, discussed by the gatherings, they were comitia curiata, comitia cen.

cabinet. He is responsible for recruiting operaturiata, or comitia tributa respectively. See ROME.

tions, the technical education of officers and inen, Comity, of Nations--more frequently men- and everything connected with the efficiency, distioned by its Latin equivalent, comitas gentium,tribution, and mobilisation of the troops, together is the international courtesy by which effect is with the construction and armament of fortificagiven to the laws of one state within the territory tions. He exercises an inspectional control over and against the citizens of another state. In the the men who are under the immediate command silence of any positive rule,' says Story, 'affirming, of the general officers commanding the various or denying, or restraining the operation of foreign districts. See WOLSELEY. laws, courts of justice presume the tacit adoption There is also a local commander-in-chief in India, of them by their own government, unless they are under whom all the forces there are placed, and in repugnant to its policy or prejudicial to its interests.' many of the colonies the governor bears this title. See Story's Conflict of Laws; and INTERNATIONAL It would also be given to the officer in command of LAW.

any large army engaged in active operations. The Comma, in the mathematical study of sound, powers of these officers extend only to those troops is a small interval, generally corresponding to the that may be placed under them by orders from the vibration-ratio 81 : 80, which occurs between the commander-in-chief at the Horse Guards. true pitches of two notes, which on the piano,

A naval commander-in-chief is the chief admiral organ, and other tempered instruments, are repre

at any port or station. In the United States the sented by one only. See TEMPERAMENT.

president is ex officio the commander-in-chief of the

army Commandant is the officer, of whatever rank, in command of a fortress or military post of any Commandery, the district under a commander, kind-e.g. a station on the lines of communication specially used in connection with the Templars of an army. The title is also given to an officer (9.v.), the Hospitallers (q.v.), and other religious commanding a larger body of troops than is proper orders. to his rank, as captain-commandant, lieutenant- Commandite, SOCIÉTÉ EN, or PARTNERSHIP commandant, &c., and to the senior lieutenantcolonel of a volunteer battalion in the British in France, to express a partnership in which one may

IN, an expression used for at least two centuries army, where there are two or more on its establish advance capital without taking part in the manage. ment. There are also commandants to most mili- ment of, or incurring further liability in connection tary schools.

with the business. The term "sleeping partner' Commander, in the British navy, is an officer used in this country would nearly express the same next under a captain in rank, and serves either as idea, were it not for the attendant unliinited liabil. second in command in a large ship, or in independ: ity. The phrase is derived from the old meaning in ent command of a smaller vessel. In matters of the commercial nomenclature of France of the word etiquette, he ranks with a lieutenant-colonel in the commande, which was applied to the authority army, but junior of that rank; and he bears the given to one person to transact business for another. title of captain by courtesy. There were, in 1888, | The working partner had a commande from him who 160 commanders employed, with pay of £l per day; merely advanced capital. The term has acquired while there were 69 on half-pay, but eligible for importance in political economy, because the law of re-employinent, and 347 on retired pay; but the France exempts the sleeping partners from respon. whole list of those employed, or eligible for em- sibility beyond the amount they agree to be re. ployment, is to be raised to 270. Retirement is sponsible for. On the other hand, by the law of the optional at the age of forty-five; and compulsory United Kingdom, every member of a partnership is at fifty, or after five years without employment. liable for all its debts ; limitation of liability being In the United States navy, commanders have a only obtainable by incorporation under the Com. rank next below that of captain, and next above panies Acts. Hence, in the discussions about the that of a lieutenant-commander, and rank with question, whether it would be prudent to relax this lieutenant-colonels in the army.

law, and permit persons to invest money in trading Commander-in-chief is the highest staff companies without undergoing this responsibility, appointment in the British army. After the death such companies were called 'partnerships in com. of the Duke of Wellington in 1852, this title, which mandite. Proposals have from time to time been had been borne by him for many years, was allowed made in Britain to establish a system of limited to lapse, and the administration of the army was partnerships independently of the Companies Acts. placed under a general on the staff who was styled The Act 28 and 29 Vict. chap. 86, 5th July 1865, the general (or field-marshal, if of that rank) com. permits loans to trading firms in consideration of a

and navy

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