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Civil Service Commission.


44,477 12,210 15,217 5,90 9,533 15,071 1:2,650 6,831

Wreck Commission..
Crofters Commission


crofters. The members of these are nominated in which was a wholly different body from that terms of special acts of parliament.

appointed by act of parliament in 1886 to carry Other permanent commissions are the Charity out certain legislative decrees. The former was Commission, created 1853 (of four members, one one of inquiry; the latter, one of administration. of whom is unpaid), to examine into all the charities The royal commissions appointed to inquire into and the management of them, in England and the causes of the depression of trade (1886–87), Wales ; the Commission for the management of the and into the recent changes in the relative values National Debt; the Ecclesiastical and Church of the precious metals (commonly called the Silver Estates Commission; the Land Commission of Commission), also in 1886, are among the most England; the Public Works Loan Commission; prominent of recent appointments of this kind. the Thames Conservancy Commission; and the When a royal commission is nominated by royal Commission for the adjustment of Cases under mandate, a secretary is appointed, and such clerical Income tax Assessments. These are all bodies com assistance as may be necessary is provided out of missioned to execute certain specified functions, some of the departinents. The commissioners are more or less administrative, and partaking to some empowered to call and hear evidence (althongh not extent of the character of public departments. on oath), to examine documents, localities, &c.

In law, a commission may be issued by mandate The evidence is reported in extenso-question and of a court to take evidence from parties residing answer duly numbered—and is submitted, along abroad or incapacitated from appearing in person. with the formal report, to the sovereign and to A Commission in Bankruptcy is issued for the pur. parliament. The whole is then incorporated in a pose of taking charge of the effects of an insolvent blue-book. The multiplication of royal and special for behoof of his creditors. A Commission in commissions has become rather a legislative Lunacy is appointed by the Court of Chancery to nuisance and a financial burden. Royal commissions inquire into the mental condition of an alleged always include members of the House of Lords or of lunatic whose property may be in question. There the House of Commons, or of both. are now permanent commissioners in lunacy whose The cost of parliamentary and royal commissions duties include visitation and supervision of asylums. varies much. “In 1896–97 the Charity Commission

In governmental relations, commissions are some. cost £42,869 (a small decrease on the preceding year), times constituted where Britain exercises protect the Civil Service Commission £39,700 (decrease). orate but has not formed complete colonial estab. In 1888 the figures for all were: lishments, as in Cyprus, South Africa (see CAPE

Charity Commission...

£36,701 COLOXY), New Guinea, and some islands of the western Pacific. The commission in such cases Land Commission of England is a delegation, with certain limitations, of the Lunacy Coumission of England anthority of the crown. In India (q.v.) the Public Works Loan Commission. administrative head of a province is sometimes National Debt Cominission.... called chief-commissioner (assisted by district commissioners), who is responsible to the viceroy of

Land Commission of Ireland.

45,12 India. Sometimes commissions are international

Endowed Schools Cominission.. -i.e. composed of representatives of varions Temporary Commissions....

33,404 nations for international purposes. A conspicu. ous example of such was the commission in 1871 given to two or more judges to inquire into certain

Another kind of commission is that sometimes on the Alabama question (see ALABAMA); more recent was the commission for Eastern Roumelia, alleged crimes, such as the commission (1867–69 ) appointed under the Treaty of Berlin of 1878.

to inquire into the Sheffield trades-union outrages, Again, a commission may take the form of a

and that (1888–90) of three judges appointed by teniporary embassy for certain specific purposes.

act of parliament, to inquire into the charges The appointments are then made by the prime and allegations' brought in the Times newspaper ininister and cabinet, as when Mr Gladstone was against Mr Parnell and others. sent to the Ionian Islands in 1858, or Lord

It should be added that the sovereign, who Pufferin to Egypt in 1883. Somewhat different nominally presides over the annual deliberations of in character was the commission given to Mr the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Chamberlain in 1887 to proceed to America, to delegates the duty to a Scotch peer as Lord High confer with delegates of Canada and the United Commissioner, a fresh commission being issued States upon matters in dispute concerning the every year. For the ecclesiastical court created by fisheries.

Queen Elizabeth, see High COMMISSION. In its parliamentary sense, a commission may be

Commission Agent, or MERCHANT, is a either Special or Royal. In the former case it is person employed to sell goods consigned or delivered appointed usually, and in the latter case invariably, to him by another who is called his principal, for a in response to a motion in one or other of the certain percentage, commonly called his commission Houses. A royal commission is appointed only or factorage. See BROKER. by the crown ; but a special commission may be Commissionaires is a name given a class of appointed by a department of state. The expenses attendants at continental hotels, who perform cer. of a commission of this kind are usually defrayed tain miscellaneous services. Employed to attend by the parties requiring it, but those of a royal at the arrival of railway trains and steamboats to commission are included in the estimates for the secure customers, they wait to take charge of lug. current year. The commissioners may be paid gage, see it passed through the hands of the custom. by fees regulated by government. When a com- house officers, and send it on to the hotel ; for all mission sits in London, it has the power of author which service they charge a fee. ising the payment of witnesses on the scale recog. In 1859 the Corps of Commissionaires was estabnised in courts of law; but when a commission lished by Sir Edward Walter in England, with sits in the country, witnesses are not paid.

divisions in London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, A royal commission is appointed by motion in Liverpool, Manchester, and other large cities in the parliament, and is issued by a royal warrant United Kingdom. The corps has recently extended nominating certain 'trusty and well-beloved its operations to the principal cities of Australia, cousins and counsellors' to undertake a specified and purposes to continue its further development inquiry. Of such was the royal commission to throughout the colonial empire. The corps is com. inquire into the condition of the crofters (1882), posed of picked men from every branch of Ker 38+ COMMISSION DEL CREDERE



Majesty's naval and military service, and in the by purchase, by passing a direct non-competitive London division alone there are 1200 men. They examination. The lowest price of a first commiscan be engaged by the day or any other period, sion in the line was £450, the highest (in the Life and for any duty where honesty, sobriety, and in- Guards) was £1260. Large sums had also to be telligence are required. The wages range from paid for each step in rank, so that the interest of twenty to forty shillings per week.

the money thus invested sometimes exceeded the Commission del Cre'deré. See DEL CRE- pay of the rank. DERE COMMISSION.

The entire abolition of the purchase system

(by royal warrant in 1871) has at the same time Commissioners of Supply. See SUPPLY.

increased the actual value of commissions as a Commissions, Army, are warrants from the means of livelihood, and the number of those head of the state for holding various military who are in a position to compete for them. The offices, whether combatant non-combatant. competition has in consequence become very severe The latter class comprises the various departments at the examinations, which are held usually twice of the army, such as chaplains, commissariat, trans- a year, for admission to the two military colleges port, veterinary, ordnance store, &c., in which, so and for militia candidates for army conimissions. far as the British army is concerned, commissions, To meet this, a large number of special educa carrying honorary or relative military rank, are tional establishments have been formed, deroted obtained by direct examination, by nomination entirely to the work of preparing candidates for coupled with special professional qualifications, or these tests, and most of the large schools have by transfer from other branches of the service. special army classes. The expenses thus entailed Candidates for the Medical Staff (q.v.) pass through are often not much less than the cost of a first a course of instruction at the Army Medical School commission under the purchase system, but no attached to the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley, further payment is incurred by promotion. before being commissioned as surgeons. As regards The subjects of examination for cadetships are the combatant officers, a first commission as sub- selected, so far as the number of marks allotted to lieutenant can be obtained by any British sub- each is concerned, so as to encourage boys who ject of proper age, character, and physical

qualifi- have received the usual classical education, to come cations, either by entering one of the Military up direct from school without having to undergo a Schools (q.v.) as a Cadet (q.v.), or by passing both course of cramming at a military tutor's, where the a literary and a military examination (similar to influences are not always desirable. See CADET. that mentioned below for a lieutenant's promotion), after having served two trainings as an officer in

Commissure, an anatomical term applied to the militia. All correspondence regarding first

nervous connections between adjacent parts of the commissions or cadetships is conducted by the quite the same way, the general signification of the

nervous system. Though it is not always used in military secretary at the War Office. Commissions term, and the physiological import

of the structure, in the Royal Marines are obtained by direct com. petitive examination.

is that of a uniting bridge. See BRAIN, NERvous Two or three sub-lieuten

SYSTEM. ants' commissions are given each year to cadets from the Royal Military College of Canada. It

Commitment. See CRIMINAL Law. is also possible to obtain such a commission by Committee (Fr. comité), a portion, generally enlisting ; but only two or three specially selected consisting of not less than three members, selected sergeants are promoted each year to the rank of from a more numerous body, to whom some special sub-lieutenant in the cavalry and infantry (135 act to be performed, or investigation to be made, officers now serving have risen from the ranks), is committed. But though a committee usually though all quartermasters, riding.masters, or consists of several members of the body by which it officers of the Coast Brigade Royal Artillery, is appointed, it may consist of one member, or, and Coast Battalion Royal Engineers, are com- what is more frequent, of the whole of the members missioned, as lieutenants, from the ranks.

acting in a different capacity from that which Subsequent commissions up to that of lieuten. usually belongs to them. For the committees of ant-colonel are given, as vacancies occur, to the parliament, whether 'select,' of the whole house,' senior officer of the next lower rank, provided grand,' or 'standing' committees, see PARLIAthat he has been favourably reported on, and, in the case of a lieutenant or captain, has passed an Commodore, in the royal navy, is a rank examination for promotion in regimental duties, intermediate between an admiral and a captain. drill, fortification, tactics, military law, and topo. It is not permanent, but is bestowed for a time on graphy. To assist officers in passing this test, a a captain. Usually a commodore commands more deputy-assistant adjutant-general for instruction is ships than one, detached from a fleet on some appointed to the staff of each military district, and special service; he hoists at that time a white classes are held under him for the study of the broad pennant, with a red cross, at the main if four last-mentioned subjects. The rank of colonel a commodore of the first class, at the fore if of is only conferred by Brevet (q.v.) for distinguished the second class. A commodore is privileged to service, or on appointment to certain positions have a commander under him in his ship, in the carrying that rank, such as aide-de-camp to the same way as an admiral is privileged to have a Queen, assistant adjutant-general, or commander captain. The commodore, in matters of etiquette, of a regimental district. Promotion to major. ranks with a brigadier-general in the army. When general, lieutenant-general, and general, is by in independent command, a commodore of the first selection, as vacancies occur. The establishment class receives £7, 10s. a day, and a commodore of in these ranks has been much reduced, an.' nnly the second class about £4, 10s. those who are eminently qualified, profes

Until 1862 the title of commodore, without any and physically, are eligible for commis in commission as such, was given in the United them.

States navy to such captains as commanded, or Previous to 1st November 1871 all con! had commanded, a squadron. In 1862 the rank commissions were purchased, except in t sl of conmodore became a commissioned one. A Artillery, Engineers, and Marines, and a . ' commodore ranks higher than a captain and lower as prizes to those cadets who passed (114

than a rear-admiral. His rank is assimilated to Royal Military College at the head of the It that of a brigadier general in the United States was then also possible to qualify for a ( 17.








Commodus, LUCIUS AURELIUS, a Roman the law, courts of equity, and especially the Court emperor, born at Lanuvium in 161 A.D., was the son of Chancery (q.v.), framed rules of their own, which of the great Marcus Aurelius and his profligate enabled them to prevent the stricter rules of comwife, the younger Faustina. He was carefully mon law from being used in defence of injustice. educated under his father's care, but lived to be. By the Judicature Acts (q.v.), courts of common come one of the most worthless and bloody wretches law and equity were made parts of one supreme that ever disgraced a throne. At his father's death court; the two systems are administered concur. in the spring of 180, he was successfully fighting rently; where there is any conflict between equity the Marcomanni and other tribes on the upper and common law, the rules of equity prevail. See Danube, but he at once concluded a treaty with EQUITY. the barbarians, and hastened to Rome to enjoy the English settlers going to an uncivilised country pleasures of power. After the discovery of his take with them as much of the common law sister Lucilla's plot against his life in 183, he gave as the nature of things will bear.'. In Canada, uncontrolled vent to the senseless savagery of his Australia, &c., and in the United States, the his. nature. Nearly all who, by virtue, ability, and torical basis of the law is the same as in England. learning, had risen to honour during his father's In Scotland, and in some other countries, the term lifetime, were sacrificed to appease his savage jeal- common law is used in a sense analogous to its ousy of the good and the great. Proud of his own English meaning. physical strength, he demeaned himself by exhibit- THE COURTS OF COMMON LAW.-The superior ing it in gladiatorial combats, and besides used, in courts of Common Law in England had 'their public, to sing, dance, play, and act the buffoon. origin in the Curia Regis of the early Norman 'Though a glutton and a shameless debauchee, who kings, the chief officers of which were the Chiefwallowed in the most sensual abominations, he yet justiciar, the Chancellor, and the king's justices. demanded to be worshipped as a god, and assumed 'The justices sat in the King's Bench to supervise the title of Hercules Romanus. Many unsuccessful the proceedings of inferior courts and corporations, plots were devised against the life of this mingled and to deal with criminal matters directly con monster and madman, until at length his mistress, cerning the crown. In the Common Bench or Marcia, finding her own name marked down in his Common Pleas they held pleas between subject tablets for death, in concert with two confederates, and subject. In the Exchequer they sat, as Barons tried first to poison him, then caused him to be of the Exchequer, to decide revenue cases. At strangled by Narcissus, a famous athlete, on the first all these courts followed the king, to the great 31st of December 192.

inconvenience of suitors. The Common Pleas were Common Bench. See BENCH, and COMMON fixed at Westminster by Magna Charta ; and in LAW.

course of time the three superior courts of Common Commoner, one under the rank of nobility; minster Hall, each court having its own chief and

Law were all established on one side of Westalso a member of the House of Commons. Commoners at Oxford, a class of students eating four (afterwards five) puisne or junior judges, who at the common table, see OXFORD.

were called justices in the King's Bench and Com. Common Forms are the ordinary clauses passing of the Judicature Acts (1873–76), the three

mon. Pleas, and Barons in the Exchequer. On the which are of frequent occurrence in identical terms in writs and deeds.

courts became divisions of the High Court of

Justice. The offices of Chief-justice of the Common Common Good. See BOROUGH.

Plcas and Chief-baron of the Exchequer are now Common Law, in England, is the ancient abolished, and the three divisions are consolidated customary law of the land. Before the Norman in the Queen's Bench Division. The Lord Chief. Conquest, the rights of an Englishman were deter- justice of England is the presiding judge; he is mined mainly by the customs of the manor, borough, appointed by the crown on the advice of the prime. or shire in which he lived. After the Conquest, minister, and his salary is £8000. There are four. the king's judges began to go their circuits in every teen puisne justices, appointed by the crown on the part of the country, doing justice according to the advice of the Lord Chancellor, each of whom has custom of the realm or the common law. In some a salary of £5000. The sittings of the Division are points they kept to the ancient local customs, in held at the Royal Courts in London; the judges others again they introduced new rules. Primo. also try cases their circuits and at the geniture, e.g., is a rule introduced by the influence Central Criminal Court. The jurisdiction of the of the judges; the ancient English rule of equal Division includes all special authorities formerly division survives only as the custom of Kent' belonging to any of the old Common Law Courts

. under the name of Gavelkind (q.v.). The custom It takes, e.g., appeals from Revising Barristers of certain ancient boroughs, which gave the land (q.v.) which formerly went to the Common Pleas, to the youngest son, survives under the name of and revenue cases which belonged to the Exchequer. Borough English (q.v.). The custom of a place, Appeals from any of the old Common Law Courts or of a body of persons, is allowed to supplement went to the judges of the other two courts, sitting or modify the common law if it has been observed in the Exchequer Chamber, and from them to the from a time whereof the memory of man runneth House of Lords. Appeals from the Queen's Bench not to the contrary.' Legal memory does not go Division now go to the Court of Appeal, and thence back beyond the first year of the reign of Richard to the House of Lords. I., but evidence may be given to impugn the ‘im. Besides the superior courts, there are many memorial character of a local custom by showing inferior courts which exercise a limited commonthat it had its origin later than that year.

law jurisdiction. Each manor has its own courts, Even in making new rules, the judges never but except in regard to Copyholds (q.v.)., manorial assumed to legislate; they professed to expound jurisdiction has been superseded by local courts of the good customs of the realm, and in applying modern origin. The same remark applies to the the rules of common law, each generation of judges Hundred Court and the ancient County Court. was quided by the decisions of its predecessors. The Court of Common Pleas in Lancaster and the Decisions followed in a series of subsequent cases Court of Pleas in Durham, now form part of the acquired special authority, and were quoted as High Court. The modern County Court (which leading cases. The law fixed by custom and by ought more properly to be called a district court) judicial decision could only be set aside or amended has a common-law jurisdiction; and several statutes by an act of parliament. But without setting aside contain provisions for remitting the less important






class of common-law actions to the County Court both to lords of manors and to the nation as a for trial.

whole. Accordingly enclosures began to be frequent Of Borough Courts some (as, e.g., the Court of in the 16th, and were continued on a great scale Hustings in London) are obsolete; others (as, e.g., to the end of the 18th century. Formerly the the Mayor's Court in London and the Court of enclosure of a common required a private act of Passage in Liverpool) are still of importance. The parliament. The commoners, who were generally City of London Court is framed on the model of poor and unable properly to represent their case, the modern County Courts. The Court of the often suffered by enclosure, obtaining inadequate Cinque Ports is held before the mayor and jurats compensation. By the Act 6 and 7 Will. IV. of each port ; from them appeals are taken to the chap. 115, and subsequent acts, the necessity for a Lord Warden's Court, and thence to the Queen's private act of parliament is abolished. By the Bench Division. Courts of Request for the recovery Act 8 and 9 Vict. chap. 118, which has been often of small debts existed in several boroughs ; they amended, a Board of Commissioners is appointed are now obsolete, as also is the Court of Pie Poudre, to inquire into the propriety of any proposed en. or dusty foot, held by the steward of a manor to closure or partition, and to report to parliament, which ă market belongs, for the immediate de. which may then pass a public act authorising cision of questions arising in the market. There their proceedings. This is the course generally are still courts of some importance, established for adopted. the benefit of privileged bodies of persons. See, as

In Scotland, commonties or commons were made to miners (under Stannaries), STANNARY COURTS; divisible by an action in the Court of Session, at as to Oxford and Cambridge, see UNIVERSITIES. the instance of any person having an interest by Common Pleas. See COMMON LAW.

the Stat. 1695, chap. 38.

The lands still subject to rights of common are Common Prayer, BOOK OF. See PRAYER- for the most part such as could not be cultivated BOOK.

with advantage. The increase of population, how. Common-riding is the Scotch equivalent of ever, has made them valuable as places of exercise Beating the Bounds. See BOUNDS.

and recreation. This value has been clearly stated Common Room, an apartment in a monas

by Mr J. S. Mill (Dissertations and Discussions, tery in which a fire was constantly kept burning vol. ii. p. 213).; : We must needs think, also, that for the use of the monks, and which was presided there is something out of joint, when so much is over by a monk called the master. It was the said of the value of refining and humanising tastes prototype of the common rooms in the colleges of to the labouring-people—when it is proposed to the English universities, where the dons take their plant parks and lay out gardens for them, that wine after hall.

they may enjoy more freely nature's gift alike to Commons, the dinner provided in English along with this a counter-progress is constantly

rich and poor, of sun, sky, and vegetation ; and colleges and inns of court for their members. In the inns of court it is provided only during term. going on of stopping up, paths and enclosing

Is not this another case of giving with Separate tables are appointed for the benchers (see BENCH), for the barristers, and for the students other? We look with the utmost jealousy upon

one hand and taking back more largely with the and other members of the inn.

any further enclosure of commons. In the greater Commons, HOUSE OF. See PARLIAMENT.

part of this island, exclusive of the mountain and Commons and Enclosures. This is one of moor districts, there certainly is not more land the numerous instances in which a different mean, remaining in a state of natural wildness than is ing is attached to the same term in the legal desirable. Those who would make England systems of England and Scotland. In England the resemble many parts of the Continent, where property in the common land belongs to the lord of every foot of soil is hemmed in by fences, and the manor ; although rights over the common land covered over with the traces of human labour, are possessed by certain persons who hold land in should remember that where this is done, it is the manor, and are known as commoners. Thus done for the use and benefit, not of the rich, but Blackstone defines a common as “a profit which of the poor; and that in the countries where there a man hath in the land of another, as to feed his remain no commons, the rich have no parks. The beasts, to catch fishi, to dig turf, to cut wood and common is the peasant's park. Every argument the like.' But in Scotland, where the law has for ploughing it up to raise more produce applies adopted the divisions and followed the nomen- a fortiori to the park, which is generally far more clature of the civil law and of the legal systems fertile. The effect of either, when done in the of continental Europe, all these profits, or rights manner proposed, is only to make the poor more to derive profit, are known as Servitudes (q.v.), numerous, not better off. But what ought to be whereas a common, or commonty, as it is more said when, as so often happens, the common is frequently called, is a common right of property taken from the poor, that the whole or great part existing in several individuals, frequently the of it may be added to the enclosed pleasure-domain inhabitants of a whole village, in a piece of ground. of the rich ? Is the miserable compensation, and In each individual the right of course is limited, though miserable not always granted, of a small so as in reality to amount to little more than a scrap of the land to each of the cottagers who had servitude; but there is no over-lord, the land is a goose on the common, any equivalent to the not the land of another, but the land of the com- poor generally, to the lovers of nature, or to future munity as a body.

generations, for this legalised spoliation?' The nature and origin of rights of common have Acting upon the principles expressed in this ex. been the subjects of elaborate investigation, but tract, the legislature in the 19th century has regu. are still obscure. They are probably derived from lated enclosures with reference to the enjoyment the old Germanic rights of common pasture on the of the general public, as well as to the rights of the Folkland (q.v.). In England at present almost lord of the manor and of the commoners. Restraints the only land subject to common rights is waste have been placed on the enclosure of commons in or land; but formerly rights of joint cultivation near towns, and provision has been made for laying extended over a great part of the arable land. them out and maintaining them as places of recreaThese are not yet quite extinct. So long as the tion. Near London especially, many commons lands subject to rights of common were extensive have thus been secured to the public. See Miss and fertile, their enclosure was a source of wealth | Octavia Hill, Our Common Land (1878); Elton,




The Law of Commons; Commons and Common laws of Identity, Contradiction, and Excluded Fields (1887); and works by Scrutton, Chambers, Middle; the axioms of Mathematics; the law Cooke, Hall, Williams, Shaw-Lefevre (1894), and of Causality (q.v.); the doctrine of an innate Sir R. Hunter (1897). Lord Thring's act against moral sense (see article ETHICS); the doctrine of unlawful enclosures was passed in 1893.

man's Moral Liberty (see FREE-WILL); the exist. In the United States 'common' in one sense ence of an external world independent of every signifies the common or general fields set apart as percipient mind. Some of these truths, which pasture-land at the foundation of towns or villages ; however by no means stand all on the same the idea of such common fields may probably have footing, are termed Intuitions, Intuitive Cognitions, been suggested by those of semi-feudal England. Instincts, Feelings, Beliefs, Principles, Ultimate or Common fields also existed in the villages of Primordial Elements, Truths a priori. Kant's French and Spanish settlers. The title to these mission was to investigate the origin of such lands was confirmed to the inhabitants by act of of those truths as might be accounted a priori ; see congress. Unappropriated lands in Virginia have KANT, A PRIORI. The philosophy of common similarly been confirmed as common lands by sense, as promulgated by Reid, bore reference espe. statute, and the constitution of Illinois sets apart cially to the denial by Berkeley of the received certain lands as commons. Unless the statute view of the material world ; see PERCEPTION. expressly forbids, commons in this sense may be divided at the instance of individuals interested,

Commonty. See COMMONS AND ENCLOSURES. if they think fit to take legal proceedings for that

Commonwealth (practically, a translation of purpose. In the other sense, the term common Lat. respublica, republic') is used in a special is applied to a public park which may belong to

sense for the form of government established in the municipality or to the nation-e.g. the Yellow England after the execution of Charles I. in January stone Park-respecting which no individual or indi. 1649. Usually the Commonwealth is held to viduals can claim a division. Such parks are under extend till the Restoration in 1660; and in the the direct control of the authorities. As applied Calendar of State Papers this is the usage of the to a school, the epithet 'common’ means public,

word. But the Commonwealth is sometimes supported by taxation, and open to all children of limited to the period 1649-53, ending with the a certain age.

It has no reference to the studies of establishment of Cromwell's Protectorate. See the school.

CROMWELL, ENGLAND. Several states of the Common Sense, THE PHILOSOPHY OF. There American Union (as Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, are certain beliefs that have been current among

Virginia) are officially called commonwealths. men in all ages, which by some philosophers have

Commune is the unit or lowest division in the been declared to be groundless illusions. Of these, administration of France, corresponding in the the most remarkable instance is the belief in an rural districts to the English parish or township, external, material world, independent of any mind and in towns to the English municipality. In to perceive it. Berkeley's doctrine (see BERKELEY) France there are about 36,000 communes, with a seemed to his conteniporaries to contradict this considerable measure of self-government, with the belief, and affirm that there is no such thing as a power of holding property, &c. Each commune has material world; and Hume, carrying the same

à council elected by universal suffrage, and the principles to their full length, disintegrated the council is presided over by a maire and one or more world of spirits, and left nothing in nature but adjoints or assistants. In the larger communes the isolated ideas and impressions.

maire is selected by the central government out A dead-lock in philosophy was the result of these of the member of the council ; in others he is doctrines of Berkeley and Hume ; and the solution appointed by the prefect of the department. The offered by Reid consisted in setting up common

central government through its othcials exercises sense as an arbiter from which there could be no generally a very large control over the affairs of the appeal—that is to say, the universally admitted

For the Russian commune, see MIR, impressions of mankind were to be taken as corre

and RUSSIA. sponding to the fact of things without any further The rising of the commune of Paris in 1871 should scrutiny. It is only the same view otherwise not be confounded with Communism (q.v.). It was expressed, when it is declared by other philosophers a revolutionary assertion of the autonomy of Paris, that the deliverance of consciousness must be pre. that is, of the right of self-government through its sumed true. According to Sir W. Hamilton, in

commune or municipality. The theory of the the most elaborate vindication of the common sense rising was that every commune should have a real philosophy that has ever been produced (in his autonomy, the central government being merely edition of Reid's works), consciousness assures us

a federation of communes. The movement was that, in perception, we are immediately cognisant based on discontent at Paris, where the people of an external and extended non-ego®(not-self); found themselves in possession of arms after the and that the testimony of consciousness must be siege by the Germans. The rising began on the viewed as entitled to prompt and unconditional 18th March 1871, and was only suppressed ten assent.

weeks later after long and bloody fighting between The conclusiveness of this reasoning is disputed the forces of the commune and a large army of by many, who say that it is an abnegation of the the central government; 6500 Communists having tasks of philosophy, and may establish mere pre

fallen during 20-30th May, and 38,578 been taken judices as dictates of consciousness. Consciousness prisoners. See FRANCE; and see histories of the (9.v.) is a very wide word, comprising indeed every

Paris commune by Lissagaray (trans. 1886) and thing that we call mind. Suppose, it is argued, we

Thomas March (1896). were to maintain that the veracity of each one's Communion signifies, in ecclesiastical lanmemory was beyond all question or dispute, it guage, that relation, involving mutual claims and would be apparent at once how the case really duties, in which those stand who are united by stands. But there must be a standard truth. Ex uniformity of belief in one religious body or church. perience is the criterion how far the memory is to be To exclude from this relation and its involved trusted ; and possibly the same may be true of the rights is to excommunicate. The most visible larger fact named consciousness. See PhilosoPHY, symbol of this relation being the partaking together PƏYCHOLOGY.

of the Lord's Supper, that rite is often called the The truths of common sense, assumed to be Communion. See LORD'S SUPPER, PRAYER-BOOK, those of consciousness, are such as these : the LITURGY ; and for Communion Table, see ALTAR.


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