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CAVENDISH

CAVOUR

37

on astronomical instruments; and his Electrical Cavité, a seaport of Luzon, Philippine Islands, Researches (1771-81) were edited by Professor Clerk on a peninsula in Manila Bay, 8 miles SW. by S. Maxwell (1879). See his Life by G. Wilson, form. | of Manila. It is fortified, has an arsenal, and was ing vol. i. of the Cavendish Society's Works (1846). formerly the chief naval station of the Spanish pos

Cavendish, THOMAS, circumnavigator, was sessions in the east. Pop. 1947. born about 1555 at Trimley St Martin, near Ipswich, and, after squandering his patrimony at

Cavour, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DI, the recourt, shared in Grenville's expedition to Virginia

storer of Italian unity and nationality, was born at (1585). On 21st July of the following year he

Turin, August 10, 1810. He was descended from sailed from Plymouth with 122 men and three ships

one of the ancient noble families of Piedmont, and of 10, 60, and 140 tons, and, by Sierra Leone and being the younger son was destined for a military Brazil, reached the Strait of Magellan, whose pass.

career. At the military school he distinguished age took seven weeks. During the nine months

himself by his mathematical talent, and at an early that he cruised in the Pacific, he burned three age was appointed to a post in the engineers. Spanish towns and thirteen ships; then, with a

But as his liberal opinions proved unfavourable to rich booty, but only the largest of his three his stay in the army, he left it in 1831. His good vessels, he returned by way of the Indian Archi. | sense, however, taught him that the deliverance of pelago and the Cape of Good Hope to England,

and | Italy could not be accomplished by secret conspiracy 10th September 1588. Elizabeth knighted him, and 1 and spasmodic revolutionary outbreaks. There was he took to his old mode of life, till in August 1591 | nothing for him therefore but to retire into private he sailed on a second expedition, intended to rival | life. Here he devoted himself to agriculture, introthe first. It ended in utter disaster, and in 1592

ducing great improvements in the cultivation of Cavendish died broken-hearted off Ascension.

the family estates; and his efforts generally to Cavendish, WILLIAM, Duke of Newcastle, son

raise the economic condition of Piedmont were of Sir Charles Cavendish, and nephew of the first

thorough and enlightened. But he had a further Earl of Devonshire, was born in 1592, and educated

end in view; he saw that economic improvement

must be the basis for a better social and political at St John's College, Cambridge. His learning

order. And he widened his knowledge of economic and winning address made him a favourite at the

and political questions by foreign travel, especially court of James I., who in 1610 created him Knight |

in France and England. Constitutionalism as of the Bath, and in 1620 Viscount Mansfield.

established and practised in England was on the Charles I., who was splendidly entertained by him

whole the form of government he most admired. at Welbeck and Bolsover, in 1628 created him Earl

During a residence in England he made himself of Newcastle, and in 1638 appointed him governor

intimately acquainted with the political organisa. to his son, afterwards Charles II. His support of

tion of the country, and also with its industrial the king during the contest with the parliament

institutions ; knowledge of which he made good was munificent. He contributed £10,000 to the

| use on his return to his own country. treasury, and raised a troop of 200 knights and

In this way for sixteen years Cavour energetically gentlemen, who served at their own cost. As

laboured as a private gentleman. No opportunity general of all the forces north of the Trent, he

presented itself for any effective influence in had power to issue declarations, confer knight. |

politics, and he wisely abstained. It was very hood, coin money, and raise men ; and the last part different when the spirit of freedom and innovaof his commission he executed with great zeal.

tion once more awoke towards the revolutionary After the battle of Marston Moor (1644), Cavendish

period of 1848. In conjunction with Count Cesare retired to the Continent, where he resided, at times

Balbo, he in 1847 established a newspaper, I Risor. in great poverty, till the Restoration. In 1665 he

gimento, in which he advocated a representative was created Duke of Newcastle ; and he died 25th

system, somewhat after the pattern of the English December 1676. He was author of two works on

constitution, as opposed alike to absolutism on horsemanship, and of several plays, not of a char.

the one hand, and mob rule on the other. On acter to increase any man's reputation for intelli.

his suggestion, the king was petitioned for a consti. gence. See his Life by his second wife (1667;

tution, which was granted in February 1848. In new ed. by C. H. Firth, 1886).-She, MARGARET

the Chamber of Deputies, during the stormy LUCAS (1624–74), the daughter of an Essex house,

period which succeeded Charles Albert's decla. where all the brothers were valiant, and all the

ration of war against Austria in March, Cavour sisters virtuous,' had married him in 1645, and was

strenuously opposed the ultra-democrats, and herself the author of a dozen folio volumes of

counselled an alliance with England as the surest poems, plays, letters, &c.

guarantee for the success of the Italian arms. In Caviare, the salted roes (immature ovaries) of the Marquis d'Azeglio's ministry, formed soon the common sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) and other after the fatal battle of Novara, Cavour was sucfishes of the same genus (see STURGEON). It is cessively Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, chiefly prepared in Russia, where, as in various Minister of Marine, and Minister of Finance. In other countries, it is a favourite delicacy, and is | 1852 he was appointed to succeed D'Azeglio as largely made in the United States; though the premier. From this time until his resignation in phrase "Caviare to the general,' shows that 1859, in consequence of the conclusion of the peace the taste is an acquired one. The species of of Villafranca, Cavour was the originator as well sturgeon from the roe of which it is chiefly pre- as the director of the Sardinian policy. Taking pared inhabit the Caspian and Black seas and upon himself at different times, in addition to the their tributary rivers. Among them are the Bie- premiership, the duties of the Ministers of Finance, laga, or Great Sturgeon (A. huso), the Osseter Commerce, and Agriculture, and latterly of Home (A. guldenstadtii), the Scherg or Sevruga (A. stel. and Foreign Affairs, he greatly improved the Intus), and the Sterlet ( A. ruthenus ), the last-named financial condition of the country, introduced producing a particularly delicious caviare. Astra. measures of free trade, consolidated constitu. khan is a principle seat for its preparation. The eggs tionalism, weakened clerical influence, and made are separated from the connecting tissue, salted, Sardinia a power of some account in Europe. and packed in small barrels; or, the roes are salted Hitherto the work of Cavour had been to reform in long troughs, and the eggs are passed through a Piedmont, and place its affairs on a sound basis. sieve into kegs. The Caspian fishery has produced The Crimean war afforded him an opportunity to over 400,000 lb. in a single year.

begin the task of restoring the unity and national

38

CAVOUR

CAXIAS

independence of Italy. It was through his advice Cavy (Cavia), a genus of Rodents, best known and intluence that Sardinia took part in the war, by the domesticated species (Cavia cobaya), the and as a result of this he managed to bring the common Guinea-pig (q.v.). Italian question before the Congress of Paris in Cawdor, a village in Nairnshire, 54 miles SW. 1856. In 1858 Cavour had with the Emperor Napo- of Nairn. Cawdor Castle, near by, the seat of the leon a secret meeting, at which the programme for Earl of Cawdor, was founded in 1454, but is one of driving Austria out of Italy was drawn up, and the three places which tradition has assigned as during the early part of 1859 there followed a the scene of King Duncan's murder by Macbeth diplomatic contest with Austria, which Cavour in 1040. A series of papers from the charter-room conducted with masterly tact and astuteness. The at Cawdor was edited by Cosmo Innes under the peace of Villafranca, coming after the successful title of The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor (1859). war of 1859, and leaving Austria in possession of See CAMPBELL. Venetia, was a bitter disappointment to Cavour. He resigned his office; yet he had no reason for

Cawk, a popular name for a massive variety despair, as the power of Austria in the Italian

of the mineral called Heavy Spar or Sulphate of peninsula was now really broken. On returning to

Baryta. See BARYTA. office in 1860 he resumed his great undertaking,

Cawnpore' (Kanhpur), a city of the Northbut by new methods. Popular feeling in central western Provinces, on the right bank of the Ganges, Italy declared itself in favour of union with the

42 miles SW. of Lucknow, 266 SE. of Delhi, and north, and thus Parma, Modena, and Tuscany 628 NW. of Calcutta. The river in front, varying, came under the sway of Victor Emmanuel. It was according to the season, from 500 yards in width to the part of Cavour to guide opinion towards this more than a mile, presents a large and motley end, gaining time for it while he negotiated with the assemblage of steam-vessels and native craft; the great powers ; but he had to purchase the acquies. principal landing place is the beautiful Sarsiya cence of France by the surrender of Nice and Savoy. ghát. Cawnpore, at least as a place of note, is of He secretly encouraged the expedition of Garibaldi, recent origin, being indebted for its growth, besides which in 1860 achieved the deliverance of Sicily its commercial facilities, partly to military and and southern Italy. When a Sardinian army political considerations. In 1777, being then an marched southwards and on the plains of Campania , appendage of Oudh, it was assigned by the nawab met the volunteers of Garibaldi, the unity of Italy as the station of a subsidiary force; and in 1801 was already an accomplished fact. In 1861 an it became, in name as well as in fact, British Italian parliament was summoned, and Victor property. Its cantonments, having accommodation Emmanuel was declared king of Italy. For the for 7000 troops, contain a population of about 38,000. completion of Italian unity only Rome and Venetia Pop, of the city (1891) 188,712, giving a total of were wanting; with a little patience they too about 227,000, of whom 125,000 were Hindus, and could be won.

5000 Christians. At the outbreak of the mutiny Thus had Cavour achieved the task of his life. in May 1857, Cawnpore contained about 1000 But it had not been accomplished without a fearful Europeans, 560 of whom were women and children. strain on his health. He had to manage the Sar

The hasty, ill-chosen entrenchments into which dinian parliament, to meet the artifices, protests,

they had thrown themselves, were speedily invested and reproaches of many of the great powers, to

by overwhelming numbers of the mutineers, led on prevent revolutionary parties from upsetting the

by the infamous Nana Sahib. For three weeks practical mission on which he was engaged, and to

the few defenders held gallantly out; but at last direct a great popular and national movement they surrendered on promise of a safe-conduct to towards a reasonable and attainable goal by Allahabad. The sepoys accompanied them to the methods involving the minimum of delay and banks of the Ganges, and scarcely were they emviolence. For the real power of Sardinia was com. | barked on the boats, when a murderous fire was paratively limited, and a false step might have been | opened upon them, and only four men escaped. serious. The constant strain was too much for him, The women and children, 125 in number, were and he died June 6, 1861, only a few months after reserved for a crueller fate, and were carried back the unity of Italy had been proclaimed. The last to Cawnpore. Hearing that Havelock was within words he was heard to utter were those so familiar

two days' march of the place, Nana Sahib adas expressing an important feature of his policy:

vanced to meet him. He was driven back, and, • Brothers, brothers, the free church in the free smarting under defeat, returned to Cawnpore, and state.' Cavour is admitted to be the beau ideal of a gave orders for the instant massacre of his helpless practical and constructive statesman, who, aiming prisoners, who, dead and dying, were cast into a at just and reasonable ends, seeks to achieve them well. Havelock and his small army arrived on by effectual and legitimate methods. He made 16th July, only to find to their unutterable horror a reformed Piedmont the basis for attaining the that they came too late to rescue the women and unity and reveneration of Italy. The ambition children. A memorial church, a Romanesque red. of Napoleon, the military gallantry of the king, the brick building, now marks the site of General enthusiasm of Garibaldi, were all made to co- | Wheeler's entrenchment; whilst the scene of the operate towards his plan for satisfying the national massacre is occupied by the memorial gardens. aspirations of Italy under a lasting constitutional Over the well itself a mound has been raised, its rule. Through his early death much of the work summit crowned by an octagonal Gothic inclosure, necessary for a sound and healthy national life was with Marochetti's white marble angel in the centre. left untinished, yet the subsequent history of Italy

But Sir George Trevelyan's Cawnpore (1865) is the proves that Cavour had built on a solid foundation. best memorial of the tragedy. — The district of He deserves a place among the greatest statesmen

Cawnpore has an area of 2370 sq. m., and a populaof modern times.

tion of about 1,300,000. It is an alluvial plain of The title is taken from the small Piedmontese great fertility. The vine is cultivated, and indigo town of Cavour, 28 miles SW. of Turin. See De grows wild. Besides its two mighty rivers, the la Rive, Le Comte de Cavour, Récits et Souvenirs Ganges and Jumna, and their navigable tributaries, ( Paris. 1863: Eng. trans, of same date): Bianchi. | the Ganges Canal traverses the country for 60 La Politique de l'arour (Turin, 1885): his Lettere, | miles, and there is ample communication by rail. edited by Chiala (6 vols. 1883-87); also the bio- Caxias, (1) a town of Brazil, in the state of Kraphies of him by Massari (Turin, 1873) and Maranhão, on the navigable Itapicuru, 190 miles Mazande (Paris, 1877; Eng. trans, of same date). I from its mouth, with an active trade in cotton.

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Pop. 10,000.-(2) An Italian agricultural colony in Europeans, large numbers of the convicts having the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, founded been carried ott' by various malignant fevers. The in 1875. Pop. 13,680.

French took possession of the island in 1604, and Caxton, WILLIAM, the first English printer,

again, after it had been held by the English and was born in the Weald of Kent about 1422. He

Dutch, in 1677. The name of the capital is somewas apprenticed in 1438 to Robert Large, a wealthy

times used for the whole of French Guiana (q.v.). London mercer, who was Lord Mayor in 1439-40.

| Pop, about 10,000. On his master's death in 1441, he went to Bruges ; Cayenne Cherry. See EUGENIA. he prospered in business, and became in 1462 Cayenne Pepper consists of the powder of governor of a chartered association of English the dried pods, and more especially of the dried merchants in the Low Countries. In 1471 he seeds of species of Capsicum (9.v.). abandoned commerce and attached himself to the Caves, or Aux CAYES, a seaport of Hayti, on household of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, the the south-west coast, 95 miles WSW. of Port-ausister of Edward IV.; and apparently towards the | Prince. Pop. 8000. end of 1476 he set up his wooden printing-press

Cayley, ARTHUR, mathematician, was born at at the sign of the Red Pale in the Almonry at

Richmond, Surrey, in 1821. He was educated at Westminster. The art of printing he had acquired

King's College, London, and Trinity College, Camduring his sojourn in Bruges, doubtless from Colard

bridge, and graduated as senior wrangler and first Mansion, a well-known printer of that city ; and in 1474 he put through the press at Bruges the first

| Smith's prizeman in 1842. He was called to the

bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1849, and established a book printed in the English tongue, the Recuyell practice as a conveyancer. In 1863 he was elected of the Historyes of Troye, a translation of Raoul

first Sadlerian Professor of pure Mathematics at Lefevre's work. The Game and Playe of the Chesse Cambridge, and in 1875 to a fellowship of Trinity was another of Caxton's earliest publications ; but

College. He received honorary degrees from Oxthe Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers, pub.

ford, Dublin, and Leyden. He was president of lished in 1477, is the first book which can with the Royal Astronomical Society (1872-73), and of certainty be maintained to have been printed in

the British Association at its Southport meeting in England. All the eight founts of type from which | 1883, where his address on the ultimate possibili. Caxton printed may be called Black Letter. Of

ties of mathematics attracted much attention. In the ninety-nine known distinct productions of his | 1882 he lectured at the Johns Hopkins University, press, no less than thirty-eight survive in unique Baltimore, and received the Copley medal of the copies or in fragments only. His books have no Royal Society. His chief book is an Elementary title-pages, although many have prologues and Treatise on Elliptic Functions (1876); a ten-volume colophons. Some have no points at all; others

| edition of his Mathematical Papers was begun in the full-stop and colon alone. The semicolon

1889. He died 26th January 1895. never occurs ; the comma is usually marked by short (1) or by long (1) lines. The pages are not

Caylus, ANNE CLAUDE PHILIPPE DE TUBInumbered and have no catchwords. (For Caxton's

ÈRES, COMTE DE, archaeologist, was born in Paris imprint, see article BOOK.) Caxton enjoyed the

in 1692. After serving in the Spanish War of Sucpatronage and friendship of some of the chief men

cession, he travelled in Greece and the East, return. of his time. He was diligent in the exercise of his ing to

iding to Paris in 1717 to devote himself to the study craft or in translation till within a few hours of his

of antiquities, and the promotion of the fine arts. death, which seems to have happened about the

If his industry sometimes outran his intelligence, close of the year 1491. Gibbon denounces Caxton's

it is still true that he did vast service to archæ. choice of books, and complains that the world isolo

ology. He died at Paris in 1765. His chief work not indebted to England for one first edition of a

is his Recueil d'Antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, classic anthor; but it should be remembered that grecques, romaines, et gauloises (7 vols. 1752-67). Caxton had to make his printing business pay, and

His copperplate engravings have had a longer life that he could therefore supply only books for which

Which than his stories of Eastern life. there was a demand. Nor can it be said that a Cay'man, a local name loosely applied to printer had no regard for pure literature who pro- | various species of alligator-e.g. to Alligator duced editions of Chaucer, Lydgate, Gower, Sir mississippiensis, the single species of the United Thomas Malory's King Arthur, and translations States, or more frequently to other species found of Cicero's De Senectute and De Amicitia. Caxton's in tropical or subtropical America. The name has industry was marvellous. He was an accomplished also been used, to all appearance unnecessarily, as linguist, and the translations which he executed the scientific title of a genus, and as such has been himself fill more than 4500 printed pages, while the most frequently applied to A. palpebrosus and A. total produce of his press, exclusive of the books trigonatus. It seems more reasonable to regard all printed at Bruges, reaches to above 18,000, nearly the alligators as within the limits of a single genus. all of folio size. At the Osterley Park sale in 1885, See ALLIGATOR. no less than ten Caxtons were sold; one of them, I Caymans, three fertile coral islands of the the Chesse, bringing £1950. In 1877 the printer and Caribbean Sea, 165 miles NW. of Jamaica, of which his work were fittingly commemorated by a typo. | they form a dependency. Discovered by Columbus, graphical exhibition in London. See The Old Printer they were by him called Tortugas, from the and the New Press, by Charles Knight (1854); Life abundance of turtle, still the staple production and Typography of William Caxton (1861-63), by of the group. Area, 225 sq. m. ; pop. 2400, 2000 W. Bladies ; and the Biography and Typography of inhabiting the largest island, Grand Cayman. Caxton (1877; 2d. ed. 1882), by the same author. Cazalla de la Sierra, a town of the Spanish

Cayenne, a fortified seaport, capital of French province of Seville, 38 miles ENE. of Seville city, Guiana, on an island at the mouth of a river of the on the southern slope of the Sierra Morena, with same name. A new town is connected with the important mines, and a trade in olives and wine. older portion by the Place d'Armes, bordered with | Pop. 8322. orange-trees. The harbour is the best on the coast, Cazem bé, the title of an African prince, whose but insecure and shallow. Cayenne, though it is territory, also called Cazembé, extends between the entrepôt of all the trade of the colony, is chiefly the Moero and Bangweolo lakes, west of 30° E. known as a great French penal settlement (since long. The people are industrious and skilful hus. 1852). The climate is extremely unwholesome for bandmen and siniths, and carry on a brisk trade 40

CAZORLA

CECROPIA

in ivory, copper, &c. It is now mainly included in wings, of which the maggot is vermilion coloured, British Central Africa or the British sphere. Dr

is often very destructive to crops of barley and Livingstone died here in 1873.

spelt in Germany. The little maggots live in Cazorla, a town of Andalusia, Spain, 40 miles

families between the stalk and the sheath of the ENE. of Jaén. Pop. 6651.

leaf, abstracting the juice of the plant. The

Wheat-fly (q.v.) and the Hessian Fly (g.v.) belong Ceano'thus. See Red Root.

to this genus. Some of the species of Cecidomyia Ceará, a state of Brazil, on the north coast.

deposit their eggs on the young buds of trees, which Area, 40,240 sq. m. It raises cattle, cotton, coffee,

the larvæ transform into galls. and sugar; iron and gold are found. Pop. about

While forms like the Hessian fly are of great 950,000. The capital, Ceará, is on an open road

economic importance, another Cecidomyia is, on stead. It exports sugar, rubber, hides, &c., brought

account of its extraordinary mode of reproduction, of from Baturité (90 miles inland) by a railroad of which

great scientific interest. According to Wagner, the Ceará is the terminus. Pop. about 30,000.

female lays her eggs under tree-bark or the like; Cebadilla. See SABADILLA.

these develop in winter into larvæ. The larvæ, Cebes, a Theban, disciple and friend of Socrates,

still immature, become reproductive and partheno. and reputed author of the Pinax, or ‘votive tablet,

genetic. The ovaries rupture, the eggs fall into a whilosophical dialogue, representing allegorically the body-cavity, where the stimulus of fertilisation the temptations of this life, and teaching that is somehow replaced, for the ova develop into True Learning can alone make for righteousness. larvæ. These eat their parent larva, and after In spite of its pure Attic, and its truly Socratic finishing the viscera, leave the empty skin. The tendency, modern criticism now assigns the work | nemesis of reproduction overtakes them also, for to the 2d century A.D. Extremely popular in the within them again, though likewise only larvæ, a middle ages, a sort of Pilgrim's Progress' indeed, | fresh batch of larvæ develops in similar fashion. it was translated into all the European languages, After several generations of this immature and and into Arabic (possibly about the 9th century), fatal reproduction, the final set of larvæ metain which latter version alone is found the close of morphose in summer into sexual winged insects. the dialogue. See Jerram's Cebetis Tabula (Oxf. | See REPRODUCTION. Clar. Press, 1878).

Cecil. See BURGHLEY and SALISBURY. Cebú, or ZEBU, a long and narrow island of the

Cecilia, St, the patroness of music, especially Philippines, NW. of Mindanao. Area, with neigh

church music, is said to have suffered martyrdom bouring isles, about 2000 sq. m. The valleys are

in 230 A.D. Her heathen parents belonged to a fertile, yielding rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, cacao,

noble Roman family, and betrothed their daughter, and millet. Pop. 504,076. Capital, Cebú, on the

already a secret convert to Christianity, to a heathen east coast, the oldest city (and capital, 1565–71 ) of

youth named Valerian, who also was soon conthe Philippines. It has a good trade. Pop. 35,243.

verted, and ere long suffered martyrdom together Ce'bus (Gr., 'an ape' or 'monkey'), a genus of with his brother Tiberius. Cecilia, when comSouth American monkeys, characterised by a round manded to sacrifice to idols, firmly refused, and head and short muzzle, a facial angle of about 60°, was condemned to death. She was first thrown long thumbs, and a long prehensile tail entirely into a boiling bath, from which she emerged unhurt; covered with hair. The body is covered with short, next the executioner struck three blows upon her thick hair. Their voice is soft and pitiful. The neck with a sword, then fled in horror. Three species are numerous, all of very lively disposition days later his victim died of her wounds, and and gregarious arboreal habits, living in trees. received the martyr's crown. She was buried by They feed chiefly on fruits, but also on insects, Pope Urban in the catacombs of Callistus. As worms, and molluscs. Various species are often early as the 5th century, there is mention of a seen in zoological gardens and menageries. They church dedicated to St Cecilia at Rome; and in are included under the popular designation Sapajou 821, by order of the Pope Paschal, her bones in its wider sense, and some of them are the were deposited there. St Cecilia is regarded as monkeys to which this name is sometimes more the inventor of the organ, and in the Roman strictly appropriated. The names Sajou and Sai Catholic Church her festival-day, November 22, is or Cai are also given to some of them, and some celebrated with splendid music. Some of our are called Capuchin (q.v.) Monkeys. One of the greatest poets, as Chaucer, Dryden, and Pope, have most common species in Guiana is the Weeper laid poetic tributes on the shrine of St Cecilia—the Monkey, or Weeper Sapajou (C. apella). Some of greatest is Dryden's splendid ode. The most the species are adorned with beards. The term famous paintings of St Cecilia are those of Cebidæ is often used as a family designation for Raphael at Bologna, Carlo Dolce in the Dresden all the broad-nosed New World Monkeys (Platyr. | Gallery, Domenichino in the Louvre, and Rubens rhini) with prehensile tails, in contrast to the in the Berlin Museum.-Another St Cecilia was Pithecidæ, in which the tail is not so adapted. | born in Africa, and suffered martyrdom by starva. In this family are included the Howling Monkeys tion under Diocletian. Her festival falls on the (Mycetes), the Spider Monkeys (Ateles), and 11th of February. other genera. See MONKEY.

Cecro'pia, a genus of Artocarpacere. C. Cecidomy'ia (Gr. kekidion, 'a gall-nut,' and peltata, the Trumpet-tree of the West Indies and myria, 'a fly' or 'gnat'), a genus of dipterous (two. | South America, has a hollow stem and branches, winged) insects in the Tipularia (gnat and mos. exhibiting merely membraneous partitions at the quito) division. They have beautiful, delicate, nodes. The branches, these partitions being redowny wings, which have three nervures, and are moved, are made into water-pipes and wind. horizontal when at rest; antenne as long as the instruments. The wood is very light, and is used body, with bead-like joints, and whorls of hairs at to make floats for nets, and by the Indians in the joints ; long legs, and the first joint of the kindling fires by friction against à harder piece of tarsi very short. The species are numerous; nearly wood. The bast yields a cordage fibre, and the thirty in Britain, and sixty in Europe. All are of outer bark is astringent, the fruit resembles a raspsmall size, but some of them are very important on berry, the buds furnish a potherb, while the juice account of the ravages which their minute maggots hardens into caoutchouc. The leaves and fruit are effect in grain-crops. C. cerealis, sometimes called largely consumed by sloths. The hollow stem is the Barley Midge, a brownish-red fly with silvery | largely inhabited by ants.

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Cecrops, a Pelasgic hero, the first king of liform appearance in graduated stages from base to Attica, sometimes represented as half man and summit of the tree. The leaves are about an inch half dragon. He divided Attica into twelve com. long, arranged in clusters, persistent for about two munities, founded Athens, the citadel of which, years, at first bright green, but changing with age at first called Cecropia, commemorated his name, to a deeper tint, with a glaucous hue, which in instituted marriage and the worship of the gods, some individual trees increases to an almost silvery and introduced agriculture, navigation, and commerce. Late writers explained Cecrops as the leader of a colony from Sais in Egypt.

Cedar, or CEDAR OF LEBANON, a tree much celebrated from the most ancient times for its beauty, its magnificence, and its longevity, as well as for the excellence and durability of its timber. It is often mentioned in Scripture ; it supplied the wood work of Solomon's temple; and in the poetry of the Old Testament it is a frequent emblem of prosperity, strength, and stability. It belongs to the natural order Coniferæ, and is the Pinus Cedrus of the older botanists; but is now ranked in the genus Cedrus under the name of C. Libani, in reference to its best-known habitat, Mount Lebanon. It is found, however, on other mountains of Syria and Asia Minor, and also in Cyprus.

of the celebrated Cedars of Lebanon only a few now remain. Situated at the head of the Kedisha Valley at 6314 feet elevation, they consist of a grove

Branch of Cedar of Lebanon. of trees, 377 in number in 1875, five only being of

whiteness that gives to them a strikingly venerable aspect. The cones are erect on the upper sides of the branches, from 3 to 5 inches long and 2 to 24 inches broad, blunt at both ends. They require two years to reach maturity, and do not, as in the case of other allied conifers, drop from the branches, but when ripe the scales only along with the seeds drop to the ground, and leave the axis of the cone attached to the branch.

The timber of the Lebanon cedar enjoyed a high reputation for durability in ancient times, which, however, is hardly supported by modern experience. The wood of trees that have been grown in Britain and other parts of Europe has proved light, soft, brittle, liable to warp, and far from durable, probably owing to the immaturity of these comparatively young, though well-developed, samples, and also perhaps to climatic influence. The superior quality of the timber of the Lebanon trees is attested by Sir Joseph Hooker, who visited the famous cedar grove in 1860.

The secretions of the cedar of Lebanon have long been celebrated for remarkable properties. The whitish resin ( Cedria) which it exudes, it is said the Egyptians used in embalming their dead. Ancient writings were kept in cabinets or boxes of cedar-wood, but it would appear to be rather dangerous to commit modern printed documents to

such repositories. Mr Smee, in My Garden, says: Cedars of Lebanon.

• The wood of the cedar contains a volatile essential

oil, which has the curious property of unsettling gigantic size, measuring 30 feet round. In age printers' ink and making it run. Some years ago they may vary from 50 or 80 to 800 or 1000 years ; à Bank of England note was offered to the cashier but as they have long ceased to add regularly yearly with its printing disturbed. Inquiry was set on concentric rings of wood to their trunks, there are foot, and it was traced to several individuals, who no reliable data by which to estimate the age of satisfactorily explained its custody and possession. the few patriarchal cedars that yet remain on the It was then brought to me, when I suggested that Lebanon. Arabs of all creeds have a traditional the detectives should inquire whether it had been veneration for these trees; and Maronites, Greeks, kept in a cedar box; it was then discovered that and Armenians annually celebrate mass on a the last possessor had kept it in a new cedar box homely altar of stone at their feet.

which she had recently bought, and thus the The general aspect of the cedar is distinct and mystery was solved.' In very ancient times, cedarmajestie in fully developed trees. The trunk is oil, a kind of turpentine, was prepared from the massive, but attains only a moderate height–50 to wood, and was spread on books in order to their 80 feet-much branched; the branches assume the better preservation. The branches of the cedar, proportions of timber, are horizontal, and spreading like those of the larch in warm countries, exude a usually so as to exceed the total height. They sweet substance, which is known by the name of are arranged in apparent whorls, or stages, and the Cedar Manna. branehlets springing from them in a flat fan-like The botanist Belon brought a Lebanon cedar fashion in great profusion and density impart a tabu. I with him to France in 1549 : when it was intro

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