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the teaching of the catechism in the church on | Ca'techu, a substance employed in tanning Sundays and holidays after the second lesson at and dyeing and medicinally as an astringent. The Evening Prayer; and the 59th canon contains a catechu of commerce is obtained chiefly from two like injunction, imposing penalties on the clergy East Indian trees (Acacia Catechu and A. Suma). who neglect this. The custom of catechising in The former is common in most parts of India, and the church had fallen into almost universal disuse, also in tropical East Africa, and the latter grows in but in many parishes it has been revived with Southern India, Bengal, and Gujerat. Catechu is excellent results.
known in India by the name kát or kut. Cutch is The Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which, with | another form of one or other of these names, and the Westminster Confession of Faith, constitute is a common commercial name. The trees are cut the standards or symbolical books of the Presby. | down when they are about a foot in diameter, terian churches throughout the British empire and and according to some accounts only the heartthe United States of America, were compiled by wood is used, but other reports say that the the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (9.v.): whole of the woody part of the trunk is utilised. the Shorter Catechism to be a directory for The catechu is obtained by cutting it into small catechising such as are of weaker capacity, the chips, and boiling it in water, straining the Larger, for catechising such as have made some liquid from time to time, and adding fresh supproficiency in the knowledge of the Christianplies of chips, till the extract is of sufficient conreligion.' The Larger Catechism was presented to sistence to be poured into clay moulds; or when the English House of Commons on 220 October of the thickness of tar, it is allowed to harden for 1647; the Shorter on the 25th November 1647– two days, so that it will not run, and is formed into and both, with proofs added, on or before the balls about the size of oranges, which are placed on 14th April 1648; and in July 1648 both received husks of rice or on leaves, and appear in commerce the sanction of the General Assembly of the enveloped in them. Catechu is of a dark-brown Church of Scotland — the General Assembly, in colour, hard and brittle, and when broken has a the act approving of the Larger Catechism, de. shining surface. It possesses an astringent taste, claring it to be a rich treasure for increasing but no odour. It is a very permanent colour, and knowledge among the people of God,' and that is employed in the dyeing of blacks, browns, fawns,
they bless the Lord that so excellent a catechism drabs, &c. Ordinary commercial catechu or cutch has been prepared.' The Shorter Catechism has, is composed of catechu-tannic acid, which is soluble however, been far more generally used for the in cold water, and catechin or catechuic acid, which purpose of instruction than the Larger, which has is nearly insoluble in cold but soluble in boiling been generally felt to be too minute in its state. water. The latter can be separated in the state ments, and too burdensome to the memory to be of minute, acicular, colourless crystals. It is often employed as a catechism. Even the Shorter Cate. | adulterated with earthy substances, but its ready chism is regarded by many, who substantially solubility in water and alcohol should at once show adhere to its doctrine, as carrying the statement the presence of such by leaving them behind in an of dogmatic theology beyond what is proper for insoluble state. Areca or Palm Catechu, sometimes elementary instruction, whilst it has been long called Ceylon Catechu, differs wholly from the felt to be unsuitable for the very young and the above. It is got from the ripe nuts of the Betel very ignorant, and its use is now almost always palm, which yield, by boiling, a black, very preceded by that of catechisms more adapted to astringent extract, resembling true catechu, but their capacity. Its influence, however, has been of inferior quality. This substance is rarely very great in forming the religious opinions, and exported from India (see ARECA, BETEL). --Gambir in exercising and training the intellectual faculties, (q.v.) may be regarded as a kind of catechu. Terra wherever Presbyterianism has prevailed; for it has Japonica, or Japan Earth, is an old name for been, and still is, in almost universal use among catechu, not quite disused, given in mistake as to Presbyterians speaking the English language, and its nature and origin. About 6000 tons of catechu to a considerable extent among Independents or or cutch are annually iniported into Great Britain Congregationalists both in Britain and America. from India. In Holland also, a translation of it has been much
Catechu'mens (Gr. katēchoumenoi, persons used. It is very generally regarded, by those undergoing a course of instruction; see CATECHISM), whose doctrinal views are in accordance with it, the appellation given, in the early Christian church, as an admirable compend of Christian doctrine and to those converted Jews and heathens who had not duty. “The older I grow,' said Carlyle—and I yet received baptism, but were undergoing a course now stand upon the brink of eternity—the more of training and instruction preparatory to it. They comes back to me the first sentence in the cate- had a place assigned them in the congregation, but chism which I learned when a child, and the fuller
were not permitted to be present at the dispensaand deeper its meaning becomes : “What is the tion of the Lord's Supper, which from the end of the chief end of man?–To glorify God, and to enjoy 2d century was regarded as a sacred mystery. The Him for ever." '_ Catechisms without number had name Catechumens first occurs as the designation been issued by Puritan divines in England between of a separate body in the time of Tertullian, and 1600 anal 1645. A large proportion of the members their distribution into different classes or grades of the Westminster Assembly had previously pub. according to their proficiency, is first referred to lished catechisms of their own. The authorship of by Origen. The most famous catechetical school the Assembly's Catechisms has been the subject of the early church was that of Alexandria, which of much debate, or at least the authorship of the had Pantanus, Clement, Origen, Dionysius and first drafts of them ; it being admitted that they others among its teachers. The only extant speci. were prepared with great care by committees of mens of the ancient catechetical teaching (which the Assembly. Probably their authorship is to be was not necessarily by question and answer) are ascribed entirely to these committees; and, like twenty-three lectures by Cyril of Jerusalem (348), the Westminster Confession of Faith, they are thus ) and Augustine's De catechizandis Rudibus. - The the result of the joint labours of many.
term Catechumens was afterwards employed to See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschichte des Katechismus (1857); designate young members of the Christian church Niemeyer, Collectio Confessionum (1810); Schaff's History who were receiving instruction to prepare them of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols. New York, 1876; for confirmation or for the Lord's Supper, and it Lond. 1877); and Prof. Mitchell's Catechisms of the Second is still often used in this sense. See DISCIPLINA Refornuition (1887),
Ca'tegories, in philosophy, the highest classes Cateni'pora, a genus of fossil tabulate corals under which objects of knowledge can be syste. peculiar to Palæozoic strata, confined in Britain to matically arranged, understood as an attempt at a the Silurian measures. See CORAL. comprehensive classification of all that exists. The Cateran (Gaelic, ceatharnach, 'a soldier'), nanie has come down to us from Aristotle, in whose originally an Irish or Highland soldier, a kern ; system the categories are ten in number : Sub- usually, however, a Highland reiver or freebooter. stance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situ. See CLAN, BLACKMAIL, Rob Roy. ation, possession, action, and suffering. From the
Caterpillar, the larval stage of butterflies and
0: moths (Lepidoptera), and the representative in this substance and attribute ; of metaphysics, to being special order of the grub, maggot, or larva phase in and accident. The Cartesians had the three cate the life history of many insects. gories—substance, attribute, and mode; Leibnitz- General Structure. --The caterpillar, so familiar substance, quantity, quality, action or passion, and in its external appearance, has usually 12 body. relation; and Locke-substance, mode, and rela
rings, not including the head, is provided with tion. J. S. Mill classifies all existences or describ
strong biting jaws, strikingly contrasted with the able things as follows: (1) Feelings, or states of
mouth organs of the adult, has three pairs of fiveconsciousness, the most comprehensive experience
jointed clawed legs on the region corresponding to that the human mind can attain to, since even the external world is only known as conceived by our pro-legs on the abdomen. These unjointed append. minds; (2) the minds which experience those feel.
ages are borne on the sixth to the ninth, and on the ings ; (3) the bodies, or external objects, which are
twelfth segments of the body; some of them may be supposed to excite all that class of feelings that we
absent; in the majority of cases they are adapted denominate sensations; (4) the successions and co.
for clambering. The body may be naked or covered existences, the likenesses and unlikenesses, between
with hairs, bristles, and spines, which, in caterpillars feelings or states of consciousness. Although those relations are considered by us to subsist between the bodies, or things, external to our minds, we are driven in the last resort to consider them as really subsisting between the states of each one's own individual mind.
The categories of Kant are conceived under a totally different point of view. The Root-notions of the understanding (Stammbegriffe des Verstandes), they are the specific forms of the a priori or formal element in rational cognition fornis inherent in the understanding, under which the mind embraces the objects of actual experience. The Kantian philo. sophy supposes that human knowledge is partly made up of the sensations of outward things — colour, sound, touch-and partly of mental ele
Fig. 1. ments or functions existing prior to all experience of
a, Chocrocampa tersa, showing eye-like spots; 6, young cater. the actual world. (This is the point of difference
pillar of Deilephila Euphorbide (after Weismann). Cf. fig. 5. between the school of Locke, who rejected all innate ideas, conceptions, or forms, and the school of Kant. living an exposed life, are usually brightly coloured. No such question was raised under the Aristotelian The large head is divided by a median line, and categories.) Kant's categories are as follows : (1) bears six eye-spots on each side, a pair of short three. Quantity, including unity, inultitude, totality; (2) jointed feelers, strong upper jaws or mandibles, Quality, including reality, negation, limitation; besides jointed palps on the two successive pairs of (3) Relation, including substance and accident, mouth appendages. Two well-developed spinning cause and effect, action and reaction; (4) Modality, organs open on the second pair of maxillæ forming which includes possibility, existence, necessity. the lower lip or labium. On each side, on the first These indicate the elements of our knowledge a ring, and on the fourth to the eleventh, there are priori; and though they are the necessary con- nine pairs of stigmata or openings into the respiraditions under which alone experiences can be real. tory air-tubes. Hatschek has observed the appear. ised to the mind, are merely subjective forms of its ance of three pairs of stigmata on the jaw-segments own activity, distinct from and inapplicable to the of the head. The colours are familiarly bright in world of noumena—the thing in itself-that lies out. many instances, and may have their seat in the side and beyond. Fichte based the whole system of cuticle or in the skin below, or very frequently in the categories of reality on the affirmation of itself deeper regions of the body. A metallic sheen is by the Ego—the primitive function of self-conscious. sometimes superadded. The surface is often beauness. Hegel carried this further, and showed that tifully marked longitudinally, or transversely, or this primitive function supplied the principle needed with ring-spots and eye-spots. Odoriferous and to harmonise and unify the objective and subjective other glands frequently occur on the skin, and elements in thought. Thought and being are ulti. are in some cases (Dicranura, Orgyia) eversible. mately identical, and the categories are thus merely The internal anatomy of the caterpillar, though definite aspects or determinations (Bestimmungen) essentially resembling that of the adult, differs in of the universal of thought, which is identical with some striking features. Thus while the larva has reality or actual existence.
11 to 12 separate nerve ganglia in the ventral Ca'tenary. The catenary is the curve formed chain, the adult insect has usually only two by a flexible homogeneous cord hanging freely be- separate ganglia in the thorax, and five in the tween two points of support, and acted on by no abdomen. The digestive system is comparatively other force than gravity, the name being suggested short and simple; the circulatory and respiratory by Lat. catena, 'a chain.' The catenary possesses systems much like those of the adult; a few aquatic several remarkable properties, one of which is, that caterpillars have gill-like appendages. its centre of Gravity (q.v.) is lower than that of any History. The caterpillar develops like any curve of equal perimeter, and with the same fixed other larva from the segmented egg and differenpoints for its extremities. It is of importance for tiating embryo; its life is usually more or less the theory of suspension bridges. See BRIDGE. active and voracious; it undergoes several mouitCATERPILLAR
ings or ecdyses ; begins to develop some of the adult another point of view the life-history may become structures, and falls into a quiescent pupa, chry- more intelligible—viz. from the side of its physi. salis, or aurelia stage. The pupa is usually (except ology. In the embryonic development the young in butterflies ) insheathed in a silken cocoon, may form is built up at the expense of its endow. be fixed or free, suspended by one thread or more ment of food-capital. The first chapter is one to leaf or branch, or hidden away underground. of passivity and living on past gains. When Among butterflies, the uninsheathed pupa may be these are exhausted, and the embryonic processes fastened head downwards by a single silken rope completed, the larva emerges, hungry, voracious, fastened to the tail end (pupa suspensæ), or head active. In its ravages and moultings it exhibits upwards with an extra suspensor round the body alternate minor rhythms of activity and passivity. (suscinctae). The intimate structural changes asso Finally having laid up a store of food-capital in the ciated with the remarkable alteration in habit of recesses of its fatty body,' it falls asleep into the life have not yet been fully followed. One of the more emphasised quiescence of the pupa stage. most important features is the appearance on the During this phase of fasting and passivity, and caterpillar of what are known as imaginal discs,' of life sustained by past gains, momentous changes, which appear to arise from the skin, and give associated with gradual loss of weight, take place, origin to the limbs and wings of the adult and the final debut is made by the appearance of insect. In the quiescent pupa stage very im. the active, frugal, sexually-mature, comparatively portant changes go on, amounting to more or less short-lived adult. It is not yet possible to rationof a remaking of the entire body; but it is not alise the details of the life-history, but in the possible within the present limits to describe the alternations of activity and passivity common to changes undergone by the digestive, nervous, and all living organisms, and here more marked than other systems, or the very marked transformation in any other case, the solution must be sought. of the mouth appendages. The cocoon in which Protection and Colour.–Caterpillars are evi. the pupa becomes the perfect insect may be alto | dently enough tempting juicy morsels to birds and gether absent, or very slight, or strikingly compact other insect-eating animals; their slow movements and protective. Some firm cocoons open very | render them liable to ready capture, and, as neatly from the inside by valvular lips, and in other Wallace has pointed out, their soft-walled tense cases the moth is known to soften the walls of its structure is extremely dangerous, for a slight prison by means of some secretion. The gilded | wound entails great loss of blood, while a moderate colour of some pupe (chrysalids indeed), so mineral- injury must prove fatal.' It is therefore not surlike in appearance, not improbably arose, it has prising to find that caterpillars, in common with been suggested, in hot dry countries, and had a the larvæ of other insects, have found out, or have protective value among dry rocks. It has been become the subjects of, various devices for evading shown experimentally to arise as a direct con their enemies. The more conspicuous forms almost sequence of bright surroundings. The cocoon always possess some unpleasant attribute in taste occasionally consists solely, or almost solely, of or smell, either in the tissues generally or in special the hairs of the larva ; in some cases leaves, glands. Weismann notes how a curious lashing wood, earth, &c. are used in construction ; in about of the tail may preserve one form, and how most moths it is spun. The work of spinning the the juices of another attract a protective body. usual cocoon is carried on almost ceaselessly, some. guard of ants. Others are so uncanny in the dis. times for four or five days, and Trouvelot calculates position of their hair-tufts and colour, or in the that the larva of Polyphemus in distributing its terrifying atti. silk must have moved its head to and fro about tudes' which they 254,000 times.
assume that their A very primitive insect type is represented by cautious though a widely distributed genus Peripatus (9.v.), which hungry foes leave remains permanently at a sort of caterpillar level, | them alone. But and serves to connect jointed-footed animals or distaste and re. arthropods with worm-like forms. The caterpillar pulsion may on may be interpreted as in part a recapitulation stress of hunger of this historical stage in the evolution of insects. be overcome, and
only a relative.
others are in ton).
their colour and Survival of ancestral insects (from Moseley).
markings so like the plants on which they feed,
or the ground on which they crawl, that they The caterpillar thus represents the prolongation of avoid detection, and this protective resemblance an ancestral and embryonic stage, while many of its is often not merely general and superficial, but characters have arisen as secondary adaptations to detailed and exact. Thus some when fixed as its peculiar mode of life. Between each moult there pupa to the stems of plants, are almost indistinis a period of quiescence, and this becomes greatly guishable from knobs or stunted twigs. In the prolonged in that all-important moult in which the twig-like attitude the supporting thread is somemouth organs of the larva are modified into those of times dispensed with. Others are like little splin. the adult. Free life at a period so momentous would ters of wood, or the curled margins of withered evidently be disadvantageous even if it were pos leaves. The hairs and fleshy tubercles may prevent sible. The pupa, furthermore, may come to have the casting of a sharp shadow. Nor is the ‘mimicry' a secondary importance other than that of simply confined to resembling the parts of plants, but a being an exhausted quiescence at the final moult palatable insect may probably save itself by approxiing; it may come to be of vital moment as a pro- mating in colour to one that is distasteful. Mr tective phase, by means of which the insect sur- Bates observed a large caterpillar deceptively like vives the cold of winter or the drought of the a small venomous snake. Protective resemblance dry season. In one case (Cossus) the preparatory may be further abetted by unpalatable taste or stages may be prolonged for three years. From | unpleasant smell. Some forms hide during the
day; others feign death when caught. In more like appearance afterwards, and are often signals than one species (Dicranura) the larva spurts out of distastefulness. formic acid.
| Poulton made a long series of experiments of Darwin had been impressed with the colours of a most interesting nature on the subtle rela
caterpillars, which, occurring as tions between Lepidopterous larvae and their they do on larvæ, could not be surroundings. The colours and markings have referred to the action of sexual a double source: (1) pigments derived from selection. Though, as an excep the food-plants; (2) pigments proper to the tion, a male caterpillar may be larvæ. A larva may be coloured from either or
much brighter than the female, both of these sources; all greens seem due to the a the two sexes are all but invari | chlorophyll, and most yellows to the xanthophyll
ably the same, and no sexuality of plants; other colours to the proper pigments or sexual choice is yet devel. of the larvæ. The derived pigments are more oped. Wallace attacked the frequently the basis of general resemblances to problem, and maintained that surroundings, the true pigments of special and the conspicuous forms were dis detailed likeness. Poulton arranges the causes of tasteful to birds and reptiles, colour in larvæ, in the presumed historic order of and that the conspicuous colours their employment, thus : (1) Ready-made colour were advantageous reminders of in the internal tissues and organs, in the digestive unpalatableness. To this Poul. | tract, fat, and dorsal blood-vessel; (2) derived ton has added the necessary | pigments which have passed through the walls of
caution, that animals forced by the digestive tract into the blood or the tissue Fig. 4.-Hawthorn
hunger will eat the distasteful twig with at
under the cuticle ; (3) true pigment in the cuticle tached twig-like
beauties, and come to like them. and in the layer immediately below (the hypoder. larva la of For a most interesting series mis).' But the point of most general interest is the Rumia Cradle of studies on the colour and relation between the colour of the larvæ and that gata (after Poul. markings of caterpillars, the of their food-plants. Within the same species the ton).
reader should consult Pro- | colours may vary to suit the colour of the feeding.
fessor Weismann's Studies in ground. Abundant instances of this are recorded the Theory of Descent, and the valuable editorial in Meldola's notes to Weismann's Studies. notes of the translator, Professor Meldola. The McLachlan noted for instance that the larvæ of whole burden of Weismann's work is to show that Eupithecia absynthiata were yellowish on the in the marking and colouring (of the Sphingidæ yellow ragweed (Senecio jacob@a), reddish on the in particular) no action of an impelling vital force purplish centaury (Centaurea nigra), and white can be recognised, but that the origination and on the mayweed (Matricaria). Poulton has the perfection of these characters depend entirely on credit of analysing this interesting relation. He the known factors of natural selection and correla has shown that the influence of the food-plant tion,' though of course natural selection can only must act throughout a long period of larval life, operate on the variations possible to the physical that the effects probably accumulate during suc. constitution and conditions of the organism. In cessive generations, and that the result cannot be tracing the presumed historical evolution of the referred to the direct influence of the material Sphingida, which is more or less fully recapitu eaten. The interpretation is rendered particularly lated in the individual development, he starts (1) difficult by the gradual working of the process, from concealed or subterranean, white or yellow, ofter incomplete in a single life, by the excessively forms, with a horn on the tail and with bristles, but complex and diverse result, and by the special without markings; (2) in adaptation to life on character of the stimulus, for it is only part of the linear plants like grasses, longitudinal markings environment which produces any effect. In the are evolved and confirmed by natural selection; case of the larva of Smerinthus ocellatus, Poulton
has shown that the colour relation is adjustable
individual variations are comparatively unimportFig. 5.
ant, though it is quite possible that variation a, Caterpillar of Sphinx Convolvuli: b, larva of Macroglossa began somewhat uselessly in the pigments in the Stellatarum, showing lines and spots (after Weismann). blood, &c., and were afterwards rendered effica.
cious by co-ordination with the environment.' (3) these are succeeded by oblique stripes, spread. Some of Mr Poulton's most beautiful recent exing from one segment to another, evolved by periments (1887) are those which show how the natural selection and correlation, and followed by golden surroundings of a gilt-lined box favour the the disappearance of the longitudinal lines which production of golden pupæ. The above naturalist, spoil the effect; (4) on the second last segment to whose observations this article is so much inring-spots then appear, and tend to spread to other debted, has done more than any one else to rings; these are deceptively like the berries of the penetrate into the physiological conditions of food-plant at one time, or have a terrifying eye. | caterpillar colour, but much still remains to bo
done in elucidating the role of colour in the con 'the resurrection painted before our eyes,' w) ile stitution of these and other animals.
| moralists and poets have often delighted in pointGeneral Life.-As already noted, most catering out the analogies suggested by the crawl. pillars lead an active life, some roving only at | ing immature caterpillar, with faint promise of its night, others also in the daytime. Young larvæ future, by the seeming death and coffin-like cocoon have been observed to seek the light. Their inove of the chrysalids, by the new birth, glory, and ments are guided by an appreciation of the force of heaven ward flight of the perfected forms. gravitation ; they usually crawl upwards; and they LITERATURE. Balfour, Embryology, vol. i. ; Kirby and always know their food-plant when they come to Spence, Introduction to Entomology; Lubbock, Metamor. it. Their frequent falls froni, for them, considerable phoses of Insects (“Nature' series); Packard, Guide to the heights, are broken, it has been suggested, by the Study of Insects; Poulton, Transactions of Entomological springy hairs with which they are so often covered. | Society (1885-6-7), British Association Report (1887), Many of them seem to have an insatiable hunger,
Proceedings of Zoological Society (1887); Wallace, Proand eat straight on. Their ravages among vege.
ceedings of Entomological Society (1867); Weismann
(translated by Meldola), Studies in the Theory of Descent tables and other plants are only too well known.
(1880–82); Wilson, Larve of British Lepidoptera and Some forms are carnivorous, and Mr Poulton has
Their Food Plants (London, 1880). suggested that this might arise from cannibalism induced by scarcity of food, as his observations
Catesby, MARK, naturalist, born about 1679,
probably in London, travelled in North America in vividly indicate. While older larvæ will appar
1710-19 and 1722–26, and published Natural His. ently rather starve than take to a new food-plant,
tory of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands it has been conclusively shown that the newly
(2 vols. 1731–43), Hortus Britanno-Americanus, and hatched larva is not so fastidious, but is free to form special relations with occasional or rare food.
a work on the fishes, reptiles, and insects of the
Isle of Providence. German translations of the plants. Trouvelot's experiments on the larvæ of Polyphemus showed that a caterpillar, fifty-six
tirst and last appeared at Nuremberg. He died in days old, had consumed not less than one hundred
| London, 23d December 1749. and twenty oak leaves, weighing in all three.
Catesby, ROBERT, born in 1573, was a fourths of a pound, and had drunk not less than
Northamptonshire Catholic of good fortune and half an ounce of water. The food would weigh
lineage, being sixth in descent from Richard III.'s 86,000 times the original weight of the larva. Of
Catesby, who was hanged three days after Bos. this, about one-fourth of a pound becomes ex
worth. Robert, however, had suffered much as a crementitious matter; 207 grains are assimilated,
recusant both by fines and imprisonment, when and over five ounces evaporated.' A few larvæ
in 1604 he engaged in the Gunpowder Plot (q.v.). (Nymphula, &c.) are aquatic, many bore in wood,
He was shot dead in the defence of Holbeache leaves, and soft vegetable substances, others are
House, 8th November 1605. largely subterranean.
Cat-fish, in Britain, is usually a name for the The caterpillars of some of the silkworm sub Wolf-fish (g.v.).-In America the name is comorder (Bombycina) live together within a common monly applied to a very different fish, one of the pouch-like cradle, and others move in file-like | genus Pimelodus and family Siluridæ. Sixteen processions (see ARMY-WORM). • Migrating cater. species occur in the lakes and rivers of North pillars (Noctua) have been described, which move America. The skin is naked, and the head ,bas in search of food in vast armies, marching straight eight fleshy barbules. The Common Cat-fish (P. on over everything, until a tit pasturage is found. atrarius), or Horned Pout, is one of the commonest In one case (quoted by Kirby and Spence from the river fishes of the United States, especially in the Charleston Courier, May 1842) the passage of such east and north. It is from 7 to 9 inches in length, a host is said to have made the ground black for
and is a very important food fish, though its flesh, days; in another instance reported from America, like that of all the cat-fishes, is insipid. Like all they stopped a heavy train going at the rate of 10 | its congeners it prefers muddy bottoms, and is or 12 miles an hour.
sluggish in its movements. The Great Lake Cat. Comparatively few caterpillars reach maturity fish (P. nigricans) is from 2 to 4 feet long, weighs (happily for the sake of the plants in the next from 6 to 30 pounds, and is found in lakes Erie season); many are destroyed by the weather, and Ontario. many by hungry birds, reptiles, and other animals, Catgut is employed in the fabrication of the and many by insect pests of the families Ichneu- strings of violins, harps, guitars, and other musical monidæ (see Art. ICHNEUMON) and Tachinariæ. instruments; as also in the cords used by clock. The ichneumon flies pierce the caterpillars, and makers, in the bows of archers, and in whipcord. make them the receptacles of their eggs and the It is generally prepared from the intestines of the edible cradles of their larvæ.
sheep, rarely from those of the horse, ass, or mule, As typical injurious caterpillars may be noticed, and not those of the cat. The first stage in the (1) on vegetables, those of the cabbage-moths (e.g. | operation is the thorough cleansing of the inMamestra brassicæ, and several species of Pieris testines from adherent feculent and fatty matters ; or Pontia), the turnip-motlıs (Noctua segetum, after which they are steeped in water for several Cerostoma xylostella), the silver Y.moth (Plusia days, so as to loosen the external membrane, which gamma), the carrot-moths (Depressaria), the hop. | can then be removed by scraping with a blunt moths (Dasychira, Hepialus, Pyralis)," the pea. knife. The material which is thus scraped off is moth (Grapholitha pisana), the death's - head employed for the cords of battledoors and rackets, (Sphinxatropos); (2) on trees, those of the goat and also as thread in sewing the ends of intestines moth (Cossus ligniperda), the wood leopard-moth together. The scraped intestines are then steeped (Zeuzera asculi)," the butf-tip moth (Pygara in water, and scraped again, when the large inbucephala), the lackey-moth" (Bombyx (clisio. | testines are cut off and placed in tubs with salt, campa) neustria), &c. See Miss Ormerod's Injuri- to preserve them for the sausage-maker; and the ous Insects.
smaller intestines are steeped in water, thereafter The devastations of caterpillars are to some treated with a dilute solution of alkali (4 oz. potash, extent compensated for by the fertilising work 4 oz. carbonate of potash, and 3 to 4 gallons of of the adults, and by the silk of the silkworms. water, with occasionally a little alum), and are But apart from their destructiveness and utility, lastly drawn through a perforated brass thimble, they are full of interest and of scientific puzzles. and assorted into their respective sizes. In order Old Swammerdam saw in their metamorphosis to destroy any adherent matter which would lead