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Vol. III., page 544.


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is no fear of fouling; if also the jib is of a curved cylinders, is easily reversed; by means of gearing form, we obtain the full benefit of the list, while in and clutches, which are operated by the man in

charge of the crane by hand or foot levers, the engine can perform the following operations : (1) Lower or raise the outer end of the jib ; (2) slew the crane-i.e. the base-plate and all it carries ; (3) propel the truck along the rails; (4) hoist the loads. For the last three operations the gearing is generally so arranged that there are two speeds, a quicl; and a slow, either of which can be used, depending on the work to be done. The figure shows a very common type of this kind, which will lift from 5 to 7 tons, according to the position of the jib. For the maximum load the chain end is often attached to end of jib, and then round a hanging-block, and so up to fixed pulley at jib end, thus doub. ling pull on chain. For the same purpose as the ordinary crane are used contrivances known as derricks, which consist essentially of a mast or tripod with a long cross-boom at the top, tied to the mast by guys; pulley-blocks attached to one arm of the boom form the means of lifting. They are a good deal used in America for very heavy work, such as raising wrecks, bridge. building, &c. They readily lend themselves for

use as floating-cranes, since by making the vessel the ordinary crane the form of the jib or the tie, carrying them in watertight compartments which interferes with the usual height of lift.

can be filled, it is easy to counterbalance the load. Whenever much hoisting or heavy work has to be | Electric cranes are also now in use. done, steam or hydraulic power is always used; the cranes are then either stationary or portable, the

Crane, THOMAS FREDERICK, a learned folk. latter type being used whenever it is more con

lorist, was born in New York city, July 12, 1844. venient to move the crane to its work than the con- |

| He was educated at the public school and acaverse. The stationary power cranes differ from the

demy of Ithaca, New York; and graduated at the hand ones mainly in their vastly greater power, and

college of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1864; A.M. consequently greater size and complexity of gear.

| in 1867; and Ph.D., 'causa honoris, in 1874. He ing; where steam is used there are generally two

was appointed assistant-professor of Modern Lan. direct-acting steam-cylinders, which replace the

guages in Cornell University in 1868, professor of two handles worked by hand. The very powerful

Spanish and Italian there in 1872, and professor of stationary cranes used in docks capable of lifting

Romance Languages in 1881. Professor Crane has 50 to 75 tons are examples of this kind ; they are

contributed a large number of articles to the North

American Review, International Review, Harper's always mounted on massive foundations, and so arranged as to sweep a whole circle. Hydraulic

Magazine, Lippincott's Magazine, and The Nation power is very largely used in cranes for these

on folklore and the literary history and philology

of the Romance languages, especially during the places and in great steel-works; they are simpler

period of the middle ages. Since his article on in construction, a good deal of gearing being done away with; the water in the operating cylinder

Italian folk-tales in the North American Review is always under great pressure, usually 700 lb.

for July 1876, he has devoted much attention to on the square inch. In the hydraulic cranes

the subject of the origin and diffusion of popular originally introduced by Sir William Armstrong

tales, and was one of the founders of the American & Co., the power given out by the hydraulic

Folklore Society (1888). Among his books are cylinder is reduced by using systems of pulleys in

Italian Popular Tales (Boston, 1885); Le Romanthe inverse order, the lifting chain being attached

tisme Français (New York, 1887); and an edition

(1890), for the English Folklore Society, of the to the cylinder, then passing over a pulley fixed to the head of the ram, then round other fixed pulleys,

Exempla or illustrative stories coutained in the

sermones vulgares of Jacques de Vitré, Bishop of and so up to the fixed pulley at jib end, the effect

Acre (died 1240), containing the Latin text, transbeing to increase the motion of the ram, and so

lation into English, elaborate notes on the origin secure very rapid lifts at the expense of using

and diffusion of the individual stories, and an inmore power. In one very ingenious steam-crane (Morrison's) the post of the crane is hollow, and

troduction on the life of the author, and the use

of illustrative stories in medieval sermons, &c. forms the steam-cylinder, in which works a piston with flexible piston-rod-namely, the lifting chain;

Professor Crane's Italian Popular Tales forms, this form is very steady and very readily slewed.

from its extent, its scientific accuracy, and the Portable cranes are mounted on plain railway

wide learning of its notes, one of the most im. trucks, either of wood or iron. This truck carries

portant of recent contributions to storiology. firmly attached to it a central post, the whole of Crane, WALTER, painter and socialist, was the rest of the crane being carried on a strong base-born at Liverpool, 15th August 1845, the son of an plate capable of revolving round this post as a artist, Thomas Crane (1808–59). He himself was pivot, the boiler being so placed (often standing on trained as an artist, and his earlier as well as much its own feed-water tank) on this base-plate that it of his later work consists of book-illnstrations. forms a counterbalance to the weight to be lifted. Among these may be named his series of Toy. The boiler is always of the vertical type, and books (1869–75), 'The Baby's Opera' (1877), and very simple in its internal arrangements of tubes.The Sirens Three,' in which last the poem as well (see fig.), because it often has to work with very as the designs was his work. In 1862 he began to dirty feed-water. The gearing is usually carried exbibit paintings at the Royal Academy, showing by A frames bolted to the base-plate; the engine, in that year 'The Lady of Shalott ;' and he was a having generally two small direct-acting steam. constant contributor to the Grosvenor Gallery from





its foundation in 1877 till 1888. His pictures nearly as primate he feared not to ride the roughest horse, always deal, in a somewhat decorative and archaic and was ever a keen hunter. By his widowed fashion, with subjects of an imaginative nature, mother he was sent in 1503 to Jesus College, such as “The Riddle of the Sphinx' (1887). He Cambridge, where in 1510 he obtained a fellowship. has also produced many very delicate landscape He forfeited it by his marriage with black Joan subjects in water-colours; has designed wall-papers; of the Dolphin tavern, but regained it on her death and has published poems, illustrated by himself, in childbed before the year's grace was up; and Queen's Summer (1891), and The Claims of Decora- taking orders in 1523, proceeded D.D., and became tive Art (1892). Since 1888 a member of the Royal a divinity tutor. During the quarter of a century Society of Painters in Water-colours, he was in that he resided at Cambridge he did not greatly 1893 appointed art director to the city of Man. distinguish himself; Erasmus never so much as chester.

mentions him; he was just a clever, hard-reading Crane-fly. See DADDY-LONG-LEGS.

college don.

But in the summer of 1529 the plague was raging Crane's-bill. See GERANIUM

| in Cambridge, and Cranmer removed with two Cranganore (properly Kodungalúr), a town pupils to Waltham. Here he met Fox and Gardiin Cochin state, on one of the openings of the great ner, the king's almoner and secretary; and their Cochin backwater, 18 miles N. of Cochin town; talk turning on the divorce, Cranmer suggested pop. about 10,000. It is the traditional scene of St that Henry might satisfy his conscience of the Thomas's labours. The Syrian Christians were nullity of his first marriage by an appeal to established here before the 9th century, and the the universities of Christendom. "The suggestion Jews' settlement was probably still earlier. It was pleased Henry; he exclaimed, 'Who is this Dr taken from the Portuguese by the Dutch in 1661 ; Cranmer? I will speak to him. Marry! I trow was seized by Tippoo in 1776, retaken, sold, and he has got the right sow by the ear.' So Cranmer destroyed and abandoned by Tippoo in 1789. became a counsel in the suit. He was appointed a Craniology. See SKULL, ETHNOLOGY.

royal chaplain and archdeacon of Taunton ; was

attached to the household of Anne Boleyn's father Crank, in Machinery, is a lever or arm on a (Anne at the time being Henry's paramour); shaft, driven by hand (e.g. a winch-handle), or by penned a treatise to promulgate his view ; and a connecting-rod, its object being to convert recip.

was sent on two embassies, to Italy in 1530, and rocating motion into rotary motion. Engine-cranks

to Germany in the middle of 1532. 'At Rome the which convert the to and fro motion of the piston pope made him grand penitentiary of England ; into continuous rotation of crank-shaft are con

at Nuremberg he had married a niece of the Renected to the piston-rod end by the connecting-rod. | former Osiander-a marriage uncanonical but not They are, when single, of steel, wrought-iron, or then illegal--when a royal summons reached him cast-iron, the crank in this case being either a to return as Warham's successor in the see of simple arm, enlarged at one end to fit over the Canterbury. He sent his wife secretly over, and shaft, and with a pin at the other end embraced by himself following slowly, was consecrated on 30th the rod end (fig. 1); or else a disc centred on the March 1533, four days after the arrival of the shaft, with crank-pin as before (fig. 2). This last eleven customary bulls from Rome. He took the form is well balanced. When double, as is usual in oath of allegiance to the pope, with a protest that large engines (fig. 3), they are now often built up he took it for form sake,' and with, as was usual,

a contradictory oath of allegiance to the king.

That Henry looked for a pliable judge in Cranmer no man could doubt, least of all Cranmer himself, who in May pronounced Catharine's marriage null and void ab initio, and Anne's, four months earlier, valid ; and who in September stood godfather to Anne's daughter Elizabeth. It was the same throughont the entire reign. Cranmer annulled Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn(1536), divorced him from Anne of Cleves (1540), informed him of Catharine Howard's prenuptial frailty, and strove to coax her into confessing it (1541). Sometimes he raised a voice of timid entreaty, on Anne Boleyn's behalí,

on Cromwell's; still, if Henry said they were of steel, the two arms being shrunk on to the shaft,

guilty, guilty they needs must be. He did what and pin on to them. In two positions during each

| he dared to oppose the Six Articles (1539), natur. turn, a connecting-rod exerts no power of rotation.

ally, since by one of them the marriage of priests These are when rod A and crank-arms B are par.

was rendered felony, punishable with death ; but allel (as in fig. 3 and opposite position), and are the he failed to stick to his opposition, and sent awar dead centres, all the push or pull of the rod only his own wife to Germany, whence he did not recall causes pressure on shaft-bearings. To carry the her till 1548. crank over these points either a heavy wheel (fly: A kindly, humane soul, yet he was not ahead of wheel) is attached to the shaft, which stores up his compeers-More, for instance, or Calvin-in the energy during other parts of the revolution, and

| matter of religious toleration. We cannot acquit gives it out at these points, or else two or more | him of complicity in the burning of Frith and cranks are so placed on the shaft that when one is | Lambert for denying the doctrine of Transnbstanon its dead centre, the others are exerting nearly ' tiation (1533–38), of Friar Forest for upholding their maximum effort, which is when rod and crank the papal supremacy (1538), of two Anabaptists. are at right angles.

a man and a woman (1538), of Joan Bocher for Cranmer, THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury, denying Christ's humanity (1550), and of a Dutch was born of a good old family at Aslacton, Not- | Arian (1551). In the death, however, of Anne tinghamshire, 2d July 1489. He learned his Askew (q.v.) he seems to have borne no part; nor grammar of 'a rude parish clerk,' a 'marvellous is there one word of truth in Foxe's legend that he severe and cruel schoolmaster,' who seems to have coerced Edward VI. into signing the warrant for permanently cowed his spirit; still, his father Joan Bocher's execution. With the dissolution trained him in all manly exercises, so that even l of the monasteries he had little to do; but he CRANMER



bestirred himself in promoting the translation of prefaces to the Bible (1540) and the First Prayerthe Bible (q.v.) and a service-book, in curtailing the book (1549); the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiastinumber of holy days, in the suppression of the cult carum-his revision, happily abortive, of the of St Thomas of Canterbury, and in negotiating an Canon Law (q.v.)—first published in 1571 ; and A eirenicon with foreign Reformers. On the path, Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the indeed, towards Protestantism, he was ever in Sacrament (1550). advance of Henry VIII., though to Henry he See Narratives of the Reformation, edited by J. G. surrendered his right of private judgment as com Nichols (Camden Society, 1859), with a sketch of Cran. pletely as ever Ultramontane to Pope. Thus, mer by Ralph Morice, his secretary; Foxe's Acts and writing in 1540 on the sacraments, he could wind Monuments; Cooper's Athence Cantabrigienses (1858); up a thesis with This is mine opinion and

Mr Gairdner's article in the Dictionary of National Bio sentence at this present, which nevertheless I do

graphy (vol. xiii. 1888); Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials

| (1721); Shakespeare's Henry VIII.and Tennyson's Queen not temerariously define, but remit the judgment thereof wholly unto your majesty.' Henry repaid

Mary; and Lives of Cranmer by Strype (1694), Gilpin

| (1784), Todd (2 vols. 1831, with fine portrait), Le Bas him with implicit confidence, and twice saved him |(2 vols. 1833), Dean Hook, Lives of the Archbishops ( vols. from the plots of his enemies (1543-45).

vi.-vii. 1868), Collette (1887), and Mason (1898). On 28th January 1547 Henry died, and Cranmer Crannog, from the Gaelic crann, 'a tree,' a sang mass of requiem for his soul. He had been

modern term employed to designate a species of slowly drifting into Protestantism ; but now the lake-dwelling common in Scotland and Ireland, inrushing tide swept him onward through all those which consisted of an islet wholly or partially built religious changes by which the mass was converted up from the bottom of the loch by masses of brushinto a communion-changes stereotyped in the wood, steadied by piling, and consolidated by stones Second Prayer-book of 1552. See ENGLAND

and gravel, the whole being surmounted above the (CHURCH OF), PRAYER-BOOK, ARTICLES, HOMILY, level of the water by a platform of timber, earth CATECHISM. During this as during the preceding and stones, on which were wooden huts, often surreign he meddled little with affairs of state, though rounded by palisades for better security. The he was one of the council of regency. What he

earliest occurrence of the word in historical docu. did do was not too creditable. In gross violation nients is in the Register of the Privy-council of of the canon law he signed Seymour's death.

Scotland in 1608, when the Crannokis of the Ylis' warrant; he had a chief hand in the deposition

are classed with houssis of defence and strong. and imprisonment of Bishops Bonner, Gardiner, holds' to be given up to the king. See LAKEand Day; and won over by the dying boy-king's | DWELLINGS. pleading, he reluctantly subscribed the instrument diverting the succession from Mary to Lady Jane her

Crape, a thin fabric made of silk, which has Grey (1553). Herein he was guilty of conscious

been tightly twisted, without removing the natural

gum with which it is covered when spun by the perjury, yet, the twelve days' reign over, he

worm. It is woven as a thin gauze, then boiled made no attempt to flee. On the contrary, he was

to extract the gum, which causes the threads roused to an outburst of indignation, rare with him, by a report that he had offered to restore the

| partially to untwist, and thus gives a waved and

rough appearance to the fabric. It is usually mass, had indeed restored it at Canterbury. In

dyed black, and used for mourning apparel. The the heat of the moment he dashed off a letter,

nature of the finishing processes in the making denouncing that report as a lie of the devil, which

of crape is kept secret by European manufacturers. letter, unrevised, being prematurely circulated, on

In Japan, crape is manufactured by using alter14th September Cranmer was sent to the Tower, on

nately weft threads twisted in opposite directions, 13th November was arraigned for treason, and,

and these are of a much closer twist than ordinary pleading guilty, was condemned to die. If he had

threads. When the piece is woven it is dipped in been executed on that sentence, little could have

cold, then in hot, and again in cold water in rapid been urged against his executioners, but he was

succession, and afterwards rolled and dried. The reserved to be tried as a heretic, and, perchance, to

effect of these operations on the weft threads pro. recant his heresy. In March 1554 he was removed with Ridley and Latimer, to Bocardo, the common

duces the crisp surface. Chinese and Japanese gaol at Oxford. He bore himself bravely and dis

crapes are often white, with coloured designs, or

in single colours, and used for shawls, scarfs, &c. creetly in a scholastic disputation, as also upon his trial before the papal commissioner, whose

Crashaw, RICHARD (circa 1613-49), an English jurisdiction he refused to recognise. In October

religious poet, was the son of a clergyman in the from the gaol be witnessed Latimer's and Ridley's

English Church, and was born in London about martyrdom ; in December judgment was pro

1613. He was educated at the Charterhouse, and nounced against hiin : and on 14th February 1556 |

at Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship at he was formally degraded, stripped of the mock

Peterhouse in 1637. His leanings towards Roman vestments in which they had arraved him. And

Catholicism prevented him from receiving Anglican now in rapid succession he signed form after form

orders, and in 1644 he was ejected from his fellow. of recantation, seven in all, each more submissive

ship by the parliament for refusing to take the than its predecessor. The last he transcribed on

Covenant. He went to Paris, adopted the Roman the morning of 21st March, and forthwith they

Catholic faith, and suffered great pecuniary distress, brought him to St Mary's Church. If not before,

until about 1648, through Cowley's intluence, he was he learned at least now from the sermon that he

introduced to Queen Henrietta Maria, who recommust burn; anyhow, when they looked for him to

mended him to certain dignitaries of the church read his recantation, instead he retracted all that

in Italy. He obtained a humble office in the house. * for fear of death' his hand had written contrary

hold of Cardinal Palotta, but in April 1649, a few to the truth. With a cheerful countenance he

months before his death, he became sub-canon then bastened to the stake, and, fire being put to

of the church of Our Lady of Loretto. In 1634 him, thrust his right hand into the flame, and kept

Crasbaw published a volume of Latin poems, Epi. it there, crying : This hath offended! Oh this

grammatum Sacrorum Liber (2d ed. 1670), in which unworthy hand !' Very soon he was dead.

appeared the famous line on the miracle at Cana: Among Cranmer's forty-two writings, the chief

Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit' of which have been edited by the Rev. H. Jenkyns

(The modest water saw its God and blushed). (4 vols. 1833) and the Rev. J. E. Cox (2 vols. In 1646 appeared his Steps to the Temple ; Sacred Parker Society, 1844-46), may be noticed his | Poems, with other Delights of the Muses-in which

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