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birth of James VI. Besides several more Latin Mrs Oliphant's sketch in Macmillan's Magazine poems, and the masterly Jus Feudale (1608 ; 3d ed. (1887). 1732), by which he is chiefly remembered, he wrote Crail, an antique little coast-town in the 'East three other Latin treatises-on James VI.'s right Neuk' of Fife, 2ị miles WSW. of Fife Ness, 10 to succeed to the English throne, on the advisability SE. of St Andrews, and 43 NE. of Edinburgh by of a union between the two kingdoms, and on the rail. There is a fragment of a castle of David I. ; homage controversy between Scotland and England. and the church, which was made collegiate in 1517, He stood high in favour with James, who wanted is an interesting Second Pointed structure. John to knight him in 1603, and, on his declining, dis- Knox here preached his idolatrous sermon,' 9th pensed with the ceremony, but gave him the title. | June 1559 ; and in 1648, James Sharp was apHe died 26th February 1608. See his Life by P. F. pointed minister. The fishing is not what it once Tytler (1823).

was, and the harbour has little trade ; but Crail Craig-fluke (Pleuronectes cynoglossus), a flat is a pleasant summer-resort. It was made a royal fish in the same genus as Dab, Plaice, and burgh in 1306, and unites with the other six St Flonnder (q.v.).

Andrews burghs to return one member to parliaCraigleith Stone, a siliceous sandstone be- ment. Pop. (1861 ) 1238 ; (1881) 1148; (1891) 1115. longing to the lower carboniferous series, quarried Crake. See CORN-CRAKE. at Craigleith, 2 miles W. of Edinburgh, and largely Crambé, a genus of Cruciferæ, having a pod used for building in city, for which it is

(silicula) of two unequal joints, of which the adinirably adapted by its purity and durability.

appelices globose it and one-seeded, the lower Craik, GEORGE LILLIE, a versatile and indus. abortive. Č. maritima is well known as Seatrious author, born at Kennoway, Fife, in 1798, kale (q.v.). C. tartarica, of Eastern Europe, was educated for the church at St Andrews with much divided leaves and a great fleshy University, but, preferring a literary career, came root, is cultivated in Roumania as cauliflower, to London in 1826, and formed a connection and its root is eaten either boiled or in salads. with Charles Knight. His first work of importance Cramer, JOHANN BAPTIST, pianist, was born was the Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties at Mannheiin in 1771, the son of Wilhelm Cramer (1831). He also contributed largely to the Penny (1745-99), a musician of repute, who settled in Magazine and Cyclopædia, and in 1839became | London in 1772. From 1788 the son undertook editor of the Pictorial History of England, some concert tours on the Continent, and gained a high of the most valuable chapters of which were reputation as a facile and expressive performer. written by himself. From these his Sketches of He founded the musical publishing firm wlich the History of Literature and Learning in Eng, bears his name in 1828, and after some years' land (6 vols. 1814) and his History of British residence in Paris, died in London, 16th April Commerce (3 vols. 1844) were reprinted. In 1849 1858. Most of his compositions are now forgotten, Craik was appointed to the chair of History and but his series of Studies is a work of importance. English Literature in Queen's College, Belfast, Cramp is a word applied to muscular contraca situation which he occupied till his death on tions of an irregular kind, in a somewhat variable 25th June 1866. His other works include Spenser way. (1845), Bacon (1846-47), Romance of the Peerage (1) In its common use, it denotes an involuntary (1848-50), The English of Shakespeare (1856), His and painful contraction of a voluntary muscle or tory of English Language and Literature (1861 ; group of muscles. It is most apt to occur when a 9tli abridged ed. 1883). –His youngest danghter, muscle has been fatigned ; though any muscle may Georgina Marion (Mrs May), born in 1831, began be atfected, those of the calves most often suffer. to write at nineteen, and had at her death in 1895 It is especially common in pregnant women and published some thirty novels and stories.

persons of a gouty diathesis, and is a prominent Craik, Mrs. Dinah Maria Mulock, well known feature in some diseases, especially cholera. There as the author of John Halifax, Gentleman, was is no specific for preventing it; each case must be born at Stoke-upon-Trent in 1826. She early treated on its merits. The contraction and accom. took the burden of supporting an ailing mother panying pain is usually cut short if the affected and two younger brothers, and wrote stories for muscle be stretched-e.g. in the case of the calffashion-books, as well as for graver publications. muscles, the knee must be straightened and the Her first serious appearance as a novelist was in foot bent up as far as possible towards the front of 1849, with her story The Ogilvies, which was the leg, to lengthen the affected muscles to the followed by Olive, The Head of the Family, and utmost, and similarly with other cases. Agatha's Husband. But she never surpassed or even (2) Writer's Cramp is the commonest and best equalled her domestic novel John Halifax (1857), known of a group of diseases called trade spasms. which has had, and still continues to have an The person affected can use his fingers for any extraordinary popularity, and has been translated purpose, even the most delicate manipulations, so into French, German, Italian, Greek, and Russian. | long as he does not attempt to write ; but when. The scene is laid at Tewkesbury, where a marble ever he does so, the muscles refuse to obey his medallion has been placed to her memory in the will, and the pen either drops from his hand abbey. A pension of £60 a year, awardeil to her or executes spasmodic purposeless movements. in 1864, she set aside for authors less fortunate Similar conditions may occur in telegraphists and than herself. In 1865 she married Mr George Lilie pianists-in fact, in any case where frequent and Craik, a partner in the publishing house of Mac- continued use of particular muscular actions is millan & Co. (nephew of the subject of the pre- necessary. These distressing and troublesome ceding article), and spent a period of quiet happi. affections have recently been cured in some cases ness and successful literary industry at her home, by means of Massage (q.v.) and systematic gym. Corner House, Shortlands, Kent, where she died nastic exercises of the affected parts. 12th October 1887. Much of Mrs Craik's verse (3) Bather's Cramp.--A good swimmer, while is collected in Thirty Years' Poems (1881). She bathing, is seen to throw up his arms, perhaps is wrote a good deal for the magazines, and produced heard to cry out once, and then sinks to rise no in all forty-six works, viz.-fourteen more novels,

It is said that “bather's cramp' has been and several volumes of prose essays, including A the cause of his death. This phrase, however, Woman's Thoughts about Women (1858), and Con. is merely an apology for ignorance : what has rerning Men, and other Papers (1888). See l happened, and whether it is the same in all





apparently similar cases is as yet quite uncertain. prince, afterwards Charles V., then a boy of nine. Cramp, in the ordinary sense, of one or more After the death of the Elector Frederick in 1595, limbs, though very embarrassing and alarming, he was continued in his official position by his would not be so disastrous to a practised swimmer brother, and also by his successor, John Frederick as to make him sink without a struggle ; and, the Magnanimous, whose captivity at Augsburg though common in bathers, cannot be accepted as the artist shared, and whose release he is believed the cause of all the fatal accidents like that to have procured from the emperor in 1552. He described above. Of other theories advanced, the returned with his master to Weimar, and died most probable is that sudden failure of the heart's there on 16th October of the following year. The action, a partial or total faint, is the cause of the superiority of his earlier works, both in painting calamity, at least in very many cases. A sudden and engraving, is doubtless to be accounted for by plunge into cold water by itself causes some strain the fact that in later life the pressure of numerous upon the heart ; and swimming, about the most commissions necessitated the assistance of his severe of all forms of exercise, increases its work sons, and of many other pupils. His paintings, very greatly ---sometimes, it is easy to believe, executed in oils on panel, include sacred and a few beyond safe limits. The recorded experience of classical subjects, hunting-scenes, and portraits. some who have narrowly escaped death from this His drawing is commonly hard and defective, but cause makes it appear extremely probable that it his colouring is rich, warm, and effective, and a is the real explanation of at least some of these certain hemely earnestness, sometimes mingled sad accidents. No one when out of practice should with humour, characterises his productions. A attempt a long swim in cold water; and persons quaint portrait of a girl in an elaborate costume with weak hearts should be especially careful to from his hand is in the National Gallery, London. avoid fatiguing themselves when bathing.

He was closely associated with the German Re. Cramp Rings were rings which were sup. formers, many of whom were portrayed by himself posed to cure cramp and the falling-sickness.'

and his pupils. Figures of Luther and Melanchthon, They are said to have originated as far back as

and the painter himself, are introduced in his the middle of the 11th century, in a ring presented

• Crucifixion' in the Stadtkirche, Weimar, a work by a pilgrim to Edward the Confessor, which,

engraved in Waagen's Handbook of Painting (ed. after that ruler's death, was preserved as a relic of 1874), and usually regarded as the artist's most in Westminster Abbey, and was applied for the important composition. Three of his copper en. cure of epilepsy and cramp. Hence appears to gravings, dated 1519; 1520, and 1521, represent have arisen the belief that rings blessed by English Luther ; and among his other principal works with sovereigns were efficacious in such cases; and the the burin are The Penitence of St John Chrysoscustom of blessing for distribution large numbers tom’(1509), and a portrait of the Elector Frederick. of cramp rings on Good Friday continued to exist His wood-engravings are more numerous, including down to the time of Queen Mary. The accom | The Passion,' 15 cuts ; * The Martyrdom of the plished Lord Berners, ambassador to Spain in Apostles,' 12 cuts; and The Wittenberg Hagi. Henry VIII.'s time, writes from Saragossa to

ology,' 119 cuts. He had three sons, all of whom Cardinal Wolsey : 'If your grace remember me

were painters. The second of them, Lucas, the with some crampe ryngs ye shall doo a thing younger, born 1515, was a burgomaster of Wittenmuche looked for; and I trust to bestow thaym berg. He painted in the manner of his father, and well with Goddes grace.' The metal the rings their works are difficult to distinguish, especially were composed of was what formed the king's

as both artists used a similar mark. According to offering to the cross on Good Friday, usually Schuchardt, however, in the productions of the son either gold or silver . The superstitious belief in the crowned serpent appears with the wings folded,

His the curative property of cramp rings made out of instead of erect as in those of the father. certain pieces of silver obtained in particular ways Lord's Vineyard,' symbolical of the progress of the

*Crucifixion,' or 'Nativity,' and a picture of The still lingers in some districts of England.

Reformation, are in the Stadtkirche at Witten. Cran (Gaelic), a measure of capacity in Scot- berg, and his works may also be studied in Berlin, land for herrings when just taken ont of the net. Munich, and at Dresden, where are bis portraits It amounts to 37} imperial gallons, and comprises of the Electors Maurice and Augustus, and a about 750 herrings on an average.

Crucifixion.' He died at Wittenberg in 1586. Cranach, LUCAS, a celebrated German painter, Cranberry (Oxycoccus), a north temperate 50 named from Kronach in the bishopric of Bam and arctic genus of small evergreen shrubs of the berg, Upper Franconia, where he was born, 4th order Ericacea (sub-order Vaccineae). The only October 1472. Little is known of his early life, but British species (0. palustris, formerly Vaccinium he seems to have been instructed by his father, and, O.rycoccus) grows in peaty boys and marshy possibly, by Matthew Grundewald; to have resided grounds, and is a small wiry shrub with creeping in Gotha, where he married Barbara Brenybier; thread-like branches, and sınall oval leaves rolled and to have accompanied Frederick the Wise, back at the edges. Large quantities of the fruit, Elector of Saxony, to the Holy Land in 1493. which is chietly nsed for making tarts, are collected Certainly he was befriended by that prince, and in some parts of Britain, as also in Germany and was his court painter at Wittenberg, an appoint. other European countries, although the draining of ment which he received in 1508, along with a boys has now made it scarce where it was once patent of nobility, and the motto,' or kleinod, of plentiful. The berries are an excellent antiscora crowned and winged serpent, with which he butic, and hence furnish an excellent addition to marked his subsequent works, instead of (some. sea stores. Wine is made from them in Siberia, times in combination with) the initials which he and a beverage made from them is sold in the had previously used. Monopolies for printing and streets of St Petersburg.- The American Cran. the sale of medicine were also bestowed upon him. berry (0. macrocarpa) is of similar distribution, The house in which he carried on his manifold but is a larger and more upright plant, with bigger occupations was standing at Wittenberg till 1871, leaves and berries. The berries are not pow col. and bis importance in the town may be gathered lected by means of a rake, but by hand, as the iroin the fact that in 1537, and again in 1540, he former method bruises them. Large quantities are was elected a burgomaster. In 1309 he accom. exported to Europe, and the berries are also im. panieil an embassy to the Emperor Maximilian, ported into Britain from Russia and other parts of and while in the Netherlands 'he portrayed the northern Europe. Both kinds may be cultivated in




gardens, in a peat-soil kept very moist or round the harsh cries in the air, and occasionally alighting to margin of a pond.—The herries of the Red Whortle. seek food in fields or marshes. The crane, when berry or Cowberry (Vaccinium Vitis-Idæa) are sold standing, is about four feet in height, the prevail. under the name of cranberries in Aberdeen and ing colour is ash-gray; the head bears bristly

feathers, and has a naked crown, reddish in the male; the bill, which is longer than the head, is reddish at the root, dark green at the apex; the feet are blackish ; the tail is short and straight. They are very stately birds, though their habit of bowing and dancing is often grotesque. The covering feathers of the wings are elongated, reaching beyond the ends of the primaries, and their webs are unconnected; they are varied and tipped with bluish-black, and are the well-known plumes once much used in ornamental head-dresses. The visits of the crane to Britain are now very rare, although in former times they were comparatively frequent. It feeds on roots, seeds, &c., as well as on worms, insects, reptiles, and even some of the smallest


Cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris):

a, flower; b, fruit.

other places, and are used in the same way.—The Tasmanian Cranberry is the fruit of Astroloma humifusum, a pretty little trailing Epacridaceous shrub; while in Australia the same name is given to other plants of the same order, notably Styphelia ascendens and Lissanthe sapida.

Cranborne, VISCOUNT, the courtesy title of the eldest son of the Marquis of Salisbury.

Cranbrook, a pleasant little market-town in the Weald of Kent, 46 miles SE. of London. It has a fine Perpendicular church, and a large trade in hops. From the 14th to the 17th century it was the centre of the broadcloth manufacture intro.

Crane (Grus cinerea). duced by the Flemings. Pop. of parish about 5000. See Tarbutt's Annals of Cranbrook (1875).

quadrupeds. The flesh is much esteemed. Cranes Cranbrook, GATHORNE GATHORNE-HARDY, use their bill as a dagger, and when wounded are EARL (1892), was born 1st October 1814, at Bradford, dangerous to the eyes of a rash assailant. They the son of John Hardy, Esq;, of Dunstall Hall, Staf: may be readily tamed in captivity and exhibit great fordshire. Educated at Shrewsbury and at Oriel sagacity.--The Whooping Crane (G. americana) is College, Oxford, where he took his B. A. in 1837, he considerably larger than the common crane, which was called to the bar in 1840, and in 1856, after un. it otherwise much resembles except in colour ; its successfully contesting Bradford nine years earlier, plumage, in its adult state, is pure white, the tips was returned as a Conservative by Leominster. In of the wings black. It spends the winter in the 1865 he defeated Mr Gladstone in the celebrated southern parts of North America. In summer it Oxford University election ; in 1878 he was raised to migrates far northwards, but rather in the interior the peerage as Viscount Cranbrook. He was Under than the eastern - parts of the continent. - To the secretary of State for the Home Department (1858– crane family belong also the Demoiselles-e.g: 59), President of the Poor-law Board (1866–67), Anthropoides virgo, from southern Europe to central Home Secretary (1867–68), War Secretary (1874- Asia, and the Ethiopian Balearic Cranes. e.g. 78), Secretary of State for India (1878–80), and Balearica pavonina. See Blyth, Natural History Lord President of the Council (1885-92).

of the Cranes (1881). Crane (Grus), a genus of birds in the order Crane, a machine for lifting weights, worked Grallatores, the type of the family Gruidæ. This either by hand, or by steam, or by hydraulic power. family differs from herons, storks, &c., in having The most common hand form consists of an upright the hind-toe placed higher on the leg than the front revolving post and a projecting arm (usually at an ones, and in certain characters of bill and skull. angle of about 45°), the jib with a fixed pulley at The members are also less addicted to marshy its extremity. The lifting chain or rope is secured places, and feed not only on animal, but, to a con. to the weight, passes over the fixed pulley, and then siderable extent, on vegetable food. The cranes round a drum or cylinder ; suitable toothed-wheel are all large birds, long legged, long necked, long gearing worked by a handle revolves this drum, and billed, and of powerful wing. Some of them per. thus winds up or unwinds the rope or chain, and so form great migrations, and tly at a great height in raises or lowers the weight, while at the same time the air.

Some twelve species are known, mostly the effort applied by the men at the handles is in the palæarctic region, but also in Asia, Australia, greatly magnified-namely, disregarding frictional and America. Unlike other Grallatores, the young losses, in the same proportion that the peripheral cranes are helpless and require to be fed. Only speed of the handles is reduced by the gearing in. two eggs are laid. The Common Crane (G. cinerea) terposed between handle axis and drum axis. The breeds in the northern parts of Europe and Asia, revolving motion of the upright post enables the retiring in winter to tropical or subtropical regions. load to be deposited at any point within the sweep Flocks of cranes periodically pass over the southern of the jib. It is often arranged that the jib shall and central countries of Europe, uttering their lond be hollow; the chain then passes down it, and thera



Vol. III., page 544.

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