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548

CRASSULACEÆ

CRATINUS

there is much fervid poetry. The title of this col. a private arrangement for their common benefit, lection, which is due to the editor, not the author, which paction is known as the first triumrirate. refers to its affinity with George Herbert's Temple. | In 55, as consul with Ponipey, Crassus had Syria An edition (the third) was published at Paris in assigned him for his province, and began to make 1652, under the title Carmen Deo Nostro, with 12 preparations of war against the Parthians, hoping vignette engravinys designed by Crashaw. A col. both for glory and for gain. The latter end be lective edition of Crashaw's works was published in effected in the meantime by plundering the towns 1858, at London, by W. D. Turnbull, and a fuller and temples in Syria. At length, however, he set edition in 1872 by Dr A. B. Grosart. Crashaw

1979'hý Dr A B. Grosart. Crashaw / out, but was misled by a treacherous guide, and greatly resembles George Herbert in his cast of utterly defeated in the plains of Mesopotamia by the thought, and is not inferior to him in richness of Parthians. Crassus now retreated to the town of fancy, though his conceits are more strained, and Carrhæ, intending to pass into Armenia ; but was less under the control of taste. His devotional | beguiled into a conference with the Parthian strains are nobly worded. Tutin's selections (2 vols. general, Surenas, and was slain at the appointed 1887 and 1900) are almost a complete edition. place of meeting. His head was cut off and sent Crassulaceæ, an order of calycifloral dicoty.

to Orodes, who is said to have poured melted gold

into the dead lips, saying: 'Sate thyself now with ledons, allied to the Saxifrages, are herbaceous or sometimes shrubby plants, always more or less

that of which in life thou wert so greedy.' His succulent. About 400 species are known in the

quæstor, Cassius, with 500 cavalry, escaped into genera, chiefly from warm and temperate countries

Syria ; but the remaining Romans were scattered and in dry, sunny situations. South Africa and

and made prisoners, or put to death. Mexico are peculiarly rich in species. Sedum Cratægus, a genus of Rosacea, sub-order (stone-crop) and Sempervivum (house-leek) are the

Pomeze, very nearly allied to Mespilus (Medlar) most familiar genera. These and allied forms, such and Pyrus (Pear, Apple, &c.), but distinguished by as Echeveria, are largely used for bedding-out pur. the acute calycine segments, and by the round or poses, grown on rockwork, or cultivated in the oval fruit, closed at the apex, and concealing the * succulent-house.' Crassula coccinea, which, like upper end of the bony cells. The species are pretty nearly all its very numerous ( 150 ) congeners comes numerous, natives of the temperate parts of the from the Cape, is in general cultivation on account northern hemisphere, and in general have flowers of the beauty of its flowers. See SUCCULENT in beautiful terminal corymbs. They are all larke PLANTS.

shrubs or small trees, more or less spiny, whence

the name Thorn has been very generally applied to Crassus, the surname of several old Roman

them. The only native of Britain is the common families, among which that of the Licinii was most

Hawthorn (9.v.), (Cratægus Oxyacantha). Most of remarkable.-11) LUCIUS LICINIUS, born in 140

the species resemble it considerably in habit, size, B.C., was the best orator of his age, and was as

form of leaf, &c. A number of them are now fredistinguished for his wit as for his rectitude in

quent in plantations and shrubberies in Britain, of the capacity of proconsul of Gaul. In 95 he was

which perhaps the most common is the Cock's-spur elected consul, along with Quintus Scævola, who had been his colleague in all his previous offices.

Thorn (C. crus-galli), a native of North America

from Canada to Carolina. Its leaves are not lobed: During their consulship was enacted a rigorous its fruit rather larger than that of the hawthorn. law banishing from Rome all who had not the full

The Azarole (C. Azarolus), a native of the south rights of citizens, which imbittered the feelings of

of Europe, and the Aronia (C. Aronia), a native of foreigners toward Rome, and was one of the chief

the Levant, are occasionally cultivated for their causes of the Social War. As censor in 92 Crassus

fruit, which is about the size of the Siberian crab, closed all the schools of the rhetoricians, believing

and is used either for dessert or for pies. C. that they exercised a bad influence on the minds of

orientalis (or odoratissima) and C. tanacetifolia young men. He died in 91 B.C., a few days after

have also fruit of considerable size. The latter is vigorously opposing in the senate the democratic

much eaten in Armenia. C. mexicana has a large consul L. Philippus. Crassus is one of the speakers

fruit, like a small apple, but not eatable. It is, in Cicero's De Oratore, and indeed is the represent.

however, very ornamental. The wood of most of ative of the writer's own opinions.—(2) MARCUS

the species much resembles that of the hawthorn. LICINIUS, surnamed Dives, the triumvir, was born

It is common to graft the rarer species on the baw. sometime before 115 B.C. His father was a partisan

thorn.-C. Pyracantha ditlers much in appearance of Sulla, and on the return of Marius and Cinna to

from most of the genus ; being a pretty evergreen Rome in 87 made away with himself. Cinna

shrub, with lanceolate crenate leaves, and richi spared the boy's life, but subjected him to a jealous

clusters of red berries, which remain on it all and dangerous surveillance, to escape which he

winter ; a native of rocky places in the south of went to Spain. He afterwards joined Sulla (83),

Europe and the Caucasus. It is often emploved in and distinguished himself in the battle against the

| Britain as an ornamental covering for walls, and is

Brits Samnites at the gates of Rome. As prætor he

known as the Pyracantha crushed the Servile revolt by the conquest of Spartacus at the battle of Lucania (71), and in the

Crater. See VOLCANOES. following year was made consul with Pompey, a | Cratinus, a Greek comic poet, born about 519 colleague whom he hated. On the other hand, B.C., who did not begin to exhibit till sixty-five, Cæsar valued the friendship of Crassus, the most and who died in 424. Next to his younger con. wealthy of Roman citizens. He was a keen and temporaries, Eupolis and Aristophanes, he best far-seeing speculator, and devoted his entire energies represents the Old Attic comedy.. 'He changed its to the accumulation of money. We are told that outward form considerably, limiting the number of he even bought clever slaves, and had them taught actors to three, and he was the first to add to lucrative arts that he might enjoy the protits. | comedy the interest of pungent and personal attack. During his consulate, Crassus gave å feast to the The habits, manners, and institutions of his fellow. people, which was spread on 10,000 tables, and dis- citizens he considered a legitimate mark for tributed to every citizen a provision of corn for censorious satire. Even the great Pericles did not three months. Plutarch estimates his wealth at escape. Aristophanes repaid him in kind, but his more than 7000 talents, and Pliny states that his allegation of habitual intemperance Cratinus hini. lands were worth 8000 talents (say £2,000,000). self admitted and defended humorously in bis About 60, Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus entered into | Pytine. His style was very metaphysical and

CRATIPPUS

CRAYFISH

549

ingenious. Of his twenty-one comedies, nine of perfect library, to which for nearly half a century which obtained the first prize in the public com- he devoted great industry and learning; and the petitions, we possess only some fragments, collected | library at Haigh Hall, near Wigan, is probably by Meineke in his Fragmenta Comicorum Græ- unrivalled among private collections. He died in corum (Berlin, 1840).—There was also a younger Florence, 13th December 1880; his body, which CRATINUS, an Athenian contemporary of Plato, for over seven months had been missing from the who belonged to the school of the Middle Comedy. mausoleum at Dunecht, near Aberdeen, was found Cratippus, a Peripatetic philosopher, a native

in a wood close by in July 1882.-His son and of Mitylene, and a contemporary of Cicero, whose

successor, JAMES LUDOVIC LINDSAY, born in 1847, son Marcus he instructed at Athens in 44 B.C.

was elected president of the Royal Astronomical Pompey visited him after Pharsalia, and Brutus

Society in 1878-80, and F.R.S. in 1878, and received turned aside to Athens to hear him, even while

the degree of LL.D from Edinburgh University in making preparations to meet Octavian and Antony.

1882. In 1888 he presented to the nation the Nothing that Cratippus wrote has survived.

admirably equipped observatory at his seat of

Dunecht, 12 miles W. of Aberdeen ; and the apCrawford, THOMAS, sculptor, born in New

paratus, with the magnificent astronomical library, York city in 1814, in 1834 went abroad for his

have been transferred to a new observatory (1895) studies, and settled in Rome, where he at first

on Blackford Hill, near Edinburgh. worked under the guidance of Thorwaldsen. Many of his earlier groups have found a place in Boston Craver, CASPAR DE, a Flemish historical and collections ; his later works include the fine group

portrait painter, was born at Antwerp in 1584. He known as the Washington monument, in the | lived first at Brussels, and afterwards at Ghent, capitol park at Richmond, and the bronze figure of where he died in 1669. The churches at Ghent Liberty, surmounting the dome of the capitol at contain many of his paintings, which are also Washington. Stricken with blindness in 1856, common all over Flanders. Crawford died in London, 10th October 1857.

Crayfish (Astacus, Fr. écrevisse), a large fresh. FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD, novelist, son of

water crustacean, in the long-tailed (Macrura) the foregoing, was born in Tuscany, August 2,

division of the order Decapoda. The body con: 1853. He had his education at Concord, New

sists of two great divisions, the head and thorax Hampshire ; Trinity College, Cambridge ; Karls

protected by a rigid shield, and the abdomen or ruhe, and Heidelberg. At Rome he devoted him

tail of six separate rings. The integument exhibits self to the study of Sanskrit, and during 1879-80

the characteristic was engaged in press work at Allahabad, where he

Arthropod comwas admitted to the Catholic Church. He was

bination of lime selected by the government committee to write

and Chitin (q.v.). the national ode at the centennial of the Ameri.

There are altocan Constitution, September 17, 1887. His first

gether twenty novel, Mr Isaacs (1882), was a book of striking

segments and and quite unusual merit, securing a new romantic

nineteen pairs of element in certain of the aspects and contrasts of

appendages, not inodern oriental life. Among its successors have

including the been Dr Claudius, and To Leeward (1883); A leves. The sensi. Roman Singer, and An American Politician (1884);

an Politician (1884); tive antennules Zoroaster (1885); The Story of a Lonely Parish, and

and antennæ, the Saracinesca (1886); Marzio's Crucifix, and Paul

six appendages Patoff (1887); With the Immortals" (1888); Sant'

crowded round Ilario (1889); A Cigarette Maker's Romance, Khaled,

the mouth, the and The Witch of Prague (1891); Don Orsino

great claws, the (1892); Pietro Ghisleri, Marion Darche, and The

four walking legs, Children of the King (1893); Katherine Lauderdale,

the little swim. Love in Idleness (1894); The Ralstons (1895); Taqui.

merets under the sara (1896); Corleone (1897); Constantinople (1898),

tail, and the pair a description of the city; and Via Crucis (1899).

of large terminal Crawford, WILLIAM HARRIS, born in Virginia

paddles make up in 1772, practised law, and was elected to the United the series. These States senate in 1807 and 1811. Appointed minister appendages, so to France in 1813, and secretary of the treasury different in form in 1816, he was a Democratic candidate for the and function, are

Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis). presidency in 1824; but none of the candidates all homologous. securing a majority, the House of Representatives

The muscles are well developed for working the chose John Quincy Adams. Crawford returned

tail, the appendages, and the stomach mill. The to Georgia, where he was thrice elected circuit

nervous system consists of brain and ventral chain judge, and died 15th September 1834.

of ganglia. The eyes are stalked and compound; Crawford and Balcarres, ALEXANDER the ear-sacs with their fringes of auditory hairs WILLIAM CRAWFORD LINDSAY, EARL OF, born in and inclosed foreign particles floating in a gelatin. 1512, was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and ous fluid lie at the bases of the antennules, which succeeded his father in 1869. He gained a high also bear olfactory bristles. The most remarkable reputation for his works on religion, philosophy, feature in the alimentary system is the gastric mill, and art; and his researches into the annals of his a complex masticating apparatus in the fore-gut, own house enabled him in 1848 to prepare the case the essential mechanism of which consists in the for his father's (Lord Balcarres ) claims to the rapid clashing of three teeth-one dorsal and two premier earldom of Scotland, as 24th Earl (cre. lateral. On the walls of the stomach there are two 1398). Besides Lives of the Lindsays (1849), and limy concretions (gastroliths) which store lime the Earldom of Mar (1882), he wrote Letters from preliminary to moulting. There is a large diges. the Holy Land (1838), Progression by Antagonism tive gland opening into the small mid-gut; the (1846), and Sketches of the History of Christian hind gut is long and straight. The circulatory Art (1847), by which he is best remembered. His system consists of a dorsal heart, whence the blood dominant idea, however, was the formation of a passes by arteries and capillaries to the body, thence

[graphic]

550

CRAYFISH

CREAM

by venous channels to the gills, and thence back probable that they were originally marine. The again to the heart. The respiratory system includes term crayfish is often extended to the nearly re. twenty pairs of feathery gills lying under the lated marine form, the Norway Lobster or Nephrops shelter of the sides of the great shield. The cease. norvegicus (see LOBSTER). See Huxley's Crush: less baling moveinent of one of the mouth append. an Introduction to Zoology (Inter. Sc. Series, ages secures a current of water. The excretory 1877). system is represented by a 'green-gland' or kidney, lying behind the base of the antennæ, on which

Crayon (Fr., 'a pencil'). Though used in

French, and occasionally in English, to designate its opening, shielded by a prominent knob, may be readily seen. The reproductive system consists of

pencils generally, including those made of lead, the three-lobed essential" organs with paired ducts

| word crayon is more frequently applied in Englanu opening on the thoracic legs.

to those small cylinders of charcoal, or of pipeThe eggs are laid in November or December, and

clay or chalk coloured with various pigments, are glued by a secretion to the abdominal legs of

which are used for drawing. Cohesiveness is given

to the paste of which the cylinders are formed by the mother. The young are hatched in May to July. They do not differ in any important features

means of gum, wax, soap, &c. Crayon drawings

are often remarkable for the delicacy and softness from the adults, and the crayfish has thus very much abbreviated the typical life-history. The

with which objects are represented, but they are young escape from

deficient in power. See PENCIL, CHALK. the inclosing egy-cases, to which they, however, adhere for a while by means Cream is the fat of Milk (q.v.). It exists in of the strongly incurved claw-tips. The female minute globules throughout the bulk of nilk with its crowd of attached young presents a curious as it comes from the cow. In virtue of being and interesting appearance. The young crayfish lighter than the watery portion of milk, cream moults eight times during its first year of life, five gradually rises and forms a thin yellowish greasy times in the second, twice in the third. The male layer on the surface. Devonshire cream, or clouted is adult in its third year, and continues for some (i.e. clotted) cream, is obtained by heating milk time at anyrate to moult twice a year. The female in a shallow wide pan on a hot plate or over a slow is mature in the fourth year, and has only one | charcoal-fire. The milk should stand in the pan for annual moult. The moulting is in part the result twenty-four hours before heating. It usually takes of the fact that the inclosing armature does not from half an hour to three-quarters of an hour to heat grow with the growth of the body. Reserve pro. the milk completely ; but it must not boil. It then ducts of lime and glycogen accumulate before stands for twenty-four hours, when the cream is moulting; the old shell virtually dies ; a new skimmed off, and a little sugar thrown on the top. armature (at first soft) begins to be formed; the Whipped cream is cream or milk beat up with animal grows; the old husk, including the hard white of egg by means of a whisk. Lemon cream, structures of the stomach, is cast; and the crayfish Vanilla cream, &c. are made with milk, white of is left perfectly limp and helpless. The fatigue egg, and sugar, and flavoured. Cream cheese may of the process is shown in the great mortality. be made of rich cream, or cream, milk, and rennet,

The crayfish is exclusively a fresh-water form, tied up in a clean wet cloth, and kept for sotne barring the fact that some related genera (Engæus, days in a cool place, then put in a finer cloth, and Cambarus, Parastacus) appear to be for the most placed for a day or two in a mould, with a weight part terrestrial. They usually make burrows by | upon it. The term cream is used frequently for the sides of streams, and often lie at the mouths | anything superior in quality ; thus the French, in of their holes in wait for passing prey. They are referring to persons in the height of fashion, speak chietly nocturnal. In their diet they are strikingly of La créme de la crême, “the cream of cream.' omnivorous, eating most things available, from CREAM SEPARATORS (Centrifugal).- The bestworms to water voles. Dead animals, molluscs, | known forms are the Laval,' the Danish,' and worms, and insect larvæ form their chief sources the · Victoria'-the latter a recent invention of a of supply. In captivity they may be kept for a | Glasgow firm. Though they ditier in forma and in while on bread crumbs. In certain cases they do detail, the principle involved in the work of separnot refrain from eating one another. Their chief ating the butter is common to all. Advantage enemies are said to be eels and otters.

is taken of the difference existing between the Crayfishes, though fresh-water forms, have a specific gravity of cream and the watery part of peculiarly wide distribution. The English and milk. While yet warm the milk coming from the Irish crayfish is a variety of A. fluviatilis, and is cow is run into a strong, spherical, steel vesze! by authorities designated A. torrentium. It occurs revolving at high speed. As the milk is carried all over Europe, except in Scandinavia and Scot. round within the vessel (whether revolving hori land, but is locally limited by the presence of suffi. zontally or vertically) it rises up the sides and cient lime in the water for shell-forming purposes. stands as a wall, thus forming a lining of milk Another variety of A. fluviatilis, A. nobilis, is also | while the speed is maintained. The heavier part widely distributed on the Continent. This variety inclines outwards, and the light cream is forced is much cultivated in France and elsewhere for inwards and forms an inner layer. From the the sake of its dainty though not abundant flesh. positions indicated the separated cream and milk They are in best condition from May to August. | are conducted into different channels, and finally In ponds for artificial breeding, the animals often into different vessel receptacles. The advantage fall victims to disease, probably of a fungoid char as compared with the old method of flat setting acter. In rivers they are sometimes netted, some. (see Milk), are that the cream is got off im. times lured by a light in the darkness. Numerous mediately; no time is allowed for the development other species occur both in the Old and New of acidity in eitber the skim milk or cream, and World, and along with the southern forms (Par | more of the cream present can be removed the astacidae) may be fairly called cosmopolitan. In proportion being as 13 is to 11. Small machines the United States, where they are very common, driven by hand, costing £13, and separating 12 their burrows sometimes cause crei'isses or ruptures gallons of milk an hour, do not give quite so 1 in the artificial dykes of rivers. The largest species results as those driven by steam. Prices range measures over a foot in length. Crayfish-like forms for those of sizes capable of separating 45 to 130 appear in the Middle Mesozoic times, and a some. gallons of milk an hour, from £24 to 115 A what doubtful Astacus (A. philippi) has been found steam turbine has recently been a lopted as the in the carboniferous limestone of Ireland. It is means by which power is communicated. The CREAM OF TARTAR

CREATION

cost of a turbine separator, capable of doing 90 wood creasote, and are thereby preserved in. gallons per hour, is £46. See BUTTER, DAIRY. definitely. In toothache, where the cause of pain

Cream of Tartar exists naturally in grape is a carious tooth with an exposed, inflamed nerve, juice, but being insoluble in alcohol, it is gradually

a drop of creasote, carefully inserted, after previ. deposited, in the form of argol, as the sugar of the

ously cleansing the cavity, will often give relief. juice becomes converted into alcohol by ferment

In this case it acts by coagulating the albumen ation. In the preparation of cream of tartar

and destroying the nerves. Creasote acts powerthe argol is dissolved in hot water, to which

fully on the skin, producing a white stain when charcoal or fine clay is added, to take up the

applied to it. A few drops added to a pint of ink colouring matter; by boiling and filtering a

| preserve it from mouldiness. Medicinally, it is clear colourless solution is obtained, from which,

given in doses of one or two drops, and has been on cooling, the cream of tartar separates as

found efficacious where there is a tendency to crystals. These crystals, after being exposed on

fermentation of the contents of the stomach and linen for several days, become whiter and con

bowels. Owing to its action on the skin it acts as stitute the crystals of tartar, or, when ground

an energetic poison when taken in large doses.to powder, the cream of tartar. Although cream

The Creasote Plant (Larrea mexicana), growing of tartar is, practically speaking, the bitartrate of

abundantly on the borders of the Colorado Desert, potash, KHC,H,O. (see TARTARIC ACID), yet it

emits a strong odour of creasote. The odour arises usually contains from 5 to 10 per cent. of tartrate

from an exudation similar to Indian gum-lac, and of lime, while adulterants, properly speaking, may | 18 caused by the punctures of an insect, Carteria also be present. The tartrate of lime is derived

Larrea. from the clay added to purify it, and is more or | Creasy, SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD, born at less present in all commercial samples. In 1888, Bexley in Kent, in 1812, from Eton passed to however, cream of tartar was offered in the market King's College, Cambridge, in 1832, and in 1834 containing 99 per cent. of bitartrate of potash, so was elected a fellow. Called to the bar in 1837, he that it may be assumed that in future a purer went on the home circuit for upwards of twenty article will be forthcoming. Cream of tartar is years, and presided for three or four years as assist. readily soluble in hot water, though it takes 60 ant-judge at the Westminster Sessions Court. In parts of cold water to dissolve one part of it. | 1860 he was appointed chief-justice of Ceylon, and Suluble cream of tartar is prepared by dissolving knighted. Ten years later he came home invalided together 2 parts of Borax (q.v.) and 5 parts of on a year's leave of absence, after which he went cream of tartar, evaporating to dryness and powder- out again, but was obliged to return home finally ing. Cream of tartar has an acid taste and gritty | after struggling with his malady for two years feel. When taken repeatedly in small doses of a more. He died at London, January 27, 1878. In scruple to a drachm, it acts as a refrigerant and | 1810 he was appointed professor of History in Unidiuretic; in doses of one to two drachms, it is versity College. Creasy was the author of The useful as an aperient; and in larger doses of from Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World (1851), Invatwo to three drachms it acts as a purging agent, sions of England (1852), History of the Ottoman accompanied by flatulence and griping. Imperial | Turks (1854-56), &c. liquid is prepared by dissolving about a drachm of

Creatin, or KREATIN (Gr. kreas, 'flesh'), a cream of tartar in a pint of boiling water, and constant and characteristic constituent of the striped adding a little lemon-peel and sugar to flavour it;

| muscle of vertebrates. It was discovered by Chevreul when an agreeable refrigerant drink is obtained,

in 1835, but little was known about it till Liebig which is highly serviceable in allaying thirst in

published his researches on the Chemistry of Food feverish cases. Cream of tartar whey is obtained

in 1847. Its chemical formula is C,H,V,0% Except by adding two drachms of the salt to a pint of in one doubtful case, it has always been found as milk.

above indicated; it is very uncertain if it ever occurs Crease, a Malay weapon. See Kris.

in unstriped muscles, and it has never been demonCreasote (Gr. kreas, 'flesh ;' sõzõ, 'I pre

strated in invertebrates. A dehydrated form, known serve') is an oily substance obtained from the tar

as Creatinin, C,H-N,0, occurs as a constant conproduced by the destructive distillation of wood.

stituent of urine, and has also been demonstrated in When Coal-tar (9.v.) is distilled, a certain portion

fish muscles. Under the intluence of acids, creatin called creasote oils passes over, and from this

becomes creatinin, and by hydration the transfor. much of the creasote of commerce is obtained.

mation may be reversed. As these changes may This, although similar in some respects to wood

readily occur during extraction, there is often creasote, is quite distinct chemically. The coal

doubt whether creatin or creatinin is present in a product consists largely of carbolic acid, along with

given case. See Appendix to Foster's Physiology ; creasol and xylenol, while the wood product, to

Krukenberg, Unters. Physiol. Inst. (vols. iii.-iv. which alone the name creasote rightly belongs, con

1880-81). sists of guaiacol, creasol, and phlorol. As it con Creation. For the scientific discussion of the tains several substances, so its boiling point ranges method by which creation has been effected, referfrom 392° to 428o (200°-220° C.). The leading char: ence must be made to the articles DARWINIAN acter of wood creasote is that it instantly coagulates THEORY, EVOLUTION, MAN, SPECIES, &c. ; but it albumen, but does not coagulate Collodion (q.v.), may be desirable to make a brief statement here in this respect differing from carbolic acid. It has regarding the controversy between Genesis and a very remarkable power of arresting the decay of science. In reality, so far as modern scientific meat or wood, and when meat is treated with so theology is concerned, this controversy is now pracsmall a proportion as one-hundredth of its weight tically at an end, so that only the briefest historical of creasote, and exposed to the air, it does not sketch will be necessary to show the nature of the putrefy, but becomes hard and dry, assuming the problem and the steps by which the final conclusion taste and odour of smoked meat. Indeed, there has been reached. can be no doubt that hams cured by means of To theology, Genesis had for centuries seemed to wood smoke owe their preservation and flavour to affirm that the world was created in six days by some extent to the volatile creasote in the smoke. successive divine commands. To modern science, Railway sleepers and wood liable to be frequently on the other hand, the rocks disclosed accumu. wet are often saturated with the coal-tar creasote; | lating evidence that the earth and its forms of or, where economy is not so essential, with the life were not created ’in this sense at all, but

552

CREATION

CRÉBILLON

slowly built up or evolved by secondary causes mystification and confusion. If the Bible had under the control of natural laws. The new | really aimed at science-teaching, geology would scientific position did not traverse the biblical view have been one of the last things upon which it of the origin of matter or of life ; nor did it deny would have enlightened mankind. Why was not that the laws of nature might be the hands of physiology taught to physicians, or the use of the Living God.' But it claimed that the creation chloroform to surgeons, or of the stars to navi. of the world was an ordinary problem for scientific gators--matters which would have affected the investigation, and that so far as that had gone, well-being and actual life of man? In fact it some form of development was probably the means is a first principle of revelation-involved in the by which creation had been brought about. Frankly very meaning of the word and proved by its whole recognising the right of science to deal with this expression—that matters which are discoverable question, and accepting on certain points the over. by human reasoning and observation should find whelming evidence of geology, theologians found no place in it, that its subject matter is that alone themselves compelled to reconsider their ground. which men could not find out for themselves. The first difficulty was that of time. And here Men could find out for themselves the order in they yielded at once by substituting periods' for which the world was made. What they could not the days of Genesis-an expedient which, what. find out was, that God made it. That therefore ever literary objection may be taken to it, was was the object of Genesis-theology, not geology. certainly allowed by the original Hebrew. Efforts Genesis is a presentation of one or two great were next made to reconcile these periods' with elementary religious truths to the childhood of the the formations of geology and with the succession world. Dating from the infancy of the world, of life as revealed by palaeontology. Devout men written for children, and for that child-spirit in of science worked out these harmonies with great man which remains unchanged by time, its literary learning and ingenuity, and as new discoveries of form takes colour and shape accordingly. It is not science threw their labours aside, fresh workers by dedicated to the reason but to the soul. It is a further manipulation of the data on either side con- sublime theology, clothed in the most memorable tinued the attempt to bring the apparently rival and impressive dress, utilising, purifying, and transrecords once more into line. Prominent among fusing with the religious spirit sone material at these attempts were the Universal Pre-Adamite least which was common to the cosmogonies of all Chaos theory of Dr Chalmers; the Partial Chaos nations. Now from this point of view the problem theory of Dr Pye Smith; the Vision theory of of the reconciliation of Genesis with geology simply Hugh Miller; and the cognate though not identical disappears. The question becomes as irrelevant as theories of Kurtz and Guyot. Such attempts were when it is asked what the Paradise Lost is meant at that time perfectly admissible, and even inevi. to prove. Science and Genesis are no longer in table-inevitable because the true direction from competition as to which shall be the accepted which the solution was to come was not yet sus. authority regarding the process of the creation of pected. But one by one these efforts failed. An the world. Genesis does not even enter the field. attempt by Mr Gladstone, so recently as 1885, And in ceding this position it is only to assume, elicited a reply from Mr Huxley, who, in the with even greater authority, its legitimate and name of modern science, not only repudiated the much higher function. immediate theory but made it obvious that no The strength of this attitude is that it is quite reconstruction along that line was ever likely to independent of all conclusions of science. Evolu. square with acknowledged facts of science. It is tion may be true or false, science may change its of course always possible to challenge the current | ground, new discoveries may arise ; but these can. reading of a growing science, and the harmonist not affect the literary and theological province may still take refuge if he chooses in the fallibility within which wholly this question is now seen to of contemporary interpretations of nature. But on lie. Hence the attack of science is for ever disthe general question of gradual development versus armed. And those who assent to evolution, and specific creation, the consensus of mature scientific | the many who in its present form do not yet see opinion is now so pronounced that any one still their way to accept it, may hold an equal truce clinging to the latter would find it impossible to with Genesis. impress his views upon his age. In some other As regards the material utilised by the writer in way, then, the educated mind will seek to reconcile Genesis, it is sufficient to remark that most of it is to itself the apparent want of reconciliation between | a common property of the older cosmogonies. The the teaching of nature and the teaching of Scrip mythology of Persia describes six creative periods ture.

of a thousand years ; the cosmogony of the ChalStated in a word, the explanation is to be sought deans is similar; while that of the Etruscans agrees for in the fact-recently brought into prominence still more closely with the order of Genesis. Thus hy the young science of biblical criticism--that the the Bible did not create this material, nor reveal it. Scriptures really contain no teaching at all upon It incorporated it, inspired it, and so made it the matters of science. It is an elementary canon of vehicle of a revelation. literary criticism that any interpretation of a part Crébillon. PROSPER JOLYOT DE, a French of a book or of a literature must be controlled by dramatist, was born at Dijon, on January 13, 1674. the dominant purpose or motif of the whole. And His parents belonged to the middle class, and he when one investigates that dominant purpose in was educated in Paris for the law. He soon the case of the Bible, it is found to reduce itself to abandoned a legal for a literary career, and his one thing-rengion. The books of the Bible, re- | tragedy of Idomenée was successfully produced in spectively, can only be read aright in the spirit in 1703. "It was followed by Atrée et Î'hyeste (1707), which each was written, with its original purpose | Electre (1709), and Rhadamiste et Zénobrie (1711). in view, and its original audience. Bearing that in The last is his best play, the character of Zenobia view in the case of Genesis it soon becomes evident being drawn with remarkable power. After writ. that a scientific theory of the universe formed no ing several other pieces, Crébillon fell into neglect part of the original writer's intention. Could any and produced nothing for more than twenty years. one with any historical imagination for a moment He was then pushed forward as a dramatic rival expect that it would have been? There was no to Voltaire by Madame de Pompadour and other science then. Scientific questions were not even enemies of the great writer, elected to the asked then. And to have given men science would | Academy, awarded a pension of 1000 francs, and pot only have been an anachronism, but a source of appointed royal censor, and one of the royal

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