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division of all kinds of cells. Whether the subject be in any way confused with unsubstantial polar of investigation be the pollen-cells of a plant, the stars previously mentioned. Soon after this stage skin of a tadpole, the developing ovum, or the is reached, the real cell-division occurs. The pro. growth of a tumour, the same process of ordinary toplasm constricts across the middle of the cell, indirect division may be observed to take place and the division is accomplished. In plant-cells, along essentially similar lines. This, though but and apparently in some animal cells also, the
division of the protoplasm is accompanied by the formation of a cellular plate, which bounds the open surfaces of the two daughter-cells. With or without cellular plate, the result is the formation of two daughter-cells, each with half of the original nucleus. But this is not all, the half nucleus formed after the above fashion has to be reconstructed into the original resting form. A series of retrogressive stages occur, in the course of which the nucleus passes from star to wreath, and from
wreath into the typical network or twisted coil. Fig. 8.-Stages of Transverse Division :
In some cases the steps of reconstruction seem to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, in the epidermis of a tad pole ; 1', 2, 3, 4, 5', i
correspond very closely to the various steps of the the epidermis of lily. (After Macfarlane.)
Death.-It seems tolerably certain, as Weis. a natural consequence of common descent and mann and others have suggested, that the unicelsimilar conditions, is not without its marvel when | lular Protozoa are in the great majority of cases the complexity of the process (see below) receives practically immortal. These simple organisms have due consideration. Even in detail there is in no ·body' to keep up, in their functions they appear structural as well as in physiological changes a to be continually self-recuperative, and except deep-seated unity of process. But while the from entirely abnormal conditions such cells prob. essential similarity of all cases of simple.indirect' | ably never die. The pool in which they live may division must be allowed, it is only fair to recog. dry up for ever, or other animals may swallow and nise that in minor details very manifold variations digest them, but such casualties are very different occur. Even in those Protozoa where the nuclear from natural death. They may indeed lose their changes of division have been followed, consider individuality by doubling in division, or the whole able diversity of detail obtains ; nor, within a single
cell may break up into spores, but where there is genus do the ova of two different species of thread | nothing to be buried we can hardly speak of death. worm (Ascaris ) divide in exactly the same fashion. It seems in fact justitiable to say that death began But neglecting at present the detailed divergences, with the formation of a many-celled body. Even whether these occur normally and constantly, or as | there, a certain amount of immortality may be they often do atypically and arbitrarily, it is claimed for the reproductive cells, which, becoming · necessary now to notice the general steps usually separate from the parent organism, proceed to observed in cell-division.
divide into a body which will of course eventually We have already described the nucleus as con die, but also into reproductive cells, which, as some sisting of a readily stainable (chromatin) network of them at least will form again fresh organisms or ribbon, and of another substance (so-called and reproductive cells, may be said to be links in achromatin) which does not stain so deeply. As a continuous and immortal cellular chain. But a preliminary to division, the nucleus loses its leaving aside the really immortal Protozoa, and the definite boundary, and the chromatin threads no logically immortal successful reproductive elements, longer exhibit the regular disposition they have it must be allowed that cells, like organisnis, die. when at rest. The threads form an irregular And that not only with the body as a whole, but wreath, and as the loops break, their arrangement by themselves. Certain superficial cells are con. is comparable to a star in which the open ends of stantly being brushed off and replaced by others; the loops are directed outwards, and the closed ends the red blood-corpuscles break up in the fluid; lie in the centre. By subsequent movement this others become hardened in death into the position is reversed, the loops gather into two mummified' cells of supporting and epidermic groups, which lie with their open ends towards one structures; others surrender themselves into mucus another in the middle. Meanwhile, the achromatin or in the ejection of lassoes as in the Coelenterates ; elements also exhibit regular arrangement, forming others practically die away into fat and reserve fine streaks stretching from the centre towards the | products, or may in manifold ways degenerate, poles, and exhibiting an appearance which is often Many surfaces, especially in secreting regions of compared to a striated spindle. At the two poles the body, exhibit continual death of cells, and of the cell the granules of the general protoplasm regeneration by the division of the survivors.
IV. Modern Aspect of the Study of the Cell. With the improvement of appliances and the perfecting of staining methods, the study of the cell has within late years become at once more accurate and more complex. On the one hand, the labours of the early histologists are being amplified and corroborated with ceaseless industry. The forms of cells in different animals and tissues, the minutive of their structure, the processes observed in
their multiplication, are being each year more and Fig. 9.-Typical Division of Nucleus.
more perfectly investigated. On the other hand, (From Haddon, after Flemining.)
the emphasis which has been laid on the pro
toplasm is finding expression in numerous attempts are also aggregated into a couple of star-like to explain the forms and phases of cell-life in terms figures. The chromatin loops now diverge farther of the underlying protoplasmic changes, and such and farther from the centre, till they reach a posi. | investigations as those which seek to disclose the tion at the respective poles. A double chromatin mechanics of cell-division and ovim segmentation, star may then be observed, one at each pole, not to the conditions of cellular equilibrium and change,
or the chemistry of the various parts, mark the and set free by Paul III., who wished him to limit and high-water mark of cellular biology. engrave dies in the mint; soon afterwards, having
Practical Study. - To gain a preliminary acquaint spoken contemptuously of the pope's artistic tastes, ance with the cell, the student should examine with he was cast into an oubliette of the castle of St a good microscope-(1) Free cells as seen in unicel. Angelo. He escaped through his knowledge of the lular plants, such as yeast, green mould, simple castle's vaults, but was immediately recaptured, alge, or in pollen grains, &c.; in unicellular and was only saved from the pope's vengeance by animals like A mæba, Paramacium, Vorticella; in the intercession of Cardinal d'Este. For some years the elements of the blood ; in the ova of animals, as he lived alternately in Rome and Florence, Mantua found in spawn of frog, &c. (2) Siniple vegetable and Naples. In 1537 he went to the court of Francis tissues as seen in root-hairs, transparent leaves, I. of France, by whom he was honourably received, epidermis of plants, and common fresh-water algæ and for whom he executed a golden spice-box, the like Spirogyra; simple animal tissues readily ob. | design of which, he tells us, was so exquisite that tained from frog, earthworm, Hydra, and the like. the king uttered a loud outcry of astonishment on For research in details of structures, staining and seeing it,' and 'could not satiate his eyes with section-cutting must be resorted to
gazing on it.' In Paris he became involved in a Literature.-(1) For history, see BIOLOGY, BOTANY,
lawsuit. Having lost his case, he had recourse, as EMBRYOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, PROTOPLASM; M Kendrick,
usual, to his dayger. “I attacked,' he says, the On the Modern Cell-theory (1888); Drysdale, Proto
plaintiff who had sued me, and one evening I plasmic Theory of Life (1874).
wounded him in the legs and arms so severely (2For structure of cell and process of division, con (taking care, however, not to kill him) that I sult first modern text-books of histology, such as those of deprived him of the use of both his legs.' This act Brass, Fol, Frey, Klein (English), Leydig, Ranvier, went unpunished. Having given offence, however, and Stöhr. For recent researches, see Journal of Royal
to the reigning favourite at the French court, Vucroscopical Society. As one research is rapidly super
Cellini returned to Florence, where he worked Beding another, detailed references need not be given.
under the patronage of Cosmo de' Medici, and Forgeneral bibliography, see Professor M.Kendrick's paper (above); for nucleus, Van Bambeke, Etat actuel de nos
where he executed his most successful piece of Connaissances sur la Structure du Noyau (Gand, 1885);
sculpture, the famous bronze Perseus with the for cell-division, Waldeyer, “Uber Karyokinese,' Archiv.
head of Medusa' of the Loggia de' Lanzi. He S. Anal. u. Physiol. (1887); for the vegetable cell in par began to write his autobiography in 1558, and died ticular, Zimmermann, Die Morphologie und Physiologie at Florence in 1571. der Pflanzenzelle,' Schenck's Handbuch d. Botanik (1887). Cellini was a man of versatile fancy, passionSee also Professor Carnoy's cell journal, La Cellule. The ately devoted to his art, and his technical skill was Memoirs, which will always be classic in the history of
supreme. But his designs were often feeble and cell-lore, both in themselves and on account of the stunulus which they supplied, will be found in the follow.
tasteless, and he seems to have had no sound knowing and those to which they chiefly refer: Van Beneden,
ledge of human anatomy. He has, on the whole, Recherches sur la Maturation de l'Euf, &c. (1883);
| been somewhat overrated as an artist, and has been Flemming, Zell-substanz, Kern und Zell-theilung (1882);
credited with the production of many beautiful and later papers in Archiv. f. mikr. Anatomie ; From
cups and vases (such as the “Cellini vase' in the mann, Untera. über Struktur, Lebenserscheinungen und British Museum) which were really the work of Konktionen thierischer und pflanzlicher Zellen (1884); | German silversmiths in the 16th century. But he 0. and R. Hertwig, Beiträje zur Morphologie der Zellen | has not been, and could not easily be, overrated as (1870-88): Leydig. Zule und Gewebe (1885), and pre | an author. His autobiography is a work of extravious works; Strasburger, Zellbildung un (Jena, 30. ed. 1880).
ordinary interest. From the pages of this book,'
| says Mr Symonds, 'the Genius of the Renaissance, ,(3) For general physiology, consult first Foster's Physiolory, chap. i., then general works on physiology of
incarnate in a single personality, leans forth and pants and animals-e.g. Sachs' Text-book of Botany and
á speaks to us.' Though he had not the faculty Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, also Vines' similar
of self-criticism, Cellini was a shrewd judge of work (1867), Hernann's Handbuch der Physiologie, &c | others, and had a remarkable talent for portraying Further, Herbert Spencer's Principles of Biology; P. character. His book gives a faithful and a wonderGeddes, Restatement of the Cell-theory,' Proc. Roy. Soc. fully vivid picture of Italian society in the 16th Edin. (1883); M. Foster's article ‘Physiology,' Encyclo- century. The animation of the narrative and the padia Britannica; Berthold, Studien über Protoplasma- | racy vigour of the style could hardly be surpassed. mechanik (Leip. 1886); Schwarz, Die Morphologische The keen insight and unblushing frankness of the und chemische Zusammensetzung des Protoplasmas (Bres
writer make his work as fascinating to the student laa, 1887); and the article PROTOPLASM.
of human character as it is invaluable to the Celle. See ZELL.
historian of the Renaissance. Cellini reveals all Cellini, BENVENUTO, a celebrated Italian gold. | the evil and all the strength of his nature, his emith, sculptor, and engraver, and the author of
vindictiveness, braggartism, and self-worship, no one of the most interesting autobiographies ever
less than his fiery energy and powerful intellect, written, was born in 1500 in Florence, a city which
his splendid self-reliance and passionate love of art. be was forced to quit in early life through having | He is the most oandid of autobiographers, and he is taken part in an affray.' He then travelled to as ignorant of shame as he is candid. There is an Rome, where his skill as an artist in metal-work
admirable translation of this work by J. A. Symonds muned him the favour of the highest nobles and (1887 ; 4th ed. 1896). Goethe translated it into prelates. So anxious were his patrons to secure | German. See the monograph by E. Plon (1882). his services that they allowed him the utmost Cellular Plants. It was formerly attempted license of conduct. By his own account he was as by De Candolle and others to unite all the lowest expert with sword and dagger as with his gold plants destitute of vascular tissue under the general smiths tools, and he had apparently no scruple in title Cellulares, as opposed to the Vasculares, in
title Cellulares, as opposed to murdering or maiming any wbo endeavoured to cluding all the higher plants. Although this classithwart him. He states that at the siege of Rome fication is long disused, the term 'cellular plants' in 1517 it was he who killed the Constable Bourbon, | is often familiarly employed to distinguish the and that he afterwards shot down the Prince of Fungi, Algæ, Lichens, Characere, Liverworts, and Orange before the castle of St Angelo. He stood | Mosses (q.v.) from the higher or vascular cryptofor a time high in favour with Pope Clement VII., | gams-Ferns, Horsetails, Lycopodiaceae and Selabut was eventually flung into prison for the murder ginelleæ, and Isoeteæ. See the articles in this
4 nval goldsmith. In 1534 he was pardoned I work on most of these groups ; for cellular tissue,
(187688); Leydig, Zelle unghildung und Zeu-theilung
see also the articles BOTANY, CELL, TISSUES, LEAF, | in bast the proportion of associated mineral matter BARK, &c.
becomes much more considerable. Cellulose has the Celluloid, or PARKESINE. This substance was
chentical composition C&H,05, and spec. grav. 1:52. first made by Mr A. Parkes of Birmingham in 1855
Among its familiar natural modifications gum is or 1856. It chiefly consists of a dried solution of
| an isomer, and starch-dextrin and grape-sugar are
all of similar ultimate composition, while its woody gun-cotton (pyroxylin), or of what is nearly the
and corky modifications (lignin and suberin) possess same thing, and oil. A variety of it can be made with pyroxylin and camphor. It resembles ivory,
| an increasing proportion of carbon. Iodine alone
stains cellulose yellow or brown, but blue when horn, tortoiseshell, and hardened india-rubber, as regards certain properties.
strong sulphuric acid has been previously added. The pyroxylin is prepared by treating Cellulose
Strong hot sulphuric acid chars it, while brief im.
mersion in the cold converts it into a tough and dense (q.v.) from such vegetable materials as cotton or
modification, well known in parchment paper, and tlax waste, rags, paper-makers' half-stuff, or paper itself, with a mixture of one part of strong nitric
prolonged treatment dissolves it altogether. Dexacid and four parts of strong sulphuric acid. It is
trin may thus be prepared and next transmuted,
by boiling the watery solution, into grape-sugar convenient to call the product so obtained pyroxy.
(see DEXTRINE, GLUCOSE). By immersion in a lin, although the two things are not quite identical. The distillate obtained by distilling wood naphtha
mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acid we
obtain Gun-cotton (q.v.), while dilute nitric acid with chloride of lime is used as a solvent for
or potash oxidises it into oxalic acid. Ammoniacal the pyroxylin, but other solvents, such as nitro.
oxide of copper dissolves it without change, as is benzol or aniline, and some camphor are added with
shown by its reprecipitation on dilution. By heat. advantage. When the excess of solvent is removed
ing in closed vessels under pressure a dense coal. from the pyroxylin, it is mixed with a considerable
ike mass is formed, while in ordinary dry distillaquantity of castor-oil or cotton-seed oil, and made
tion, gas, tar, and acetic acid are given off, prointo a dough or paste between heated rollers. For
cesses which throw light on the formation of coal a hard compound the quantity of oil should be less than the pyroxylin, for a soft one it should be
in nature and on the chemistry of gas-making. In
natural decomposition cellulose turns yellow and greater. Chloride of sulphur is sometimes added to
brown with gradual formation of humus. See the oil. When articles made of celluloid are in a
SOILS. partially manufactured state, they are soaked in
Although so constant and characteristic a pm. bisulphide of carbon or chloride of lime to remove
duct of vegetable life, the conditions and mode of any trace of solvent, which would render them apt
its formation are still very obscure. From that cellto shrink if allowed to remain. Celluloid is of a
cycle or rhythm of change between the passive and somewhat combustible nature unless the substances
cellulose-walled state and an active and wall-less used to colour it are such as will neutralise this, or
one, which is so characteristic of the lowest forms unless some non-combustible chemical, tungstate
of life, and of which we find surviving traces of soda for example, is added to it.
(e.g. the rejuvenescence of the pollen-grain) in the Properties and Uses.-Celluloid has many valuable
reproductive processes of even the highest plants properties. It is buff or pale brown in colour, but
(see CELL), it would appear that there is some it can be made as white as ivory, which it much
relation between this increased passivity and the resembles, or manufactured in a transparent state.
formation of cellulose. And in this way arises the It can be moulded or pressed into any form, and
speculation that cellulose may be viewed essentially turned, planed, or carved. Neither the atmosphere
as a (mechanically coherent and thus useful) nor water affects it. It is elastic and can be united
excretion, an incompletely utilised waste product by its own cement. In a plastic condition celluloid
corresponding to the carbonic acid and water given can be spread on textile fabrics, or it may be made
off by the completer respiratory oxidation and larger as hard as ivory, for which it is largely used as a
evolution of energy of the active phase. Once substitute. Billiard-balls, piano-keys, and combs
formed by the plant, it may be again absorbed, as are made of it, the latter two articles extensively.
is well seen in the union of a row of cells into a conIt can be coloured to represent amber, tortoiseshell,
tinuous vessel, or in the consumption of endosperm or malachite. In imitation of red coral it has been
of a seed during germination. Many seeds, such a good deal used for jewelry. Like vulcanite,
as vegetable-ivory or date, have a great prowhich it excels in durability but exceeds in price,
portion of their reserve material in this form ; and it has very numerous applications. We need only
this must be digested into glucose by the growing mention umbrella-handles, brush-backs, knife. handles, buttons, napkin-rings, card-cases, thim
embryo, and again worked up into new protoplasm,
which deposits cellulose as before. Like the plant bles, and dolls. It is useful for optical instru.
itself, the similar digestive ferments of the animal ments, for cases for artificial teeth, and for sonie
might thus be naturally expected to digest cellusurgical instruments. One special application of
lose ; and this is actually, to some extent, the case it is for shirt fronts and collars. It is used for very
with the delicate young cell-walls of many green pretty imitations of ivory, amber, tortoiseshell,
vegetables, as can be experimentally verified, even coral, malachite, &c. Some important develop
in man; while in herbivorous animals this power is ments in the manufacture and application are due
much developed, and the nutritive utilisation of to J. W. Hyatt, of Newark, New Jersey.
their fodder is thus increased to an important Cellulose is the substance secreted by the extent. living protoplasm of a vegetable cell to form its | The cysts of amaba and other protozoa appear investing membrane or cell-wall, passing through to be at least largely composed of cellulose, and the the various ligneous, corky, and colloid changes, external tunic of ascidians (see TUNICATA) is of new arrangement and union in cell-walls, &c. (see identical, or at least isomeric, composition. Cello. CELL, LEAF, TISSUES, VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, lose has been described as a pathological product, Wood). It is obtained pure by treating any even in brain-tissue; and Chitin (q.v.), a very char. unaltered cellular tissue with alkalies and acids to acteristic and in many respects comparable animal remove mineral matter and protoplasm, and suc. ) product, has been sometimes viewed as cellulose in cessive washings with water, aicohol, and ether to association with a proteid substance. remove soluble substances. Cotton-pith or vege Celsius, ANDERS, the constructor of the centitable ivory, although much contrasted in histologi. grade thermometer, was born at Upsala in Sweden, cal properties, are alike remarkably pure cellulose; 1 27th November 1701. He was the grandson of CELSUS
Magnus Celsius (1621–79), a professor of Astronomy school of medicine. Indeed, to Celsus, next to and decipherer of the Helsing runes, and the nephew Hippocrates and Galen, we mainly owe our knowof Olof Celsius (1670-1756), professor of Theology ledge of the medicine of antiquity. Celsus's works at Upsala, author of the Hierobotanicon, and an were translated into English in 1756. Next to the early friend and patron of the great Linnæus. first edition (1478) the most important are those Anders became in 1730 professor of Astronomy at of Targa (1769) and Daremberg (1859). See Dr J. Upsala. Two years later he set out on a scientific Patrick, Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus (1892). tour, visiting the observatories of Nuremberg, Rome, and Paris. After his return he published his De
Celt (Lat. celtis (?), 'a chisel'), a name by Observationibus pro figura telluris determinanda in
which the axe-heads of the early inhabitants of Gallia habitis (Upsala, 1738). In 1740 he had the
Europe are known among British and French satisfaction of seeing a splendid observatory erected
archæologists. The Scandinavian archæologists at C'psala, and here he laboured till his death,
use the word “axe' and not 'celt.' Its use is now 25th April 1744. The Transactions of the Swedish
considered pedantic, and it is fast becoming ob
solete. The word is generally believed to have Academy contain many papers by Celsius on as
originated from a misreading of Job, xix. 24, in the tronomy and physics. It is, however, as the first
Vulgate, where Celte, understood to mean with a constructor (1742) of the thermometer now chiefly used by scientific men, that he is best known. In
chisel,' was read in place of Certe, 'verily' (cor. it the space between the freezing-point and the
responding to the for ever' of the English Bible). boiling point of water is divided into one hundred
Celte or Celtis is not elsewhere found in Latin. See spaces, hence Celsius's thermometer is often called
Notes and Queries (1878), vol. ix. p. 463; vol. x. p.
73. the centigrade or centesimal scale. See THER
Celts are either of stone or of bronze. Stone MOMETER.
celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 22 inches; Celsus, a Platonic philosopher, but tinged with but the most common size is from 6 to 8 inches Epicureanism, who lived in the 2d century after in length, and from 2 to 31 inches in breadth. Christ, was a friend of Lucian, and wrote, about They are made of almost every kind of stone, and 176-180, during the persecution of Marcus Aurelius, show considerable diversity of shape, almost all, under the title Logos Alēthēs ('true word '), the first however, having more or less resemblance to the notable polemic against Christianity. The book mussel-shell. The ruder celts are generally of slate, itself has perished; but considerable fragments have shale, schist, or grit; the finer, of flint, porphyry, been preserved as quotations given by Origen in greenstone, syenite, or agate. Many of the finer his answer, Contra Celsum, in eight books. In the celts are beautifully shaped and highly polished. fragments—which are very interesting, as showing Some very remarkable examples of this class are in the views of a heathen philosopher in regard to the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, Christianity-Celsus, with great acuteness and wit, and one found near St Andrews, in Scotland, is but without depth or earnestness of thought, prefers described by Sir David Brewster in the Philoso. against the new religion charges of unphilosophi-phical Journal for 1823. The stone celt was calness and blind credulity; and especially endea. | fastened into a handle of horn, bone, or wood. vours to convict Christians of self-contradiction Bronze celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 8 in their spiritual doctrine contrasted with their or 10 inches, the most common length being about 6 anthropomorphic representations of Deity; in their inches. They show much greater diversity of religious arrogance contrasted with their confession shape than the stone celt. As many as four classes of sinfulness; and in their views of the necessity | have been distinguished by archæologists : (1) of redemption. He also reproaches Christians with The flat wedge-shaped celt, most nearly resemtheir party divisions and ever-varying opinion, and bling the common form of the stone celt. (2) The ridicules them as worms in a corner who think flanged celt, with the side edges more or less overthey occupy the centre of the world. Celsus lapping, and a stop-ridge or elevation between the holds that the Supreme God can have no contact | blade and the part which received the handle. with the material world, the creation of which is (3) The flanged-edges celt, with side greatly overthe work of inferior deities or demons. He regards lapping, with or without the stop-ridge, but with a evil as an essential property of the material world ; | loop or ear upon one side. (4) The socketed celt, he says : There neither has been in former times, | or the celt with a hollow to receive the handle, and nor is there now, nor ever shall be, an increase or generally with a loop or ear upon one side. They diminution of evil. The nature of the universe is are sometimes ornamented with raised lines or ever identical, and the production of evil is not circles formed in the mould in which they were a variable quantity. . . . It is evident that those cast. who sin by nature and by habit cannot be changed Both stone and bronze celts were probably used in any respect either by punishment or by pardon.' | for many purposes, serving for chisels, adzes, and He charges Christians with having 'remodelled axes, as well as for weapons of war, like the stone ** The Gospel” from the “first writing" three times, hatchets of the South Sea Islanders. See FLINT four times, and many times. However, as Origen IMPLEMENTS, STONE AGE, and BRONZE AGE. remarked, almost everything of an historical kind to which Celsus refers is to be found in our Gospels,
Celtiberri, a brave and powerful people of especially the Synoptics. See Keim, Celsus' Wahres
ancient Spain, supposed to have sprung from a Wort (1873); Aube, La Polémique Paienne in Les
blending of the aboriginal Iberians with Celtic Persécutions de l'Eglise (1878); Pélagaud, Étude
invaders from Gaul. They inhabited a large
inland district of the peninsula, corresponding sur Celse (1878); Froude's Short Studies, vol. iv.; and the article on ORIGEN.
to the south-west half of Aragon, nearly the
whole of Cuença and Soria, and a great part of Celsus, AULUS CORNELIUS, a Latin physician Burgos, but the name Celtiberia had often a wider and writer, who probably flourished about 50 A.D., | signification, including the country as far south as and wrote not only on medicine, but also on rhetoric, the sources of the Guadalquivir. The Celtiberi history, philosophy, the art of war, and agriculture. were divided into four tribes, the chief the Arevaca His style is succinct and clear, but full of Græcisms. and Lusones, and were unquestionably one of the The only great work of his which survives is the bravest and noblest peoples in the peninsula. Their Die Vedicina. The portions relating to surgery cavalry and infantry were equally excellent. For are exceedingly valuable, as giving an account of many years they withstood the efforts of the the opinions and observations of the Alexandrian Romans to subdue them, and it was not till after 56
the death of Sertorius (72 B.C.) that they began to lacing band might be replaced by an elongated adopt the Roman language, dress, and manners. animal form with its feet, its tail, and its top-knot The chief cities were Legobriga, the capital; drawn out to interlace with each other, and with Bilbilis, the birthplace of Martial; and Numantia, the corresponding parts of other lacertine forms, destroyed by Scipio Africanus after a desperate ten the whole forming a diaper of quaintly expressed years' resistance, 133 B.C.
and complicated construction. The fretwork was Celtic Ornament, a peculiar development of also elaborated with much ingenuity into most the system.of iron-age decoration prevalent in the complicated patterns, a special feature of the style British Isles. Its history is divided into two being its partiality for diagonal frets and patterns periods by the introduction of Christianity, which
produced by combinations of oblique lines, in direct engrafted on the older style a number of new ele.
contrast to the fretwork of Greek and Roman art, ments of decoration brought into the country with
which was essentially rectangular. The elliptical the manuscripts of the gospels and psalters, and
curves and divergent spirals of the older style, supplied new forms for the display of these ele.
which had received their only expression in the ments, such as churches and crosses, shrines, bells, solid forms proper to metal work, were found to be and crosiers. In its pre-Christian stages, ranging
equally capable of adaptation to the purposes of approximately from two or three centuries before
the illuminator, and by a similar process of comthe Christian era to about the end of the 6th
bination and elaboration they also produced century A.D., it appears principally in connection
patterns and diapers of inexhaustible variety and with the metal mountings of harness and horse
beauty. A special feature of Celtic decoration trappings, and on shields, sword-sheaths, mirrors, was its tendency to divide the surface to be armlets, and other articles of personal use and decorated into a series of panels, each of which ornament. The material is usually bronze, but was treated as a separate whole. The finest occasionally silver or gold. The principal charac
examples of Celtic ornament are unquestionably teristics of the pre-Christian style are its pre- to be found in the grandly illuminated pages of ference for elliptical curves and divergent spirals ; manuscript copies of the Gospels, from the 7th its use of chased or engraved lines or dots as a to the 9th century. Of these the most famous for diaper in the spaces of the general design in the elaborate nature of their ornament and the contrast with other spaces left plain : its use of beauty of their colouring are the Book of Kells repoussé work, sometimes in very high relief, at in Trinity College, Dublin, and the Lindisfarne other times in low relief on thin plates riveted
Gospels in the British Museum. Of enamelled on in their places in the general design ; the metal work in this period there may be mentioned production of peculiar patterns often in excess.
the Ardagh Chalice, perhaps the most elaborate ively high relief in the casting: and the employ- and beautiful of all the products of Celtic art, the inent of champ-levé enamels of red, yellow, blue,
Lismore Crosier, and the Monymusk Shrine. Exand green, and settings of coloured vitreous pastes. amples of filigree-work, and chasing or engraving One of the finest examples of such settings occurs
in gold and silver of the highest excellence are in the decoration of an oval shield of bronze, from
found in the Tara Brooch, the Ardagh Brooches, the bed of the Thames, ornamented with Celtic the Rogart Brooches, and the Hunterston Brooch, patterns in relief, enriched by twenty-seven set
the Shrine of St Patrick's Bell, the Shrine of tings of red enamel, kept in their places by small
St Manchan, and the Cross of Cong. The approx. cruciform ornaments of bronze riveted in the centre imate dates of the metal work of the highest excelof each. There are to be seen in the National lence range from the 10th to the 12th century. Museums of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin For sculpture in stone it is only necessary to refer enamelled shields, sword-sheaths, and ornaments generally to the incised slabs and sculptured crosses of horse-trappings in bronze, of great beauty of Scotland and Ireland, ranging from the 9th to and excellence both of design and workmanship, the 12th centuries, the special characteristics of and other articles in bronze, silver, or gold, orna
their decoration being the same as those of the mented in repoussé work or in relief, with or manuscripts and metal-work already mentioned. without enamel as an enrichment, found in many For illustrations, see BROOCH, CROSS, Scu'LPparts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in pagan TURED STONES. See further Kemble's Hore grave-mounds, in crannogs or lake-dwellings, in
| Ferales, edited by Latham and Franks (1863); earth-houses, in the beds of lakes and rivers, or in
Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian and casual deposits under the soil for concealment. In
| Pagan Times (1881-83); Westwood's Palæo. a work entitled Horre Ferales, Mr Franks of the
| graphia Sacra Pictoria (1845), and Fac-similes of British Museum has figured in colours many of the
the Miniatures and Ornaments of Anglo-Sacon and best of these remarkable products of the earliest
Irish Manuscripts (1868); O'Neill's Fine Arts known process of champ-levé enamelling, and ad- of Ancient Ireland (1863), and Sculptured Crosses duced evidence to show that it and this peculiar of Ancient Ireland (1857); Stuart's Sculptured style of Celtic ornament which accompanies it | Stones of Scotland (Spalding Club, 1856 and 1867): were of indivenous drivin. and at this early and Miss Stokes's Early Christian Art in Ireland period peculiar to the British Isles. The re. (1887), and Six Months in the Apennines (1892). markable development of Celtic ornament which in which last work Celtic Christian art is largely succeeded the introduction of Christianity was
derived from the Byzantine art of Italy. characterised by the association of interlaced Celts. The Celtic nations of antiquity had no work and fret work with the elliptical curves comprehensive name. Those of the Continent were and divergent spirals which up to that time called Galli by the Romans, and less usually Celtre. had been the principal elements of Celtic design. The Greek equivalents for these terms were Galatai To these were occasionally added a step-like or Galata, and Keltoi or Celti. But neither Greeks pattern, and diapers of the Z and I shaped patterns nor Romans regarded the British Isles as belonging sometimes seen in Chinese decoration. The inter to the Celtic world. They were situated outside laced work was elaborated with excessive care into it, and lay over against it in the sea ; still it patterns, presenting an infinite variety of combina- / was known to men like Julius Cæsar that certain tions pleasing to the eye, and capable of being portions of Britain were inhabited by Celts in the harmoniously treated in colours. It was some sense of Galli or Belgae. times a simple ribbon-like band, which might be Celtic ethnology involves many difficult questions, plain, or divided in the middle, or divided into and we shall speak of them in this article mostly three by lines close to the margin ; or the inter- | according to the more palpabledistinctions of speech;