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CRÈCHE

CRÉDIT FONCIER

553

librarians. His tragedy of Catilina, for which the before they are brought to him as oblation. The king furuished the properties, was brought out introduction or restoration of credences is one of with great success in 1748. Among his other those restitutions of old usages which marked works were Xerres, Semiramis, Pyrrhus, and Le the Oxford movement in England ; and they have Triumvirat, the last of which was written when been judicially pronounced legal ornaments of the he was eighty-one years old. He died on June 17, church, as subsidiary or auxiliary to the celebrating 1762. He was a very unequal writer. An oppres. of Holy Communion, in order to compliance with sive gloom pervades the tragedies which he founded | the rubrics in that part of the Common Prayeron Greek legend ; but occasionally he writes natur: book. ally and powerfully. Not a few of his verses have Credentials, papers or letters given to an a grandeur which has been said to be hardly dis-ambassador, or other public minister, to a foreign coverable elsewhere in French tragedy between court, in order to enable him to claim the confi. Corneille and Hugo' (Saintsbury). Next to Vol. dence of the court to which he is sent. taire, he was the best tragic dramatist of his age

Credit, in Political Economy, may be defined in France. There are editions of his works by

as the power to make use of another man's wealth. Perelle (2 vols. 1828) and Vitu (1885).-CLAUDE

It rests on the simple fact that when one man has PROSPER JOLYOT DE CRÉBILLON, the younger son

more wealth than he proposes to use himself, he is of the dramatist, was born in Paris on February

ready, for a consideration, to lend it to another. 14, 1707. He was educated at the Jesuit College

The wealth thus lent may be used for purposes of Louis le Grand, and after writing a number of

either of production or consumption, though the slight pieces for the stage, acquired great popu

great function of credit in modern industry is to larity as an author of prose fiction. In 1740 he

furnish the means of production to those who are in married an English woman, Lady Stafford. One of

need of them. Credit of course is not capital, but his books, Le Sopha, conte moral, having given

it enables one man to utilise the capital of another. offence to Madame de Pompadour by its indecency,

The credit system is an elaborate system of applihe was banished from Paris for five years, but on

ances and institutions, by which facilities for lending his return in 1755 was appointed to the censorship.

and borrowing are provided. Bills and bank-notes He was believed by his friends to be dead long

are well-known instruments of credit. Banks are the before he died on April 12, 1777.

most notable institutions of credit, which is further Crèche (Fr., 'manger'), a sort of public nursery facilitated by companies of every kind, designed to where, for a small payment, the children of women transmit superabundant capital to the most distant who have to go out to work are fed, nursed, and colonies and to all the ends of the earth. Credit taken care of during the work hours of the day. is thus a mighty organ of industry, whose operaCrécy-en-Ponthieu, or CRESSY, a village

tions are co-extensive with the world, but it has in the French department of Somme, on the Maye,

attained to this far-reaching and cosmopolitan 12 miles N. of Abbeville. Crécy is celebrated on | position only in comparatively recent times. Yet account of the brilliant victory obtained here, 26th it is also one of the oldest phenomena in the his. August 1346, by Edward III., with 40,000 English tory of society, marked by usages and laws, which soldiers, over a French army amounting, according

are of the highest interest and importance. Credit to Froissart, to 100,000 men under the command of

is found in the earliest communities, one of its the Count of Alençon. In this great battle, one of

most striking forms being in the relations of the the most honourable to English prowess recorded in

primitive farming class to the money-lender. It history, perished the flower of the French chivalry,

was considerably developed in ancient Greece and as well as the blind king of Bohemia, who was

Rome, as also in the commercial Phoenician states fighting on the side of France. Altogether about on the Mediterranean. During the middle ages it 30,000 of the French soldiers bit the dust. In

grew up in the Italian republics, and afterwards this battle the Black Prince distinguished himself

in the cities of Germany and the Netherlands. greatly, and gained his spurs (see the article Ich But its vast extension dates from the great develop. DIEN). Pop. 1382.

ment of commerce and industry connected with

the United States, India, and the colonies, com. Credence, a small table placed near the altar

bined with the utilisation of ste m and the electric or communion-table, at its south side, on which

telegraph. In short the development of the credit the bread and wine intended for consecration are

system has gone hand in hand with the develop. placed in readiness. In the Greek Church this is

ment of modern industry. While the credit system called the trapeza protheseos, or simply prothesis,

has thus so powerfully aided the development of but is always placed north of the altar, usually in a

industry by supplying capital to those who have structural side-chapel. Archbishop Laud was a

ability and opportunity to utilise it, it is needless great stickler for the credence, and pleaded the authority of Bishop Andrewes and other bishops for

to say that it has led to many abuses. In early its use. There are ancient credences in various

communities the creditor had power to enslave,

maim, or even to slay the debtor. In modern Anglican churches ; among others, in the Collegiate

times, by rendering capital accessible to adventurers and St John's churches, Manchester, and in the parish church at Ludlow, where they have been in

of every class, it has occasionally given scope for the use from time immemorial. Sometimes the place

wildest and most dishonest speculation. of the credence was supplied by a mere shelf across

Credit, Cash. See Cash ACCOUNT. the Fenestella, or a niche in the south wall of the Crédit Foncier (landed credit'), a system of chancel. The term was also used for a buffet, or lending money on the security of landed property, sideboard, at which the meats were tasted in early established in France by an edict of 28th February times before being presented to the guests, as a | 1852. Its peculiarity is that the loan is repayable precaution against poison. Hence the origin of the by a terminable annuity, the amount and currency word, which is derived from the Ital. credenzare, to of the annuity being so calculated that when the taste meats and drinks before they were offered last payment is made, the loan and the interest on to another, an ancient court practice, which was it will be extinguished. Or it may be described as performed by the cup-bearers and carvers, who for a loan repayable by instalments. The borrower, this reason were called in Ger. credenzer. The however, has the right of anticipating repayment. usage is still observed at Rome when the pope cele | The system is precisely regulated by the edict, brates mass, some of the wafers and of the wine to which prohibits an advance to more than one-half be offered being tasted by the assistant ministers of the value of the property pledged or hypothecated. 554

CREDIT

CREEDS

Three companies were established by the French transferred to Exeter, and from 1897 has a bishod government in Paris, Marseilles, and Nevers. suffragan under Exeter. Its woollen manufactures They were all formed in 1852, and on 10th | belong to the past. Pop. (1851) 3924 ; (1891 ) 4207. December of the same year were amalgamated as

Creditor. See DEBTOR, BANKRUPTCY. the Crédit Foncier de France, with the privilege of

Creech, WILLIAM, Edinburgh bookseller, born making such advances. The Crédit Foncier stands

21st April 1745, learned his trade in Edinburgh and relatively to real estate as the Crédit Mobilier

| London, and spent some time on the Continent to personal property. The companies formed in

before beginning business in 1771. For more than Britain to advance money for improvements on

forty years he issued the chief literary productions landed properties are of a similar character. The

of that period in Edinburgh, including the first Crédit Foncier (Limited), formed in London in 1864,

Edinburgh edition of Burns, and the works of Blair, was a general finance company. It speculated

Beattie, and Dugald Stewart, and Mackenzie's largely in the promotion of public works at home

Mirror and Lounger. He was Lord Provost (1811and abroad, met with heavy losses, and was several

13), and died 14th January 1815. His newspaper times reorganised.

letters and odd writings collected in Edinburgh Credit, LETTER OF. This is the term applied | Fugitive Pieces (1791; new ed. with memoir, 1815), to a letter addressed to a correspondent at a contain much curious information about old Edindistance, requesting him to pay a sum thereinburgh, and the way of life of a past generation. specified to the person named, or to hold the money

Creedmoor, a village of Long Island, 12 miles at his disposal, and authorising the correspondent

E. of New York by rail, with an extensive ritle. to reimburse himself for such payment, either by debiting it in account between the parties, or by

range. drawing on the first party for the amount. This

Creeds, the authorised expressions of the arrangement may take place between merchants

doctrine of the church at large, or of the several or others, but in general it occurs between

main sections into which it is divided. Such bankers residing in different places-e.g. between

statements of doctrine sprang up naturally in the a banker in London and his correspondent in

course of the church's progress. As the doctrines New York; and it is designed to enable any one

taught by Christ became the subjects of thought, who has money lodged at one place to obtain

of argument, of controversy, they could not fail to the use of it at another for a small charge, or

receive a more defined intellectual expression, and commission, without the risk or trouble of actu

to be drawn out into more precise dogmatic state. ally carrying money between the two cities.

ments; and the great creeds, as they rise in sucIt is thus a sort of primitive or informal Bill cession, and mark the climax of successive con. of Exchange (q.v.), though not, like a bill, a

troversial epochs in the church, are nothing else negotiable instrument. Sometimes the letter is

than the varying expressions of the Christian conaddressed to all or several of the correspond. sciousness and reason, in their efforts more coments of the bank issuing it, in which case it is pletely to realise, comprehend, and express the termed a Circular Credit ; ard any of them may

originally simple elements of truth as they are pay the sum mentioned, or sums to account as

recorded in Scripture. Accordingly, the creeds of desired, taking the holder's receipt, or his draft on

Christendom grow in complexity, in elaborate the granter, in exchange; and the sums so paid

analysis and inventiveness of doctrinal statement, are indorsed on the letter, to show how far the

as they succeed one another. credit has been used. Even where the granter

What has been called the Apostles' Creed is has no correspondent, the holder of an authentic

probably the earliest form of Christian creed that letter will usually have little difficulty in obtaining

exists, unless we give the precedence to the bap. money upon it; and the system is thus productive

tismal formula at the close of St Matthew's Gospel, of much convenience to all who have occasion to

out of which many suppose the Apostles' Creed to travel.

have grown. There were in the early church differ. Some bankers, having an extensive correspond

ing forms of this primitive creed : that which is ence abroad, issue what are called Circular Notes,

received and repeated in the service of the Church usually of the value of £10 or £20 each, which any

of England has come to us through the Latin of the granter's correspondents, or indeed any one

Church ; and some of its clauses, as, for instance, else, may cash to the holder, on his indorsation and

*He descended into hell,' and again, “The comproduction of a letter of indication. In this kind

munion of saints,' are at any rate additions to the of creilit, tlie notes are bought outright; whereas

earliest known forms, even if they are not developfor the ordinary letter of credit, the banker debits

ments of doctrine. A great variety of opinions has the drafts under it only when they are advised to

been held as to the origin of this creed. It has not him. The introduction (about 1770) of these notes,

only been attributed to the apostles directly, but a which have proved of great convenience to travellers,

legend has professed to settle the clauses respecthough of little direct profit to the banks, is due to

tively contributed by the several apostles. The Mr Herries, the founder of the eminent banking.

earliest account of its origin we have from Rufinus, house of Herries, Farquhar, & Co., London.

an historical compiler of the 4th century. His stateA marginal credit is one in which the due pay.

ment is, that the apostles, when met together, ment of the bills or drafts under it are guaranteed

and filled with the Holy Ghost, composed this by a third party interested in the transaction ; the

compend of what they were to preach, each one guarantee being usually expressed in a marginal

contributing his share to the one composition, note on the bill. See CIRCULAR NOTES.

which they resolved to give as a rule of faith to

those who should believe. But Rufinus is no great Crédit Mobilier. See MOBILIER.

historical authority, and even learned Roman Crediton, or KIRKTON, a borough in the Catholics (as Wetzer and Welte) regard the story middle of Devonshire, on the Creedy, a tributary as a legend. It is not improbable in itself, how of the Exe, 7 miles NW. of Exeter. It lies in a ever, that even in the age of the apostles some narrow vale between two steep hills, and, having formula of belief existed. The exact form of the suffered much by fire in 1743 and 1769, is mostly present creed cannot pretend to be so ancient by modern. Its church, however, is a fine old cruci. four hundred years, but Irenæus repeats a creed form structure. The birthplace of St Boniface not much unlike the present; and Tertullian also (9.v.), the apostle of Germany, Crediton was the affirms that a similar creed had been prevalent as seat of a bishopric from 910 to 1050, when it was ' a rule of faith in the church from the beginning of CREEDS

CREEPER

555

the gospel.' The same thing is proved by the It is remarkable that the oriental churches have creeds administered to the candidates for baptism never formally accepted any creed except the in the 2d and 3d centuries. They correspond, with Nicene, without the insertion of the word filioque slight variations, to the Apostles' Creed. The true in connection with the Procession of the Hoiy view of this formula of church belief, therefore, Spirit (q.v.). seems to be that which regards it as the Roman or See Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities ; the Latin form of the creed which prevailed in all the Encyclopædia of the Roman Catholics Wetzer and early churches. It is not strictly apostolic; but it Welte; the works of Dr Heurtley of Oxford ; of the is substantially apostolic-fairly representative of Lutheran Dr Caspari; and the three volumes of the the different elements of Christian faith as handed Presbyterian Dr Schaff (Lond. 1877). Among patrisdown from the apostles.

tic treatises may be specially named the Catechetical The Nicene, or rather the Niceno-Constantino.

Lectures of St Cyril of Jerusalem, in the 4th century, politan Creed is the next great expression of doc.

and somewhat later the tractates of St Augustine, De

Fide et Symbolo; De Symbolo ad Catechumenos. In the trinal truth that we meet with in the history of the 17th century an English prelate, Bishop Bull, received church. It sprang out of the conflict, which had the thanks of the Gallican Church, led by Bossuet, for begun even in the 2d century, as to the dignity his Defensio Fidei Nicence, and Bishop Pearson and Dean and character of Christ. (For the various Christo- Jackson won lasting fame by their respective volunes on logical doctrines, see CHRIST, CHURCH HISTORY.) the Apostles' Creed. On the Roman Catholic side the These debates continued more or less throughout learned Jesuit Petau (Petavius ) is conspicuous, and in the 3d century; and early in the 4th Arius denied

1832 Möhler published two volumes entitled Symbolik, that Christ was of the substance of God,' or

which treated of the Reformed and Roman Confessions. without beginning;' he was only the highest

See ARTICLES, ATHANASIAN CREED, CONFESSIONS,

THEOLOGY. of created beings, in a sense divine, but not the same in substance with the Father, nor equal

Creek, in Geography, is a small inlet on a low with him in power and glory. Athanasius came

coast, and in rivers formed by the mouths of small forward as the opponent of Arius, and the contest

streams. In America and also in Australia, the raged throughout the church. The Council of

term creek is applied to small rivers. Nicea was summoned in 325 by Constantine,

Creeks, or MUSCOGEES, a formerly powerful with the view of settling this controversy, and | tribe of American Indians, of the Appalachian the Nicene Creed was the result. There were stock, who, reduced by war to some 25,000, were in these three parties in the council—the Atha- | 1836 removed from Georgia and Alabama to Indian nasians, or extreme orthodox party; the Eusebians,

ve orthodox party. the Eusebians. | Territory. In 1895 their number was estimated at or middle party; and the Arians, or heretical party.

10,000. The heretics were few in number, and possessed Creeper (Certhia), a genus of Passerine birds, but little influence; but the Eusebians were a the type of the family Certhiada. The bill is long, strong party, and for some time resisted certain much curved, laterally compressed, and pointed ; expressions of the orthodox or Athanasians, which the tongue is long, narrow, sharp-pointed, and seemed to them extreme and unwarranted. At jagged near its tip; the tail is rather long, and the length the Homöousians, as the Athanasians were tips of the tail-feathers are firm and pointed, called, prevailed ; and Christ was declared not extending beyond the webs. The feet are rather merely to be of like substance (homoiousios ), but of slender; the hind-toe about as long as the others. the same substance (homoousios) with the Father. The feet are well adapted for tree-climbing, and the At the later Council of Constantinople (381), the stiff feathers of the tail are also employed for supadditional tenet of the divinity of the Holy Spirit port. There is probably more than one species, but was added, and the creed completed in the form this is doubtful, and the distribution is somewhat in which it is familiar in the mass and in the wide. The Common Creeper (C. familiaris) is communion service in the Book of Common Prayer, except the memorable phrase "and from the Son' (filioque). This phrase, teaching the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son, which was destined to be the subject of controversy between the Eastern and Western Churches (see Greek Church), seems to have been added by the Western Churches in the 5th and 6th centuries.

The next remarkable monument of doctrinal truth in the church is what is called the Athanasian Creed, a product probably of the 5th century, much later than Athanasius himself, but representing, with great formal minuteness and fidelity, his doctrine of the Trinity, as apprehended and elaborated by the Western Church. See ATHANASIAN CREED.

The Apostles', the Nicene, the Athanasian, may be said to form the great catholic creeds of the church. After the time of the last-mentioned formula, there is no general symbol of faith that claims our attention till the period of the Reformation. When the eye of free criticism and argument was turned upon Scripture, new creeds, or rather

Common Creeper (Certhia familiaris). confessions, began to spring up; these are treated at CONFESSIONS. The Professio Fidei Tridentina, found in all tenperate parts of the northern hemi. commonly known as the Creed of Pope Pius, arose sphere, wherever woods abound. It is a permanent out of the Decrees of Trent, and is practically the resident, but is never numerous or gregarious. Confession of Faith of the Roman Catholic Church It is not so well known as many other birds, in (9.v., and see TRENT). This was published in consequence of its restless habits, its rapid move. 1564, but some important additions to it were ments, and prompt retirement to the farther side made in 1870, in consequence of the decision of of the tree from the spectator. The Scotch name, the Vatican Council.

| Bark-speeler ('climber'), describes its almost con.

[graphic]

556

CREEPER

CREMONA

stant habit, as it searches for insects and their larvæ States; there were but 20 cremations in 1875-82, in the crevices of the bark. The nest is usually in but in 1885-93, 1282 bodies were cremated. Interest a hole of a decayed tree. The creeper is one of the in this movement was awakened in England in smallest of British birds, although larger than the 1874 by Sir Henry Thompson : the council of the wren. Its prevalent colour is dark gray above, with society established in that year purchased ground spots of yellow and white; the under parts are white. at Woking, and in 1885 erected a crematory, - The Wall Creeper (Tichodroma muraria) of the which by 1893 had cremated 458 bodies. The south of Europe frequents walls and the faces of number of cremations in England is now 130 rocks.—The Nuthatch (q.v.) is a closely allied annually. There are crematories at Manchester, genus.

Glasgow, and elsewhere. For each cremation about Creeper. See CLIMBING PLANTS.

seven shillings' worth of wood fagots and coal are

needed. The time occupied in the reduction of an Creighton, MANDELL, historian, born at Car.

adult varies from 11 to 14 hours, and the ashes lisle, 5th July 1843, from Durham School gained a postmastership at Merton College, Oxford, in

weigh, as before stated, from 5 to 7 lb. Cremation

having been declared legal in England, it is expected 1862, and was elected a fellow in 1866. He became vicar of Embleton, Northumberland, in 1875, first

that some of the large cities will very shortly possess professor of Ecclesiastical History at Cambridge

these media for destruction of the body by fire.

The human body consists of 60 per cent. of water in 1884, Bishop of Peterborough in 1891, and of

and 40 per cent. of solid matter; and quickly to London (1896). His chief works are Simon de

reduce this to ashes requires a strong furnace. Montfort ( 1876). History of the Papacy during the

A

special form of Siemens' regenerator furnace is that Reformation Period (5 vols. 1882-94), and the

which has found most favour in Germany, but sumptuous Queen Elizabeth (1897).

elsewhere only the Gorini form of apparatus is used. Crema, a town of Lombardy, 27 miles NW. of The Gorini crematory furnace consists of a receiver, Cremona, with a cathedral (1341). Pop. 8500. a furnace, and a chimney. The receiver is a flat.

Cremation, the reduction of the dead human bottomed chamber open at each end, one of which body to ashes by fire, was a very early and wide. communicates with the upper part of the furnace, spread usage of antiquity. The early Aryans-as and the other with the lower part of the chimney. opposed to the non-Aryan aborigines of India—the | The furnace, which discharges its heat into the Greeks, Romans, Slavs, Celts, and Germans, burned | receiver, is somewhat spacious, sufficiently so to their dead, so that cremation may be regarded as produce the necessary heat by means of wood fuel the universal custom of the Indo-European races. only if found requisite. The chimney is also of The graves of North Europe throughout the 'bronze sufficient sectional area to remove the products of age' contain only jars with ashes. It was Chris combustion from the receiver as well as the furtianity that gradually suppressed the practice of nace, and high enough to permit the draught to cremation. In India it is still a usual method for keep above the gases pervading the receiver, and disposing of corpses, and is also practised by numer- prevent any dispersion of heat or smoke through ous uncivilised peoples of Asia and America (see the apertures around the receiver or cremation BURIAL). A return to the practice has been chamber. In order to perfectly overcome the idea strongly insisted on by many in modern Europe. | as to any organic molecules escaping from the This is opposed mainly on grounds of kindly feeling shaft, a grating is placed near the base of the for the dead, and for religious reasons connected chimney, and upon this a portion of coke is kept with the belief in the resurrection of the dead. burning. The products of animal combustion which Advocates of cremation assert that these are pre- issue still highly heated from the receiver, are subjudices founded on misapprehension, and allegejected to higher temperature in passing through the that the question is solely a sanitary one. The burning coke, and any organic matter which may dainage to the health of such as live near church have resisted or escaped the first combustion is yards and cemeteries, from the exhalations of destroyed by the second, and mixes harmlessly with noxious gases and the poisoning of water supplies, the atmosphere. The literature of the subject is an indisputable fact, and is in many cases quite began with Thompson's Treatment of the Body inevitable. By burning, the body is reduced more after Death (1874); Erichsen's Cremation of the Deau swiftly to its constituent elements, without disre- (1887); Ullersperger's Urne oder Grab (1874); and spect to the dead or hurt to the living. The ashes some works by Italian doctors. The Transactions of the body of an adult after due incineration weigh (annual) of the Cremation Society of England confrom 5 to 7 lb. Others allege as the juridico. tain a complete bibliography on the subject up criminal difficulty that cremation might be made to date. Since 1874 upwards of 3000 works and to destroy the evidence of murder (as by poison pamphlets have been published on this subject in ing); but advocates of cremation answer that a various countries. properly organised system of medical inspection [While this volume was passing through the press, would obviate this oljection. In Italy creniationthe author of the above article died, and his body was has been legal since 1877, and is not unusual at cremated at Woking.-Ed.] Milan, Lodi, Cremona, Brescia, Padua, Varese, and

Crémieux, ISAAC ADOLPHE, jurist and poli. Rome, and at these places crematory furnaces, on

| tician, was born of Jewish parents at Nîmes, 30th the Gorini system, have been erected. About 1000

April 1796, and became an advocate in Paris in cremations have taken place in these and other

1830. In 1842 he entered the Chamber, and in Italian towns. In Berlin, Dresden, and Leipzig

1848 was a member of the provisional government. there has been strong agitation in favour of crema

Imprisoned at the coup d'état, he subsequently tion; and at Gotha there is a large mortuary and

confined himself to professional work, till 1870, crematorium, where between 1878 and 1888 more

when he was a member of the government of than 550 bodies had been cremated and lodged in

| national defence. He was made a senator in 1876, the Columbaria of the crematory temple. Societies

and died 10th February 1880. He was the founder for securing the legalisation of the process exist in nearly every country in Europe, and in some the

of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. rite of cremation is permissible. At present this Cremona, a decayed city of Northern Italy, is not so in Belgium, Russia, or Austria. Two on the north bank of the Po, 60 miles SE. of crematory furnaces were erected in 1888 by the Milan by rail, and 46 E. of Pavia. Creniona has municipality of Paris at Père-la-Chaise. The move some fine buildings-the principal the cathedral ment found for long but little favour in the United (1107-1606), with gorgeous interior; the neighCREMORNE GARDENS

CRESS

557

bouring octagonal Baptistery; the Palazzo Publico countries of the earth, and much used as salads (1245); the so-called Campo Santo; and the famous and medicinally by the peoples of those countries. Torrazzo (1288) or belfry—the loftiest campanile in In Britain the most commonly used is the Common Italy, being 396 feet high, and commanding mag Cress (Lepidium sativum), of which there are several nificent views over the fertile plains of Milan. By means of the Po, Cremona carries on a considerable trade in the produce of the district; and it has manufactures of silk, cotton, earthenware, and chemicals. In the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries it was greatly celebrated for its manufacture of violins, the most famous makers being the Amatis, the Guarneris, and Stradivari (see VIOLIN). Pop. 31,930. Cremona is the capital of a province of the same name; area, 632 sq. m.; pop. (1886) 314,755.

Cremorne Gardens, near Battersea Bridge, on the north side of the Thames, a very popular place of amusement for Londoners down to 1877, when they were closed.

Crenelle, a Battlement (q.v.), or an embrasure in a battlement.-CRENELLÉ, in Heraldry, embattled, signifies that any ordinary is drawn like the battlements of a wall.

Creole (Span. criollo), in general an indi. vidual born in the country but not of indigenous blood, a term applied, especially in the former Spanish, French, and Portuguese colonies of America, Africa, and the East Indies, to natives of pure European blood (sangre azul), in opposition to immigrants themselves born in Europe, or to the offspring of mixed blood, as mulattoes, quadroons, Common Cress

Bitter Cress Eurasians, and the like. In Brazil the native whites (Lepidium sativum): (Cardamine amara): call themselves Brasileiros. Creole dialects are

a, silicule.

a, silique, opening. corruptions of French, Spanish, Portuguese, Eng. lish, or Dutch, arising in various colonies, and varieties, the most favoured being that known as may be studied in such formal treatises as Thomas, the Curled Cress. Sown thickly in soil in moderate The Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar (Port heat under glass, this may be raised during winter of Spain, 1869), and Quentin, L'Histoire de Cayenne in a few days; and the seeds spread out thickly on et de la Grammaire Créole (Paris, 1872). Mr flannel, which is kept saturated with warm vapour, Cable's stories revealed to English readers the as from a boiler ör tank of boiling water, will singularly quaint charm of the phraseology and vegetate and yield a crop within 48 hours after manners of the Creole population of Louisiana. sowing. In this way it has been found invaluable Creosote. See CREASOTE.

during arctic voyages as an antiscorbutic. The Crescendo, in Music, means a gradual increas. Poor Man's Pepper is the Broad-leaved Cress (L. ing of sound, or changing from piano to forte and latifolium), a native of Britain, and formerly used fortissimo. It is marked thus

, or with

as a condiment by the poor. The Virginian Cress the abbreviation cresc. The converse is decrescendo. | (L. virginicum) has The swell of a good organ produces a most perfect similar properties to crescendo.

the Common Cress, and Crescent. A representation of the half-moon

is cultivated in Britain, with the horns turned upwards, called a crescent,

in North America, and is often used as an emblem of progress and suc.

in the West Indies for cess. It was the emblem of the Greek before it

| use as a salad. L. pis. became that of the Turkish rule (see CONSTANTI

cidium, a native of the

South Sea Islands, is
NOPLE, p. 433); but it was not adopted by the
Turks from the Greeks-it had been used by them

there used to stupefy hundreds of years before in Central Asia. Genghiz

fish, and by sailors as Khan's Tartars had the crescent on their banners,

an antiscorbutic. The

allied genus Barbarea and so had the Janissaries of Sultan Orchan. Crescenta decoration, sometimes called

supplies the Winter

Cress or Yellow Rocket order of, in Turkey. In 1799, after the battle of

of gardens (B. vul. Aboukir, the Sultan Selim III, testified his grati. tude to Nelson by sending him a crescent richly | Britain, and the Ameri.

garis), a native of adorned with diamonds. It was not intended as

can Cress (B. præco.c), an order, but Nelson wore it on his coat; and

by some regarded as Selim, flattered by the value attached to his gift,

merely a variety of resolved that a similar decoration should be con:

the preceding, is also a ferred on foreigners who have done service to the

native of Britain, the state. There was an old Order of the Crescent,

European continent, instituted by René, Duke of Anjou, in 1464.

| and America, where

Water Cress Crescentia. See CALABASH TREE.

both are used for the

(Nasturtium officinale). Cress, a name given to many plants belonging purposes already de. to the order Cruciferæ, which have in common, in scribed. The Bitter Cress (Cardamine amara), the greater or less degree, a pungent mustard-like taste, Lady's Smock or Cuckoo-flower (C. pratensis), and and antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, and other medi. the Hairy Cress (C. hirsuta), are all natives of cinal qualities. They are very generally distrib- Britain and of other temperate and northern uted abundantly over the temperate and northern countries of the globe, but being more bitter than

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