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previous to the union with Scotland. The cross of Celtic Cross, most frequently found in Ireland and St Andrew,g, differed entirely in form from the Latin in the north and west of Scotland. Such crosses or Greek cross. This cross, or crux decussata, con- vary much, from a cross incised on a flat slab to an sisted of two shafts of equal length crossed diagon- elaborate cruciform monument. The majority of ally at the middle, as in the annexed cut. Accord the latter seem to belong to the period between the ing to the legend, this was the form of cross on 12th and 15th centuries. One of the best known is which St Andrew, the national saint of Scotland, that at Iona called St Martin's Cross, standing in suffered martyrdom (see ANDREW). As the Scottish the grounds of the cathedral. It is a column of ensign, it is now blended with the cross of St George compact mica schist, 14 feet high, 18 inches broad, in the Union Jack.

and 6 inches thick, and is fixed in a pedestal formed The Cross of the Resurrection is a floriated cross ; out of a massive block of red granite, about 3 feet and is usually represented as heading a lance, to high. In connection with certain ancient religious which is fastened a banner upon which a cross is houses in Ireland, there were very fine Celtic depicted. The earliest and finest floriated cross

Some crosses of this type show Scandi. is that in the mosaic of San Ponziano, where, how. navian workmanship; hence they are often called ever, the flowers spring from the shaft, and on the Runic crosses. The cross of Ruthwell (q.v.) in arms stand two lighted candles. The idea of the Dumfriesshire, and that at Bewcastle (q.v.) in floriated cross seems to have been to connect it Cumberland are interesting samples. with Aaron's rod that budded, and so to signify the Churchyard Crosses seem to have existed in all eternal priesthood of Christ.

churchyards before the Reformation : some still In medieval times a cross, the Rood, stood over exist, and the remains of others are numerous. In the screen between the nave of a church and the France, in connection with the cemetery cross, in chancel. This was always veiled in Lent. The some parts, a perpetual lamp was kept burning, crutched cross, like the letter T, was the symbol and the contrivance for the lamp remains in some of St Anthony the Hermit. Processional crosses of them. are those carried in processions (see CROSIER); Many very beautiful crosses exist in England, pectoral crosses, those worn on the breast by upon the points of gables of churches, or grave. ecclesiastics of rank. Many orders have distinc. stones, and in other situations, as also in heraldry. tive crosses. See LEGION OF HONOUR.

Among these, the cross most commonly seen is The Order of the Cross, originally a spiritual called the cross crosslet (see below). order of knighthood, sprang up in Palestine in the Memorial Crosses are such as are erected in time of the Crusades, and was then called the memory of a beloved object, or in commemoration Bethlehemite Order. Pope Gregory IX. confirmed of some event of local importance. In England the order in 1238. Its principal seat was in Bohemia. there are some superb crosses of this kind; There is also a Brazilian Order of the Cross. they are popularly called Norman Crosses. This

Sanctuary, Boundary, or Monumental Crosses, as species of cross resembled a Gothic turret set on they are called, consist of an upright flat pillar the ground, or on a base of a few steps, and was or obelisk, covered with sculptural devices, and set decorated with niches for figures and pinnacles.

The best
known ex
those erected
by Edward
I. (1290) in
memory of his
nor; being
placed on the
spots where
the body
rested in its
funereal pro-
gress to West-
minster. The
crosses at
Walt h a m,
Cheap side,
and Charing

of the
number. That
at Charing

removed by the parliament in 1647; a modern reproduction

now occupies St Martin's Cross, Iona.

its site. The Waltham Cross, restored.

Walth a m in a socket level with the ground. Occasionally, Cross, repaired in 1890, remains as a testimonial of they appear to have marked boundaries, but more the affection and piety of the greatest of the frequently were monuments over the graves of Plantagenets. heroes, kings, bishops, &c. A vast number of ex- Village Crosses stood in the centre of most viltremely rude and early crosses of granite occur in lages in ancient times. In the west of England a Cornwall and Devon : some of these have apparently good many remain. been fashioned out of prehistoric monoliths. In Town or Market Crosses were erected as stands to some instances, they probably marked the verge of preach from, or in commemoration of events rea sanctuary. A characteristic type of cross is the garding which it was deemed proper to evoke pious



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feelings. As these structures were incorporated other ordinaries, the cross may be engrailed, inwith or surmounted by a crucifix, the term cross vecked, &c. When its central square is removed, was so indelibly associated with them that it sur- it is said to be quarter-pierced ; and when it does vived the religious character of the fabrics. The not extend to the margin of the earliest examples of this kind consisted, probably, shield, it is called humettée. But of tall crucifixes of wood, such as are still seen by the cross of heraldry is often found the waysides in some continental countries. After varied in other ways, the varieties wards, stone shafts would be substituted; and having each separate

WH according to the increase of market revenues, or Thirty-nine varieties are enumerprogress of taste, these town-crosses assumed that ated by Guillim, and 109 by imposing character which they latterly possessed. Edmonson. Those most frequently The crosses at Cheddar in Somersetshire and at occurring are here mentioned; and Malmesbury in Wiltshire, are open vaulted struc- it may be remarked that they St George's Cross. tures, with a commodious space beneath as a have rather the character of comrefuge for market-folks during rain, and sur- mon charges than ordinaries not extending to mounted with a kind of Gothic turret. At Chi- the margin of the shield, and being often borne chester, Bristol, and Winchester, the market in numbers as well as singly. The cross moline crosses, while similar in form, are of a higher (fig. 1) has the ends turned round both ways; the architectural quality. Adjoining St Paul's in cross fleury (fig. 2) has each end terminating in a London stood Paul's Cross, a structure which we read of as early as 1259, in the reign of Henry III. At this preaching-cross, by order of Henry VIII., preachers delivered sermons in favour of the Re. formation, and here Queen Elizabeth attended to hear a thanksgiving sermon for the defeat of the Spanish Armada; but in 1643 the cross incurred the displeasure of the Puritans, and was demolished by order of parliament. See The Ancient Stone Crosses of England, by Alfred Rimmer (1875).

Scotland offers no specimens of memorial or Norman crosses, unless it be the modern Scott Monument, at Edinburgh, which is essentially, a Norman cross of a gigantic order. The simpler kind of Scottish market-cross consisted of a shaft of stone, standing on a flight of circular or octangular steps—the grander market-cross consisted of a tall stone shaft, on an imposing circular, hexagonal, or octagonal substructure, 10 to 16 feet high. The top formed a platform, which was surrounded with an ornamented stone parapet, and was reached by a fleur-de-lis; the cross botonnée (fig. 3) has each stair inside. Losing their religious character, the end terminating in a trefoil ; the cross patonce

Scottish market. (fig. 4) has three points to each limb; the cross

patée (fig. 5) is small in the centre, but widens ployed for royal towards the ends; the cross crosslet (fig. 6) is and civic pro- crossed at each end; and the cross potent (fig. 7) clamations, and is crutch-shaped at each end. The Maltese cross as places where (fig. 8), which converges to a point in the centre, certain judicial and has two points to each limb, though not frewrits were

quent as a heraldic charge, derives importance from ecuted. The being the badge of the Knights of Malta and other oldest cross of orders. Any of these crosses is said to be fitchée Edinburgh stood when the lower limb terminates in a point, as in in the centre of fig. 9, representing a cross patée fitchée.

Besides the High Street, these and other crosses with equal limbs, there but was removed is the cross Calvary (fig. 10), being the cross of in 1617. A new crucifixion elevated on three steps, and the patri. market-cross archal cross (fig. 11) with two horizontal bars. was then erected

Cross, MARY ANN. See Eliot, GEORGE. farther down the street, the

Cross, SOUTHERN. See, SOUTHERN CROSS. south side, which Cross Bill, a bill of exchange or promissory consisted of an

note given in consideration of another bill or octangular base, note. with a stone shaft Crossbill (Loxia), a Passerine bird in the of about 20 feet finch family (Fringillidæ), well known for the in height; its curious way in which the points of the upper and

removal in 1756, lower bill-halves cross one another. There seems Edinburgh Market-cross, 1617–1886.

by the

civic to be no constancy in the direction of crossing, for

authorities, is in. in different individuals, even of the same species, dignantly referred to by Scott in Marmion. The the upper and lower portions are found variously shaft, which had been preserved, was re-erected directed to right or left. This peculiarity is prob. on a similar substructure near the same site in ably for the most part a directly mechanical adap1885, at the expense of Mr Gladstone.

tation to the food-habit of the bird, which consists Cross, in Heraldry, is one of the ordinaries, in tearing up the cones of firs and pines for the and is represented with four equal arms, and con sake of the seeds. Bringing the two points sidered to occupy one-fifth of the field if not together, the cross bill inserts its beak into the charged, and one-third if charged. Argent, a cone, then opens it with a strong lateral move. cross gules, is the cross of St George. Like ment, and with its scoop-like tongue detaches and

crosses were em







captures the seed from the loosened cone. In a charged balls of clay, marble, or lead with such similar way, the crossbill can soon tear an ordinary force that they were more formidable weapons than cage to bits; or, which is more important, may the earliest firearms. The larger crossbows were rapidly do great damage by cutting up the apples really military engines, which required several

in an orchard. men to work them, and threw proportionally
It is interest- heavy missiles (see BALLISTA). The cross bow was
ing to compare used in England chiefly during the 13th century;
two common after that it gave place to the longbow, which
species, L. was found to be the more convenient and easily
pityopsitta. handled weapon of the two. Its use, bowever,
cus and L. cur. was general among the continental nations of
virostra, since Europe after the 12th century; though the Lateran
in the former Council of 1139 forbade its use as being too murder-
the crossing of ous a weapon for Christians to employ against one
the bill is seen another.
in a much less

Cross-breeding. See BREED.
emphasised de
gree. The last.

Cross-buns, a small cake specially prepared named species

for Good-Friday, and in many towns of England is of frequent,

cried about the streets on the morning of that day Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). though incon

as 'hot cross-buns.' Bun is, according to Skeat, stant occur

ultimately of Scandinavian origin. There is an rence in Britain, and two other species have been

Old Fr. word bugne, 'a swelling,' which may be recorded as visitors. Altogether, seven species are

the immediate source of the English word. Good. known, from the northern regions of both hemi. Friday buns were appropriately marked with the spheres, and always found gregariously in conifer cross, and hence the name. The origin of the förests. The crossbill has become associated with a

practice is obscure. Most probably it is a relic sacred legend, familiar to many from Longfellow's of some heathen observance, to which the early translation of a German poem on the subject. The church gave a Christian significance. At Chelsea, bird was fabled to have sought, by pecking at the there were formerly two celebrated bun-houses, nails, to free Christ from the cross.

besieged on Good-Friday from morning until night Crossbow, or ARBALEST, a weapon used in by hundreds of eager purchasers, but they have war and sport in medieval times. It consisted

long since disappeared. of a wooden stock, with a bow made of wood,

Crosse, ANDREW, electrician, born at Fyne iron, or steel, crossing it at right angles to Court, Somersetshire, 17th June 1784, was eduthe end ; the bowstring was pulled down towards cated at Bristol and at Brasenose College, Oxford. the other end of the stock by a lever (which His principal researches in science were as to the

in the simpler artificial formation of minerals by processes of kinds was

electrical deposition and the application of elec. worked by tricity as a means of improving wines, cider, &c. hand or foot),

In 1837 he announced that under certain circum. and retained stances, organisms (of the genus Acarus) appeared iu position in solutions of inorganic substances; a discovery sometimes in which attracted much attention, but which exa notch by a posed him to the ridicule of opponents. He died catch or trig.

6th July 1855. See Memoir (1857) by his second ger. The bolt wife; and her Red Letter Days of my Life (1893). or 'quarrel' Cross-examination. See EVIDENCE. was then laid in a groove on

Crossley, SIR FRANCIS, manufacturer and the top of the 1817. His father was the founder of the Dean

philanthropist, was born at Halifax, October 26, stock, and the

Clough Carpet Mills. Sir Francis encouraged the trigger being inventor George Collier to produce a greatly im. pulled, it was proved carpet-loom; the mills increased till 6000 shot with

hands were employed; while carpets were much considerable

cheapened in price, and their use greatly extended a mount of at home and abroad. Amongst Sir Francis's bene. power. The fatter,

factions to Halifax were a public park (1857) of

at a cost of £40,000, almshouses, and orphan course, de homes, besides large donations to the London pended on the size of the A baronetcy was conferred on him in 1863, and

Missionary Society and to the Congregationalists. A, Hand Crossbow; B, Rolling-purchase the weapons

bow, some of from 1852 till his death on 5th Jan. 1872 be repreCrossbow.

sented Halifax and the West Riding as a Liberal. being compa ratively

Crossraguel (“Cross of St Regulus '), a ruined small and easily handled, while others were of large abbey in Ayrshire, 2 miles SW. of May bole. It dimensions, and required a machine of the nature of was a Clugniac foundation, a daughter of the a windlass, called a moulinet' or 'gaffle,' to enable Paisley abbey, and dates from 1244. A notable the bow to be properly bent. The crossbows of the

disputation' took place in 1562 between John 14th century were almost all thus equipped. The Knox and the abbot, Quentin Kennedy; and in

quarrels' employed varied with the size of the 1570 the commendator was 'roasted' or severely bow, but generally they were short stout shafts tortured by fire by the Earl of Cassilis, to force about 18 inches long, winged with horn or leather, him to resign certain lands. The charters of the and having a metal point, which was sometimes abbey have been edited by F. C. Hunter Blair sharp, but often lozenge-shaped, obtuse, and in- (2 vols. 1886). dented at the sides. Some cross bows had a tube Crotalaria (Gr. krotalon, 'a rattle'), a tropical or barrel, with a slit for the bowstring, and dis. genus of papilionaceous Leguminosa, deriving its






name from the inflated pods in which the seeds delightfully fragrant, containing in great abund. rattle when ripe. The species are annual, perennial, ance a thickish balsamic sap. The sap of C. and shrubby plants, some of which yield valu- gratissimus is employed as a perfume and cosmetic able fibre, particularly C. juncea, the Sunn, or Hemp at the Cape of Good Hope; that of C. origanifolium Sana, or Janupa Hemp of India, an annual species. is used in the West Indies as a substitute for The perennial c. tenuifolia (Jubbulpore Hemp) is Balsam of Copaiva ; that of C. balsamiferum, also grown in Southern India, and other species or West Indian, furnishes Eau de Mantes by distillavarieties are in cultivation. Several species are tion; and the balsamic sap of some South American North American.

species is dried and used as incense. The C. Draco Crota'lidæ. See RATTLESNAKE.

and other species yield a blood-red juice, which, Crotch, WILLIAM, composer, was born at Nor- and is possessed of astringent properties.

when dried, forms the finest kind of dragon's-blood, wich in 1775. His musical genius was quite as precocious as that of the great Mozart.

CROTON-Oil is the oil expressed from the seeds

When fittle more than two years old he could play God liquid, with an acrid taste, a somewhat rancid

of the C. Tiglium, and is a sherry-coloured, viscid save the King with chords, and in 1779 he was performing in London as a musical prodigy. When smell, and a fluorescent appearance. It contains

a number of oily bodies, none of which have as only. twenty-two he was appointed professor of Music in Oxford University, and in 1822 he ob. yet been definitely shown to be the cause of its

Croton-oil tained the principalship of the Royal Academy of purgative and vesicating properties. Music. Crotch composed a large number of pieces being sufficient to remove constipation. When

is a violent purgative, in most cases a single drop for the organ and piano, two oratorios, ten anthems, rubbed upon the skin it produces rubefaction and &c. ; and he was author of Elements of Musical pustular eruption,

and thereby tends to relieve

some Composition (1812) and Styles of Music of all affections of the internal organs. It is used either Ages (1807-18). He died at Taunton, December by itself in the unmixed state, or diluted with olive. 29, 1847.

oil, soap liniment, alcohol, &c. It is not to be Crotchet. See MUSIC.

employed except under the advice of a doctor. Croton, a genus of plants of the natural order Euphorbiacere, with numerous species, which are owed its origin to a colony of Achæans, as far back

Crotona, a city of Lucania in ancient Italy, mostly tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, a as 710 B.C. It soon became one of the most prosper. few herbaceous. The most important is the ous, wealthy, and powerful cities of Magna Græcia Purging Croton (C. Tiglium), a small tree, a native Its walls measured 12 miles in circumference, and

the territory over which it extended its sway was considerable. Its inbabitants were celebrated for athletic exercises, and they carried off most of the prizes at the Olympic games. Pythagoras settled here about the middle of the 6th century B.C., and became a very important member of the body politic (see PYTHAGORAS). About 510 B.C. Crotona sent forth an army of above 100,000 men, under Milo, its most renowned athlete, to fight the Sybarites; the latter, though three times as numerous, were utterly defeated, and their city destroyed. The war with Pyrrhus completely ruined the import. ance of Crotona, and in the 2d century B.C. it had sunk so low that a colony of Romans had to be sent to recruit its well-nigh exhausted population. It never afterwards recovered its prosperity. Some ruins belonging to the old exist in the vicinity of the modern city (called Cotrone, q.v.); and very fine Greek coins have been found. Cortona (q.v.) was also anciently called Crotona.

Croton River. See AQUEDUCT.

Crotophaga (Gr., 'tick-eater'), a genus of birds

in the cuckoo family and order Coccygomorphæ. Croton.

They are also known by the names Ani and Reel

bird, the former referring to the cry, the latter to of India and the more easterly tropical parts of the blade-like ridge on the compressed arched beak. Asia. The leaves are extremely acrid ; the wood The best known of the three species (C. ani)frequents in a fresh state is a drastic, and in a dried state, a

South America to the east of the Andes, and is more mild purgative; and the seeds (Croton Seeds, often called the Savanna Blackbird. They are disor Tilly Seeds) are a very powerful drastic pur: tinguished from other cuckoo-like birds by the tail, gative, formerly much employed in Europe, but which has only eight steering feathers. The beak latterly disused on account of violence and uncer

is as long as the head, and the keel is said to be tainty of action, although still valuable as yield. used in unearthing their insect prey ; the wings are ing croton-oil. They are oval or oval-oblong, long and pointed; the tail is long, broad, and about the size of field-beans. So great is their rounded. They are social birds, and several acridity, that dangerous effects have ensued from females lay their eggs in a common nest. They working for some hours with packages of them. are fond of keeping about herds of horses and The oil is obtained mostly by expression, and partly cattle for the sake of the insect larvæ which they by treating the cake with alcohol. The wood and find on their skin. In this connection they are seeds of C. Pavanæ are employed in some parts of obviously of some importance. the East in the same way as those of C. Tiglium. Croup, a term used in Scotland from an early Other species possess similar properties. Very period to describe a certain train of laryngeal sympdifferent are the properties of the species which toms, was first applied by Dr Francis Home, in yield Cascarilla (q.v.) and Copalchi (q.v.) barks. 1765, to an acute inflammatory and non-contagious Other species are still more aromatic, and some affection of the Larynx (q.v.), in which there is the





corn, &c.

formation of a false membrane or fibrinous deposit bluish sheen; the upper portion of the bill is bent on the mucous surface of the windpipe. The in- over the lower ; the wings reach the point of the vasion of the disease resembles that of siinple tail. It is a hungry bird, devouring inter alia field. Catarrh (q.v.), and may be very insidious. The nice and small birds; it is not unfrequently tamed, child is languid, feverish, and thirsty, and a dry, and can be readily taught to ejaculate and play shrill cough is gradually developed, but these tricks. See RAVEN. symptoms sooner or later give way to those of the (2) The Rook (C. frugilegus) is a commoner second stage. Here the respiration becomes diffi- smaller species of gregarious habit. There is the cult, the drawing of each breath having a hissing same metallic shimmer, the wings again reach the and croupy' sound; the voice is almost inaudible tail, but the upper bill is not elongated over the or greatly modified, and accompanied by a harsh, lower. The face becomes curiously bare during brassy, or may be stifled cough; the face is red and the first winter, and so remains. It is of use in swollen, and covered with sweat; and the nostrils destroying injurious insects, but its omnivorous are rapidly working. If the little patient is not appetite includes eggs, young birds, fish, walnuts, relieved by coughing, or vomiting up some mem

See Rook. The accompanying figure braneous shreds and glairy mucus, a state of greater dyspnea ensues; the lips become livid and the nails blue; the fever is higher, the pulse quicker but weaker; and the child's efforts to relieve the increasing obstruction to the breathing are most distressing to witness. A period of extreme restlessness and suffering is (unless relieved by imme. diate treatment-see below) soon followed by death from increasing coma, syncope, or exhaustion.

Croup seems to be caused by a damp atmosphere of low temperature, and is got in exposed situations. It is most frequently met with between the years of two and ten, although all ages and classes are liable to suffer from it. It is commoner in boys than girls. Croup requires to be distinguished

B from simple catarrh of the windpipe; from so-called false croup, a spasmodic affection of the larynxthe Laryngismus Stridulus of Dr Mason Good"; and from Diphtheria (q.v.), an infectious disease in which a false membrane is usually found on the pharynx or palate, as well as in the larynx. As shows the heads of the raven, A, and the rook, B, croup is an acute and very fatal disease, the treat- and illustrates well the prevalent characters of the ment requires to be active and decided. If the bill in this genus. It shows also in the raven the case is seen early, apply an ice-bag to the throat | bristles which, as in most of the species, surround and give ice to suck, but if you suspect the pres. its base, but which are wanting in the rook. ence of false membrane, give a full dose of an Noteworthy, too, is the greater strength of neck, emetic, such as ipecacuanha, sulphate of copper, head, and bill of the more carnivorous as compared or sulphate of zinc, which should be repeated in with the more frugivorous species. three or four hours if necessary and effectual in (3) The Hooded Crow (C. cornix) derives its name relieving the breathing. The child should at in- from the fact that while the general colour is ashen tervals be placed in the hot bath, and inhalations gray, the head is black. The under throat, the of steam or medicated vapours administered. An wings, and the tail are also, however, black. inhalation of lactic acid is often of great use in the Like the next species, the looded crow is fond of first stage. If these means fail, Tracheotomy (9.v.) carrion, and both are often shot by gamekeepers must be at once resorted to, to save the life of the on account of the damage they do to young patient, as recommended by Trousseau.

game-birds, &c. Crow (Corvus), a genus of Passerine birds, and (4) The Carrion Crow (C. corone, or Corone type of a family Corvida, which also includes Mag. hiemalis), which is of the same size as the rook, pies (Pica), Nutcrackers (Nucifraga), Jays (Garru- has black plumage, with a steel-blue shimmer on lus), Choughs (Fregilus), and other genera. The back and head, and wings which do not reach the crow family is included in that division of Passeres tip of the tail. The bases of the feathers are gray known as Acromyodi, from peculiarities in the in the rook, white in the carrion crow. It is useful vocal organs, and its members share the following in destroying mice and insects. It is said to inter. characters: the bill is moderately long, strong and breed with the preceding species. The name is thick ; bristles at the base cover the nostrils; the given in America to a Vulture (q.v.). In some wings are of medium size and rounded ; the tail is parts of Scotland the carrion crow is called the not prominent; the feet are strong. On the whole Hoody. There is considerable dispute as to the they outdo the other Passeres in size and strength, specific dignity of some of the crows. A few other and are represented by towards two hundred forms in addition to the above four may be noticed. species.

The crow of North America (C. americanus) is very Keeping first to the crow genus proper (Corvus), similar to the carrion crow, but rather smaller, we need give little description of the general and, after the breeding season is over, covgregates characters of these familiar birds. The long black into great flocks; it is also partially migratory, bill, the large gape, the tail all but covered by the great numbers from the more northerly parts mov. wings, the black feet, &c. are well-known charac. ing to the south on the approach of winter. Its teristics. The genus is distributed in most parts of habits are otherwise intermediate between those of the world except South America and New Zealand. the carrion crow and the rook.– The Fish Crow They are essentially tree birds, and almost always (C. ossifragus) frequents the coasts and southern luild their nests there. In diet they are pre rivers of the United States, feeding chiefly on dominantly vegetarian. It is important to dis fish, which it catches with great dexterity. It tinguish the four British species of crow. (1) The also sometimes assails gulls, and compels them Haven (Corrus corax) is a well-known species in to disgorge their prey. – The Jabbering Crow Europe and North Asia. Its black plumage has a (C. jumaicensis) of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica

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