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CROTALIDÆ

CROUP

name from the inflated pods in which the seeds delightfully fragrant, containing in great abund. rattle when ripe. The species are annual, perennial, ance a thickish balsamic sap. The sap of C. and shrubby plants, some of which yield valu gratissimus is employed as a perfume and cosmetic able fibre, particularly C. juncea, the Sunn, or Hemp at the Cape of Good Hope; that of C. origanifolium Sana, or Janupa Hemp of India, an annual species. is used in the West Indies as a substitute for The perennial C, tenuifolia (Jubbulpore Hemp) is Balsam of Copaiva ; that of C. balsamiferum, also grown in Southern India, and other species or West Indian, furnishes Eau de Mantes by distillavarieties are in cultivation. Several species are tion; and the balsamic sap of some South American North American.

species is dried and used as incense. The C. Draco Crota'lidæ. See RATTLESNAKE.

and other species yield a blood-red juice, which,

when dried, forms the finest kind of dragon's-blood, Crotch, WILLIAM, composer, was born at Norwich in 1775.

and is possessed of astringent properties. His musical genius was quite as

CROTON-OIL is the oil expressed from the seeds precocious as that of the great Mozart. When of the C. Tialium, and is a sherry-coloured, viscid little more than two years old he could play God

liquid, with an acrid taste, a somewhat rancid save the King with chords, and in 1779 he was

smell, and a fluorescent appearance. It contains performing in London as a musical prodigy. When

a number of oily bodies, none of which have as only twenty-two he was appointed professor of

yet been definitely shown to be the cause of its Music in Oxford University, and in 1822 he obtained the principalship of the Royal Academy of

purgative and vesicating properties. Croton-oil Music Crotch composed a large number of pieces

is a violent purgative, in most cases a single drop

being sufficient to remove constipation. When for the organ and piano, two oratorios, ten anthems,

rubbed upon the skin it produces rubefaction and &c. ; and he was author of Elements of Musical

pustular eruption, and thereby tends to relieve some Composition (1812) and Styles of Music of all Ages (1807-18). He died at Taunton, December

affections of the internal organs. It is used either

by itself in the unmixed state, or diluted with olive. 29, 1847.

oil, soap liniment, alcohol, &c. It is not to be Crotchet. See Music.

employed except under the advice of a doctor. Croton, a genus of plants of the natural order Crotona, a city of Lucania in ancient Italy, Euphorbiacea, with numerous species, which are owed its origin to a colony of Achæans, as far back mostly tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, a as 710 B.C. It soon became one of the most prosper. few herbaceous. The most important is the ous, wealthy, and powerful cities of Magna Græcia. Purging Croton (C. Tiglium), a small tree, a native Its walls measured 12 miles in circumference, and

the territory over which it extended its sway was considerable. Its inhabitants were celebrated for athletic exercises, and they carried off most of the prizes at the Olympic games. Pythagoras settled here about the middle of the 6th century B.C., and became a very important member of the body politic (see PYTHAGORAS). About 510 B.C. Crotona sent forth an army of above 100,000 men, under Milo, its most renowned athlete, to fight the Sybarites; the latter, though three times as numerous, were utterly defeated, and their city destroyed. The war with Pyrrhus completely ruined the importance of Crotona, and in the 2d century B.c. it had sunk so low that a colony of Romans had to be sent to recruit its well-nigh exhausted population. It never afterwards recovered its prosperity. Some ruins belonging to the old exist in the vicinity of the modern city (called Cotrone, q.v.); and very fine Greek coins have been found. Cortona (9.v.) was also anciently called Crotona.

Croton River. See AQUEDUCT.

Crotophaga (Gr., 'tick-eater'), a genus of birds

in the cuckoo family and order Coccygomorphæ. Croton.

They are also known by the names Ani and Reel

bird, the former referring to the cry, the latter to of India and the more easterly tropical parts of the blade-like ridge on the compressed arched beak. Asia. The leaves are extremely acrid : the wood The best known of the three species (C. ani) frequents in a fresh state is a drastic, and in a dried state. a South America to the east of the Andes, and is more mild purgative; and the seeds ( Croton Seeds. often called the Savanna Blackbird. They are dis. or Tilly Seeds) are a very powerful drastic pur.

tinguished from other cuckoo-like birds by the tail, gative, formerly much employed in Europe, but which has only eight steering feathers. The beak latterly disused on account of violence and uncer is as long as the head, and the keel is said to be tainty of action, although still valuable as yield.

used in unearthing their insect prey ; the wings are ing croton-oil. They are oval or oval-oblong, long and pointed; the tail is long, broad, and about the size of field-beans. So great is their

rounded. They are social birds, and several acridity, that dangerous effects have ensued from females lay their eggs in a common nest. They working for some hours with packages of them.

are fond of keeping about herds of horses and The oil is obtained mostly by expression, and partly cattle for the sake of the insect larvæ which they by treating the cake with alcohol. The wood and find on their skin. In this connection they are seeds of C. Pavanæ are employed in some parts of obviously of some importance. the East in the same way as 'those of C. Tiglium. Croup, a term used in Scotland from an early Other species possess similar properties. Very period to describe a certain train of laryngeal synirdifferent are the properties of the species which toms, was first applied by Dr Francis Home, in yield Cascarilla (q.v.) and Copalchi (q.v.) barks. 1765, to an acute inflammatory and non-contagious Other species are still more aromatic, and some affection of the Larynx (q.v.), in which there is the

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CROUP

CROW

587

formation of a false membrane or fibrinous deposit bluish sheen; the upper portion of the bill is bent on the mucous surface of the windpipe. The in- over the lower ; the wings reach the point of the vasion of the disease resembles that of simple tail. It is a húngry bird, devouring inter alia fieldCatarrh (q.v.), and may be very insidious. The mice and small birds ; it is not unfrequently tamed, child is languid, feverish, and thirsty, and a dry, and can be readily taught to ejaculate and play shrill cough is gradually developed, but these tricks. See RAVEN. symptoms sooner or later give way to those of the (2) The Rook (C. frugilegus) is a commoner second stage. Here the respiration becomes diffi- smaller species of gregarious habit. There is the cult, the drawing of each breath having a hissing same metallic shimmer, the wings again reach the and 'croupy'sound; the voice is almost inaudible tail, but the upper bill is not elongated over the or greatly modified, and accompanied by a harsh, lower. The face becomes curiously bare during brassy, or may be stified cough; the face is red and the first winter, and so remains. It is of use in swollen, and covered with sweat; and the nostrils destroying injurious insects, but its omnivorous are rapidly working. If the little patient is not appetite includes eggs, young birds, fish, walnuts, relieved by coughing or vomiting up some mem. corn, &c. See Rook. The accompanying figure braneous shreds and glairy mucus, a state of greater dyspnca ensues; the lips become livid and the nails blue; the fever is higher, the pulse quicker but weaker; and the child's efforts to relieve the increasing obstruction to the breathing are most distressing to witness. A period of extreme restlessness and suffering is (unless relieved by immediate treatment-see below) soon followed by death from increasing coma, syncope, or exhaustion.

Croup seems to be caused by a damp atmosphere of low temperature, and is got in exposed situations. It is most frequently met with between the years of two and ten, although all ages and classes are liable to suffer from it. It is commoner in boys than girls. Croup requires to be distinguished from simple catarrh of the windpipe; from so-called false croup, a spasmodic affection of the larynxthe Laryngismus Stridulus of Dr Mason Good; and from Diphtheria (9.v.), an infectious disease in which a false membrane is usually found on the pharynx or palate, as well as in the larynx. As shows the heads of the raven, A, and the rook, B, croup is an acute and very fatal disease, the treat and illustrates well the prevalent characters of the ment requires to be active and decided. If the bill in this genus. It shows also in the raven the case is seen early, apply an ice-bag to the throat | bristles which, as in most of the species, surround and give ice to suck, but if you suspect the pres. | its base, but which are wanting in the rook. ence of false membrane, give a full dose of an Noteworthy, too, is the greater strength of neck, emetic, such as ipecacuanha, sulphate of copper, head, and bill of the more carnivorous as compared or sulphate of zinc, which should be repeated in

with the more frugivorous species. three or four hours if necessary and effectual in (3) The Hooded Crow (C. cornix) derives its name relieving the breathing. The child should at in. from the fact that while the general colour is ashen tervals be placed in the hot bath, and inhalations gray, the head is black. The under throat, the of steam or medicated vapours administered. An wings, and the tail are also, however, black. inhalation of lactic acid is often of great use in the Like the next species, the hooded crow is fond of first stage. If these means fail, Tracheotomy (9.v.) carrion, and both are often shot by gamekeepers must be at once resorted to, to save the life of the

on account of the damage they do to young patient, as recommended by Trousseau.

game-birds, &c. Crow (Corvus), a genus of Passerine birds, and (4) The Carrion Crow (C. corone, or Corone type of a family Corvida, which also includes Mag. hiemalis), which is of the same size as the rook, pies (Pica), Nutcrackers (Nucifraga), Jays (Garru- has black plumage, with a steel-blue shimmer on lus), Choughs (Fregilus), and other genera. The | back and head, and wings which do not reach the crow family is included in that division of Passeres tip of the tail. The bases of the feathers are gray known as Acromyodi, from peculiarities in the in the rook, white in the carrion crow. It is useful vocal organs, and its members share the following in destroying mice and insects. It is said to intercharacters : the bill is moderately long, strong and breed with the preceding species. The name is thick ; bristles at the base cover the nostrils; the given in America to a Vulture (4.v.). In some wings are of medium size and rounded; the tail is parts of Scotland the carrion crow is called the not prominent; the feet are strong. On the whole Hoody. There is considerable dispute as to the they outdo the other Passeres in size and strength, specific dignity of some of the crows. A few other and are represented by towards two hundred forms in addition to the above four may be noticed. species.

The crow of North America (C. americanus) is very Keeping first to the crow genus proper (Corvus), similar to the carrion crow, but rather smaller, we need give little description of the general and, after the breeding season is over, congregates characters of these familiar birds. The long black into great flocks ; it is also partially migratory, bill, the large gape, the tail all but covered by the great numbers from the more northerly parts mov. wings, the black feet, &c. are well-known charac- | ing to the south on the approach of winter. Its teristics. The genus is distributed in most parts of habits are otherwise intermediate between those of the world except South America and New Zealand. the carrion crow and the rook.—The Fish Crow They are essentially tree birds, and almost always (C. ossifragus) frequents the coasts and southern build their nests there. In diet they are pre- rivers of the United States, feeding chiefly on dominantly vegetarian. It is important to dis. fish, which it catches with great dexterity. It tinguish the four British species of crow. (1) The also sometimes assails gulls, and compels them Raven (Corrus corax) is a well-known species in to disgorge their prey. - The Jabbering Crow Europe and North Asia. Its black plumage has a(C. jamaicensis) of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica 588

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CROWBERRY

CROWN

is remarkable for the resemblance of its voice to Crowe, JOSEPH ARCHER, C.B., art-writer, born human speech. Sir J. E. Tennent gives an inter- in London in 1825, studied and travelled widely esting account of the small glossy gray-necked on the Continent, where in 1847 he met Caval. crow of Ceylon (C. splendens), which frequents the caselle; their joint works will be found in the towns, feeding on offal, and boldly enters rooms article CAVALCASELLE. Crowe was a special correthrough open windows, to snatch some morsel from spondent in the Crimean war, the Indian mutiny, the dinner-table. See also CHOUGH, JACKDAW, and the Franco-Austrian war; and in 1857-59 was JAY, MAGPIE.

director of the School of Art at Bombay. In 1860 Crowberry, or CRAKEBERRY (Empetrum nig

he was appointed British consul-general at Leipzig, rum), a small procumbent shrub, with characteristi

and afterwards at Düsseldorf; in 1882 he was named cally inrolled leaf-margins, of the order Empetra

commercial attaché at Paris. Made a C.B. in 1885, cea, a native of the colder northern parts of the

lie was raised to the dignity of K.C.M.G. in 1890. world, abundant in the moors of Scotland and the He contributed the article RAPHAEL to this work. north of England, and common throughout Canada, He died 6th September 1896. See liis Reminiscences Alaska, and Siberia. The order consists of a few | (1895), mainly of his career as journalist. heath-like shrubs, which, however, are usually Crowfoot. See RANUNCULUS. associated with Euphorbiacea (Spurges, &c.), with

Crow Indians, some 4000 in number, of the small trimerous unisexual flowers, the fruit a small

Dakota stock, live on reservations in Montana.

Crowland, or CROYLAND, an ancient markettown in the south of Lincolnshire, on the Welland, in the Fens, 10 miles NNE. of Peterborough. Here in 716 King Ethelwald founded a monastery in honour of the hermit St Guthlac, which, burned by the Danes in 870, and again destroyed by fire in 1091, was restored in 1113, and thereafter became a mitred Benedictine abbey of singular magnifi. cence. The north aisle of its church now serves as the parish church, and part of the west front also remains. Ingulph (q.v.) was abbot of Croyland. Pop. of parish, 2929. See G. Perry's Croyland Abbey (1867). The Triangular Bridge' is described in our article BRIDGE, Vol. II. p. 436.

Crown (Lat. corona). The crown of classical times was a circular ornament of metal, leaves, or flowers, worn on festive and solemn occasions, and as a reward of worth, talent, and military or naval prowess. Among the Greeks the crown (stephanos) was sometimes used as an emblem of office, as in the case of the archons ; sometimes as an ornament for the heads of the victors in the public games; and sometimes as a mark of distinction for citizens who had merited well of their country. The Romans

made great use of crowns as rewards for valour. Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum):

The most highly prized was the corona obsidionalis, a, flowering branch; b, flowers enlarged; c, fruit.

which was bestowed by a beleaguered garrison or army on the general who rescued them. It was

made of grass or wild-flowers, gathered from the berry seated in the persistent calyx. The berries place which had been beset by the enemy. Next of the crowberry are nearly black, surround the

| in order was the corona civica, a garland of oak branches in crowded clusters, and each contain six leaves and acorns, which was given as a reward to to nine bony seeds and a watery acidulous juice. any soldier who had saved the life of a Roman A fermented liquor is prepared from them in some citizen in battle; the corona navalis, a gold circle northern countries. They are a favourite food of decorated with beaks of ships, was the reward for game. E. rubrum of Cape Horn differs little, naval services; the corona muralis, a similar circle except in having red berries. The berries of the surrounded with battlements, was bestowed on him Camarinheira (Corema alba) are employed in who first scaled the walls of a besieged city; and Portugal for the preparation of an acidulous drink the corona vallaris, a circle ornamented with pali. in fevers. The plants of this order, especially E.

sades, on the first soldier who forced his way into nigrum, have taken considerable part in the forma the enemy's camp. There was also the corona ion of peat.

triumphalis, bestowed upon a general when he Crowe, MRS CATHERINE (née Stevens), obtained a triumph. authoress, was born at Borough Green, in Kent, Other crowns were emblematical, such as the in 1800. In 1822 she married Lieutenant-colonel sacerdotal, funeral, convivial (of roses, violets, Crowe, and spent great part of her after-life in myrtle, ivy, and even parsley), and nuptial crowns. Edinburgh. She died in 1876. Her mind was The custom of wearing bridal wreaths or even morbid and despondent, ever hovering on the bridal crowns of metal is not unknown in modern border-line of insanity, which it crossed once in Europe as in Germany and Norway and medieval one violent but brief attack. Her translation of | England; and the bridal wreaths of young Kerner's Secress of Prevorst (1845) prepared the way brides are still suspended in some Derbyshire for her well-known Night Side of Nature (1848), a churches. (1) Corona sacerdotalis, worn by the great collection of supernatural stories, told, in- priests and bystanders when engaged in sacrifice. deed, with vigour and verisimilitude, but hopelessly (2) Corona funebris or sepulchralis, with which credulous and uncritical. She wrote also tragedies, the dead was crowned, a custom which prevailed juvenile books, and novels ; of the last, the best, both among the Greeks and Romans. In Greece, Susan Hopley (1841) and Lilly Dauson (1847). these crowns were commonly of parsley. (3) Her Spiritualism and the Age we live in (1859) Corona convivialis, worn by guests on festive occahas no value, save as autobiography.

sions.

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As the emblem of sovereignty in modern Europe, The crown of Scotland, long lost sight of, was the crown was borrowed less from the crowns of in 1818 discovered, along with the other Regalia antiquity than from the diadem, a fillet of silk, (q.v.), in a chest in Edinburgh Castle. Its gold linen, or woollen. This decoration was originally circle, richly jewelled and enamelled, is heightened oriental. Alexander the Great adopted it from with ten feurs-de-lis, alternating with as many the kings of Persia ; and Antony assumed it crosses fleury, each adorned in the centre with a great during his luxurious intercourse with Cleopatra. diamond between four large pearls put crossways. In modern states, crowns have been of various Four gold arches, added in the reign of James IV., forms, and undergone various changes. The royal close under a mound, on which rests a large cross crown of England in the 12th and 13th centuries patée, with four pearls at the extremities, and as was a jewelled circlet of gold, heightened with many in the angles. Excepting the arches, the strawberry-leaves or trefoils, sometimes alternately crown is probably of the date of Robert Bruce. large and small. In the very costly and magnifi. In the crown of the kings of France the circle cent crown of Henry IV., the strawberry-leaves, was heightened with fleurs-de-lis; and from the eight in number, alternated with as many fleurs. | time of Francis I. it was closed with eight arches, de-lis, the whole alternating with sixteen small groups of pearls. The same crown was worn by Henry V. in the beginning of his reign, but on undertaking his French campaign he ordered it to be broken up, and the fragments distributed as security for the loan required by him to carry on the war. The crown that succeeded it was prob. ably an arched one ; for although no arched crown appears on the Great Seal of any monarch before

*8220 Edward IV., the arched as well as the unarched form of crown is found occasionally in sculptures and illuminations of the reigns of Henry V. and

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. Henry VI. The crown of Edward IV. (which was probably also worn by Henry V. and Henry VI.) from whose intersection arose a fleur-de-lis. The differs from previous crowns in being arched over crown of the former German emperors, now of the with jewelled bands of gold, closing under a mound | Austrian emperors, is cleft in the centre, so as ensigned by a cross patée, while crosses patée are to present an appearance suggestive of a mitre. substituted for the strawberry-leaves, and roses or The adoption of this crown by Charles V. seems to fleurs-de-lis for the clusters of pearls. During have resulted from the kings of France having, in succeeding reigns down to that of Charles II., the emulation of the emperors, assumed a close crown. crown underwent various minor changes of form. The iron crown of the ancient Longobardic kings

There were sometimes three (fig. 4)—restored to the king of Italy by the Emperor
complete arches, sometimes of Austria in 1866—is alleged to have been bestowed
two as at present, and these by Pope Gregory the Great on Queen Theodolinda,
were at first very acute, after and with it Henry of
wards more and more de. | Luxemburg and suc.
pressed; but the crown of ceeding emperors were
the first Stuarts (weighing crowned. It is a gold
7 lb. 6 oz., and worth £1110) circle with enamelled
was broken up in 1649. From flowers and jewels, within
the reign of Charles II. till which is a thin fillet of

that of William IV., the same iron, which has been
Fig. 1.

actual crown was used, its asserted to have been

form being what is still hammered from a nail asually known in this country as the imperial of the true cross. The crown, and represented in fig. 1. It has four crown of the new German crosses patée and four fleurs-de-lis set alternately empire is shown in fig. 5.

on the circlet, while two The crown with which
complete pearl-studded the king of Roumania

Fig. 5.
arches rising from within was crowned in 1881 was
the crosses patée carry made of bronze from the cannon captured in the
at their intersection the Plevna redoubts.
mound and cross. A new The crown of an English King-at-arms is of silver
state crown was made for gilt, with sixteen oak-leaves, each alternate leaf
the coronation of Queen higher than the
Victoria, differing some others. Since
what from the imperial 1727 that of the
crown. Its arches rise Scottish Lyon
almost perpendicularly. King-at-arms is
are elevated rather than similar in form.
depressed at their inter- Crowns fre-
section, and assume the quently occur as

form of wreaths of rose, heraldic bearFig. 2.

thistle, and shanırock, ings ; of these

formed of brilliants; and there are three the crown itself is covered with diamonds and of the classical studded with costly gems (fig. 2). In official repre. crowns noticed

Fig. 6. d sentations of the royal arms, they are ensigned by in this articlethe imperial crown, but a graceful modification of viz. the crowns mural, a (fig. 6), naval, b, and that crown is sometimes made use of instead of it vallary, c, also the eastern or antique crown, d, a with Her Majesty's sanction (fig. 3). For the circle with high points rising from it, and the coronets of the members of the royal family and of celestial crown, differing from the last in having a the nobility generally, see CORONET.

| star on each point.

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590

CROWN

CROYDON

THE CROWN is a term often employed to signify in 1703 voiding all grants or leases from the crown the state and the matters under control of the of royal manors, or other possessions connected executive anthority. Thus, in the interests of the with land, for a period exceeding thirty-one years. state there are crown-ministers, crown-lawyers, At a much earlier period (1455, chap. 41) a Scottish crown-officers, crown-lands, &c.-the term, in no statute had rendered the consent of parliament instance, having any special connection with the necessary to the alienation of the property of the sovereign personally. In Scotland, certain high crown, but the policy adopted of extensive subincrimes are technically called Pleas of the Crown. | feudation to encourage agriculture had the effect of These are four in number-murder, robbery, rape, greatly diminishing the relative value of crown. and wilful fire-raising-and fall within the jurisdic lands not actually given away; and in Scotland tion of the High Court of Justiciary. Likewise, in they now consist mainly of a few castles, palaces, Scotland, there is a functionary styled crown-agent. and feu-duties. The superintendence of such proHe is a practising law-agent or solicitor, who, perty as still belongs to the crown is now vested under the Lord Advocate and his deputes, takes in commissioners appointed for the purpose, called charge of criminal proceedings. His duty is to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, and Land receive from the procurators-fiscal of the different Revenues. See WoodS AND FORESTS. In some counties the precognitions which they have taken, British colonies unallotted ground is nominally and to lay these precognitions before the lawyers crown-land. Thus the sale and settlement of land for the crown, that they may determine whether in New South Wales was regulated by the Crown there is ground sufficient to call for a prosecution. Lands Act of 1884. He also expedes indictments and criminal letters,

Crown, in Architecture, a species of spire or and otherwise discharges the duties of an agent in

lantern, formed by converging flying-buttresses. preparing and assisting in the conduct of trials

Familiar examples in Scotland are the crowns of before the High Court of Justiciary. The appoint.

St Giles's, Edinburgh, and King's College, Aberment of the crown-agent is with the Lord Advocate,

deen; south of the Tweed the only old crown is and ceases with the administration,

that of St Nicholas's Cathedral at Newcastle. CROWN CASES RESERVED, COURT FOR. See APPEAL.

Crown Imperial. See FRITILLARY. CROWN-SOLICITOR, the solicitor to the Treasury, Crown Pieces of silver, of the value of five who, in state prosecutions in England, acts as shillings, were introduced into the English coinage solicitor for the crown in preparing the prosecution. by Henry VIII. They have a standard weight of In Ireland there are crown-solicitors attached to 436.56 grains. None were coined from 1861 till each circuit, whose duties correspond in some 1887, but since then they have again been struck. degree to those of the Procurators-fiscal (g.v.) and The name crown is also used as the translation crown-agent in Scotland. In England there are of the French écu, which varied in value from 6 no analogous officers, and prosecutions are conse. | francs (or livres) to 3 francs. quently conducted by solicitors appointed either Crown Point, a post-village of New York, by the parish, or by private parties bound over by on Lake Champlain, near the site of a British fort the magistrates to prosecute. But in cases of great of the same name surprised and captured by Colonel importance to the public, such as unusual or mon. Ethan Allen in 1775. strous crimes, it is of frequent occurrence that the

Crown-work, in Fortification, is an outwork Solicitor to the Treasury takes charge of the case consisting of two Bastion (q.v.) fronts connected and instructs counsel.

with the main work by long flanks, so that its plan CROWN DEBTS.-It is a prerogative of the

& prerogative of the resembles somewhat the outline of a crown. crown to take precedence of all other creditors, and in England, to recover its debts by a summary

Crow's-feet. See CALTROP. process called an extent. By 33 Henry VIII., chap.

Crow-stone, the top stone of the gable-end of 39, this preference is given over all creditors who l a building. See CORBIE STEPS. have not obtained judgment (meaning in Scotland, Crowther, SAMUEL ADJAI, Bishop of the the execution of diligence) for their debts before Niger territory, whose native name is Adjai, was the commencement of the crown's process; and born in Ochugu, to the east of the kingdom of the Act 6 Anne, chap. 26, extended the law of Dahomey, in 1812, was carried off as a slave in England in this respect to Scotland, the old writ 1819, and after having been bartered and sold more of extent being abolished in 1856. The rule in

than once, was taken by a British man-of-war and Scotland was limited to movable or personal

landed at Sierra-Leone in 1822. He was placeil property, and the crown has no privilege over under a missionary for training at Bathurst, and in a subject in a competition for heritage. It 1825 professed his adherence to Christianity, taking obtains, however, as opposed to the landlord's his present name after a London vicar. He was Hypothec (q.v.). Mercantile sequestration does next placed in charge of a mission school at not discharge crown debts except with consent of Regent's Town; was with the first and second the Treasury ; and in a sequestration the crown Niger expeditions (1841, 1854); visited London in has a statutory preference for one year's arrears of 1842, when, as the result of some further training, he income and property tax, and assessed taxes. A was ordained by the Bishop of London, entered similar preference is given for local rates. See with enthusiasm upon his missionary labours, and EXTENT, EXCHEQUER.

was consecrated Bishop of the Niger territory in CROWN-LANDS must be distinguished from such / 1864. He was D.D. of Oxford, author of several narights as that in the seashore, which are merely tive tracts, and translated the Bible into the Yoruba held by the sovereign in trust for the people; and language. Died in 1891. See his Life ( 1888). also from that portion of the royal patrimony which Croydon, a town in Surrey, 104 miles S. of consists of such reserved rights as mines, salmon. | London Bridge, yet practically a suburb of London. fishings, &c. The crown-lands are called annexed It lies on the edge of the chalk and plastic clay, property in Scotland, and demesne lands in Eng. near the Banstead Downs, at the source of the land, and are of course also distinct from the Wandle, hence its name Croindene (Fr., 'chalkhill') private estate of the person who happens to be in Domesday. The archbishops of Canterbury sovereign. They are now contracted within narrow had a palace here from the Conquest till 1757. Its liniits, having been almost entirely granted away | Perpendicular hall (1452) and chapel (1633-63 ) were to subjects. King William III. so impoverished purchased by the Duke of Newcastle in 1887 and the crown in this manner, that an act was passed presented to the Sisters of the Church Extension

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