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is remarkable for the resemblance of its voice to Crowe, JOSEPH ARCHER, C.B., art-writer, born human speech. Sir J. E. Tennent gives an inter in London in 1825, studied and travelled widely esting account of the small glossy gray.necked on the Continent, where in 1847 he met Caval. crow of Ceylon (C. splendens), which frequents the caselle; their joint works will be found in the towns, feeding on offal, and boldly enters rooms article CAVALCASELLE. Crowe was a special correthrough open windows, to snatch some morsel from spondent in the Crimean war, the Indian mutiny, the dinner-table. See also CHOUGH, JACKDAW, and the Franco-Austrian war; and in 1857-59 was JAY, MAGPIE.
director of the School of Art at Bombay. In 1860 Crowberry, or CRAKEBERRY (Empetrum nig. he was appointed British consul-general at Leipzig, rum), a small procumbent shrub, with characteristi. and afterwards at Düsseldorf; in 1882 he was named cally inrolled leaf-margins, of the order Empetra. commercial attaché at Paris. Made a C.B. in 1885, cev, a native of the colder northern parts of the he was raised to the dignity of K.C.M.G. in 1890. world, abundant in the moors of Scotland and the He contributed the article RAPHAEL to this work. north of England, and common throughout Canada, He died 6th September 1896. See liis Reminiscences Alaska, and Siberia. The order consists of a few (1895), mainly of his career as journalist. heath-like shrubs, which, however, are usually Crowfoot. See RANUNCULUS. associated with Euphorbiaceæ (Spurges, &c.), with small trimerous unisexual flowers, the fruit a small Dakota stock, live on reservations in Montana.
Crow Indians, some 4000 in number, of the
Crowland, or CROYLAND, an ancient markettown in the south of Lincolnshire, on the Welland, in the Fens, 10 miles NNE. of Peterborough. Here in 716 King Ethelwald founded a monastery in honour of the hermit St Guthlac, which, burned by the Danes in 870, and again destroyed by fire in 1091, was restored in 1113, and thereafter became a mitred Benedictine abbey of singular magnificence. The north aisle of its church now serves as the parish church, and part of the west front also remains. Ingulph (q.v.) was abbot of Croyland, Pop. of parish, 2929. See G. Perry's Croyland Abbey (1867). The Triangular Bridge' is described in our article BRIDGE, Vol. II. p. 436.
Crown (Lat. corona). The crown of classical times was a circular ornament of metal, leaves, or flowers, worn on festive and solemn occasions, and as a reward of worth, talent, and military or naval prowess. Among the Greeks the crown (stephanos) was sometimes used as an emblem of office, as in the case of the archons; sometimes as an ornament for the heads of the victors in the public games; and sometimes as a mark of distinction for citizens who had merited well of their country. The Romans
made great use of crowns as rewards for valour. Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum):
The most highly prized was the corona obsidionalis, a, flowering branch ; 6, flowers enlarged; c, fruit.
which was bestowed by a beleaguered garrison or army on the general who rescued them. It was
made of grass or wild-flowers, gathered from the berry seated in the persistent calyx. The berries place which had been beset by the enemy. Next of the crowberry are nearly black, surround the in order was the corona civica, a garland of oak branches in crowded clusters, and each contain six leaves and acorns, which was given as a reward to to nine bony seeds and a watery acidulous juice. any soldier who had saved the life of a Roman A fermented liquor is prepared from them in some citizen in battle ; the corona navalis, a gold circle northern countries. They are a favourite food of decorated with beaks of ships, was the reward for game. E. rubrum of Čape Horn differs little, naval services; the corona muralis, a similar circle except in having red berries. The berries of the surrounded with battlements, was bestowed on him Camarinheira (Corema alba) are employed in who first scaled the walls of a besieged city; and Portugal for the preparation of an acidulous drink the corona vallaris, a circle ornamented with paliin fevers. The plants of this order, especially E. sades, on the first soldier who forced his way into rigrum, have taken considerable part in the forma the enemy's camp. There was also the corona son of peat.
triumphalis, bestowed upon a general when he Crowe, MRS CATHERINE (née Stevens), obtained a triumph. authoress, was born at Borough Green, in Kent, Other crowns were emblematical, such as the in 1800. In 1822 she married Lieutenant-colonel sacerdotal, funeral, convivial (of roses, violets, Crowe, and spent great part of her after-life in myrtle, ivy, and even parsley), and nuptial crowns. Edinburgh. She died in 1876. Her mind was The custom of wearing bridal wreaths or even morbid and despondent, ever hovering on the bridal crowns of metal is not unknown in modern border-line of insanity, which it crossed once in Europe as in Germany and Norway and medieval one violent but brief attack. Her translation of England; and the bridal wreaths of young Kerner's Seeress of Prevorst (1845) prepared the way brides are still suspended in some Derbyshire for her well-known Night Side of Nature (1848), a churches. (1) Corona sacerdotalis, worn by the great collection of supernatural stories, told, in. priests and bystanders when engaged in sacrifice. deed, with vigour and verisimilitude, but hopelessly (2) Corona funebris or sepulchralis, with which credulous and uncritical. She wrote also tragedies, the dead was crowned, a custom which prevailed juvenile books, and novels; of the last, the best, both among the Greeks and Romans. In Greece, Susan Hopley (1841) and Lilly Dawson (1847). these crowns were commonly of parsley. (3) Her Spiritualism and the Age we live in (1859) Corona convivialis, worn by guests on festive occahas no value, save as autobiography.
As the emblem of sovereignty in modern Europe, The crown of Scotland, long lost sight of, was the crown was borrowed less from the crowns of in 1818 discovered, along with the other Regalia antiquity than from the diadem, a fillet of silk, (q.y.), in a chest in Edinburgh Castle. Its gold linen, or woollen. This decoration was originally circle, richly jewelled and enamelled, is heightened oriental. Alexander the Great adopted it from with ten fleurs-de-lis, alternating with as many the kings of Persia ; and Antony assumed it crosses fleury, each adorned in the centre with a great during his luxurious intercourse with Cleopatra. diamond between four large pearls put crossways. In modern states, crowns have been of various Four gold arches, added in the reign of James IV., forms, and undergone various changes. The royal close under a mound, on which rests a large cross crown of England in the 12th and 13th centuries patée, with four pearls at the extremities, and as was a jewelled circlet of gold, heightened with many in the angles. Excepting the arches, the strawberry-leaves or trefoils, sometimes alternately crown is probably of the date of Robert Bruce. large and small. In the very costly and magnifi. In the crown of the kings of France the circle cent crown of Henry IV., the strawberry-leaves, was heightened with fleurs-de-lis; and from the eight in number, alternated with as many fleurs. time of Francis I. it was closed with eight arches, de-lis, the whole alternating with sixteen small groups of pearls. The same crown was worn by Henry V. in the beginning of his reign, but on undertaking his French campaign he ordered it to be broken up, and the fragments distributed as security for the loan required by him to carry on the war. The crown that succeeded it was probably an arched one ; for although no arched crown appears on the Great Seal of any monarch before Edward IV., the arched as well as the unarched form of crown is found occasionally in sculptures and illuminations of the reigns of Henry V. and
Fig. 4. Henry VI. The crown of Edward IV. (which was probably also worn by Henry V. and Henry VI.) from whose intersection arose a fleur-de-lis. The differs from previous crowns in being arched over crown of the former German emperors, now of the with jewelled bands of gold, closing under a mound Austrian emperors, is cleft in the centre, so as ensigned by a cross patée, while crosses patée are to present an appearance suggestive of a mitre. substituted for the strawberry-leaves, and roses or The adoption of this crown by Charles V. seems to tleurs-de-lis for the clusters of pearls. During have resulted from the kings of France having, in succeeding reigns down to that of Charles II., the emulation of the emperors, assumed a close crown. crown underwent various minor changes of form. The iron crown of the ancient Longobardic kings
There were sometimes three (fig. 4)-restored to the king of Italy by the Emperor
that of William IV., the same iron, which has been
actual crown was used, its asserted to have been
form being what is still hammered from a nail asually known in this country as the imperial of the true cross. The crown, and represented in fig. l. It has four crown of the new German crosses patée and four fleurs-de-lis set alternately empire is shown in fig. 5.
on the circlet, while two The crown with which
Its arches rise Scottish Lyon almost perpendicularly, King-at-arms is are elevated rather than similar in form. depressed at their inter- Crowns fre. section, and assume the quently occur as
form of wreaths of rose, heraldic bear. Fig. 2.
thistle, and shanırock, ings; of these
formed of brilliants; and there are three the crown itself is covered with diamonds' and of the classical studded with costly gems (fig. 2). In official repre. crowns noticed
Fig. 6. sentations of the royal arms, they are ensigned by in this articlethe imperial crown, but a graceful modification of viz. the crowns mural, a (fig. 6), naval, b, and that crown is sometimes made use of instead of it vallary, c, also the eastern or antique crown, d, a with Her Majesty's sanction (fig. 3). For the circle with high points rising from it, and the coronets of the members of the royal family and of celestial crown, differing from the last in having a the nobility generally, see CORONET.
star on each point.
The Crown is a term often employed to signify in 1703 voiding all grants or leases from the crown the state and the matters under control of the of royal manors, or other possessions connected executive anthority. Thus, in the interests of the with Yand, for a period exceeding thirty-one years. state there are crown-ministers, crown-lawyers, At a much earlier period (1455, chap. 41) a Scottishi crown-officers, crown-lands, &c.--the term, in no statute had rendered the consent of parliament instance, having any special connection with the necessary to the alienation of the property of the sovereign personally: In Scotland, certain high crown, but the policy adopted of extensive subin. crimes are technically called Pleas of the Crown. feudation to encourage agriculture had the effect of These are four in number-murder, robbery, rape, greatly diminishing the relative value of crown. and wilful fire-raising—and fall within the jurisdic- lands not actually given away; and in Scotland tion of the High Court of Justiciary. Likewise, in they now consist mainly of a few castles, palaces, Scotland, there is a functionary styled crown-agent. and feu-duties. The superintendence of such proHe is a practising law-agent or solicitor, who, perty as still belongs to the crown is now vested under the Lord Advocate and his deputes, takes in commissioners appointed for the purpose, called charge of criminal proceedings. His duty is to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, and Land receive from the procurators-fiscal of the different Revenues. See WoodS AND FORESTS. In some counties the precognitions which they have taken, British colonies unallotted ground is nominally and to lay these precognitions before the lawyers crown-land. Thus the sale and settlement of land for the crown, that they may determine whether in New South Wales was regulated by the Crown there is ground sufficient to call for a prosecution. Lands Act of 1884. He also expedes indictments and criminal letters, Crown, in Architecture, a species of spire or and otherwise discharges the duties of an agent in
lantern, formed by converging flying-buttresses. preparing and assisting in the conduct of trials before the High Court of Justiciary: The appoint- St Giles's, Edinburgh, and King's College, Aber
Familiar examples in Scotland are the crowns of ment of the crown-agent is with the Lord Advocate, deen; south of the Tweed the only old crown is and ceases with the administration.
that of St Nicholas's Cathedral at Newcastle. CROWN CASES RESERVED, COURT FOR. See APPEAL.
Crown Imperial. See FRITILLARY. CROWN-SOLICITOR, the solicitor to the Treasury, Crown Pieces of silver, of the value of five who, in state prosecutions in England, acts as shillings, were introduced into the English coinage solicitor for the crown in preparing the prosecution. by Henry VIII. They have a standard weight of In Ireland there are crown-solicitors attached to 436.56 grains. None were coined from 1861 till each circuit, whose duties correspond in some
1887, but since then they have again been struck. degree to those of the Procurators-fiscal (q.v.) and The name crown is also used as the translation crown-agent in Scotland. In England there are
of the French écu, which varied in value from 6 no analogous officers, and prosecutions are conse- francs (or livres) to 3 francs. quently conducted by solicitors appointed either Crown Point, a post-village of New York, by the parish, or by private parties bound over by on Lake Champlain, near the site of a British fort the magistrates to prosecute. But in cases of great of the same name surprised and captured by Colonel importance to the public, such as unusual or mon. Ethan Allen in 1775.
the Solicitor to the Treasury takes charge of the case consisting of two Bastion (9.v.) fronts connected and instructs counsel.
with the main work by long tsanks, so that its plan CROWN DEBTS. - It is a prerogative of the resembles somewhat the outline of a crown. crown to take precedence of all other creditors, and
Crow's-feet. See CALTROP. in England, to recover its debts by a summary process called an extent. By 33 Henry VIII., chap.
Crow-stone, the top stone of the gable-end of 39, this preference is given over all creditors who
a building. See CORBIE STEPS. have not obtained judgment (meaning in Scotland, Crowther, SAMUEL ADJAI, Bishop of the the execution of diligence) for their debts before Niger territory, whose native name is Adjai, was the commencement of the crown's process; and born in Ochugu, to the east of the kingdom of the Act 6 Anne, chap. 26, extended the law of Dahomey, in 1812, was carried off as a slave in England in this respect to Scotland, the old writ 1819, and after having been bartered and sold more of extent being abolished in 1856. The rule in than once, was taken by a British man-of-war and Scotland was "limited to movable or personal landed at Sierra-Leone in 1822. He was placed property, and the crown has no privilege over under a missionary for training at Bathurst, and in à subject in a competition for heritage. It 1825 professed his adherence to Christianity, taking obtains, however, as opposed to the landlord's his present name after a London vicar. He was Hypothec (q.v.). Mercantile sequestration does next placed in charge of a mission school at not discharge crown debts except with consent of Regent's Town; was with the first and second the Treasury ; and in a sequestration the crown Niger expeditions (1841, 1854); visited London in has a statutory preference for one year's arrears of 1842, when, as the result of some further training, he income and property tax, and assessed taxes. A was ordained by the Bishop of London, entered similar preference is given for local rates. See with enthusiasm upon his missionary labours, and EXTENT, EXCHEQUER.
was consecrated Bishop of the Niger territory in CROWN-LANDS must be distinguished from such 1864. He was D.D. of Oxford, author of several narights as that in the seashore, which are merely tive tracts, and translated the Bible into the Yoruba held by the sovereign in trust for the people ; and language. Died in 1891. See his Life (1888). also from that portion of the royal patrimony which Croydon, a town in Surrey, 10 miles S. of consists of such reserved rights as mines, salmon. London Bridge, yet practically a suburb of London. fishings, &c. The crown-lanıls are called annexed It lies on the edge of the chalk and plastic clay, property in Scotland, and demesne lands in Eng. near the Banstead Downs, at the source of the land, and are of course also distinct from the Wandle, hence its name Croindene (Fr., 'chalkhill') private estate of the person who happens to be in Domesday. The archbishops of Canterbury sovereign. They are now contracted within narrow had a palace here from the Conquest till 1757. Its linits, having been almost entirely granted away Perpendicular hall (1452) and chapel (1633-63) were to subjects. King William III. so impoverished purchased by the Duke of Newcastle in 1887 and the crown in this manner, that an act was passed | presented to the Sisters of the Church Extension CROZET ISLANDS
Association. Addington Park, 3} miles ESE., has familiar or more widely represented ; the Mustard, since 1807 been the summer seat of the archbishops. Shepherd's Purse, &c., are among the commonest Addiscombe House, at one time the residence of the weeds of cultivation, while the Turnip and Cab. first Earl of Liverpool, was converted in 1812 into the bage, the Radish and Cress, &c., are East India Military College, but was pulled down familiar and widespread in usefulness. As wild in 1863. The fine old Perpendicular parish church flowers, they are mostly inconspicuous, but the was destroyed by fire in January 1867, with the pretty Cuckoo.flower or Lady's Smock (Carda. exception of the tower, but was rebuilt by Sir mine pratensis), and not a few others, might be Gilbert Scott, and retains the monument of Arch- mentioned as contributing some characteristic bishop Sheldon, with fragments of that of Arch. feature to marsh or cliff or copse; while a large bishop Grindal. That of Archbishop Whitgift was number of genera are of the greatest value to the restored in 1888 at a cost of £600. Whitgift's Aorist, for whom the exuberant masses of Iberis, Hospital ( 1596) is a red brick pile, restored in 1860; | Alyssum, Arabis, and Aubrietia are among the his grammar-school now occupies buildings of 1871, most admired resources of the rock garden. Besides besides a large Whitgift middle school.
the Stocks and Wallflowers, &c., the old-fashioned town hall, with law-courts and free library, was Honesty and Gillyflower are among the most opened by the Prince of Wales in May 1896. Croy- familiar inmates of every cottage-garden. don was one of the first towns to grapple effectually general character of the order is antiscorbutic and with the economical disposal of town-sewage. À stimulating, with more or less acridity; the familiar system of disposing of sewage by irrigation was in favour being due to the presence of a characteristic augurated in 1858, and the corporation now possess ethereal oil. Striking examples of these properties two sewage farms, comprising 680 acres. In 1868 new are given by the Scurvy-grass of our shores, so water-works were completed, the water, which is of important to mariners in the days of long voyages great purity, being obtained from an artesian well, and salt provisions; or more familiarly by the yielding nearly 3,000,000 gallons per diem ; and a Common Water-cress; while a wide range of varia. further supply of 2,000,000 gallons per diem was tion of flavour is presented by the flesh, rind, and introduced in 1888 at a cost of £50,000. The death leaves of the Common Turnip, especially in different rate in 1848, the year before the adoption of the varieties, soils, and seasons. A fixed oil is largely Public Health Act, was 28:16; in 1887 it was 14:71. | present in the seeds (see RAPE, COLZA), and the There are thirteen railway stations. Till the 18th Woad Plant (Isatis, see WoAD) has been used from century Croydon was famous for its colliers' or the earliest times as a source of indigo. The order charcoal-burners; now its chief specialty is the was conveniently subdivided by Linnæus by the manufacture of church clocks and carillons. It nature of its fruit as long and short podded (Siliwas made a inunicipal borough in 1883, a parlia- quosæ and Siliculosæ), while later systematists mentary one in 1885, and a county borough in 1888. have derived important characters from the mode Pop. (1851) 10,260; (1881) 78,953 ; (1891 ) 102,697. of folding of the cotyledons within the seed. See See J. C. Anderson's Short Chronicle (1882). Engler's Pflanzen familien, or other systematic
Crozet Islands, a group to the south of the work, and separate articles-e.g. CABBAGE, &c. Indian Ocean, almost on a line between the Cape of Good Hope and Kerguelen's Land, in lat. 46° S., fix?), a cross with the effigy of Christ fixed to it.
Crucifix (Lat. crux, the cross,' and figo, 'I and long. 52o E. Except four or five, they are mere rocks, and are all uninhabited, though shipwrecked in the centre of
The principal crucifix in Catholic churches stands sailors have lived for a time on them. They were the high-altar. visited by the Challenger expedition in 1873–74.
It overtops the Crozier. See CROSIER.
tapers, and is only Crucian (Carassius vulgaris), a fresh-water removed to make fish, nearly related to the carp," from which it place for the host differs in the absence of barbules, in the single in the service of rowed arrangement of the pharyngeal teeth, and in Benediction. a few other minor points. It is found in numerous well-appointed varieties in rivers, ponds, and lakes in Europe and churches, the altar Asia ; and is sometimes, though rarely, caught in crucifix is gener, the Thames. The food chielly consists of dead ally either of gold vegetable and animal matter. The flesh is less or silver, Cruci. esteemed than that of carp. The fish spawn in fixes are used May or June, and then assemble in great numbers. in Lutheran See CARP.
churches, and in Crucibles (Low Lat. crucibulum ; from the Prussia they are root of Old Fr. cruche, 'a pot') are vessels made of often made of Ber
materials capable of being exposed lin iron. The cru:
use in the East till towards the end of the 8th substances brought into contact century. It was not till the Carlovingian age that Crucible. with them, and are generally made it became general in the Latin Church. On the
of fireclay, porcelain, graphite, iron, earlier crucitixes, Christ is represented as alive, platinum, and, for some special operations, of with open eves, and generally clad, and fastened silver. See ASSAYING.
with four nails. On later ones he is represented Cruci'feræ (Lat., 'cross-bearing,' from the X.
as dead, naked, except for a cloth round the loins, wise position of the four petals), an important order and fastened with three nails-i.e. the two feet of thalamifloral dicotyledons, including about 1200 pierced by a single nail. See Cross. known species, mostly palæarctic, and specially Cruden, ALEXANDER, born at Aberdeen, 31st abundant in Europe. No order is indeed more | May 1701, from the grammar-school passed to
Marisehal College, where he took his M.A., but, and elaborate etchings to Brough's Life of Sir having shown symptoms of insanity, was for a short John Falstaff, published in 1858. His last illus. time placed in continement. On his release he left tration was the frontispiece to Mrs Blewitt's The Aberdeen, and, after spending ten years as a tutor, Rose and the Lily (1877), Designed and etched in 1732 established himself as a bookseller in Lou- by George Cruikshank, aged eighty-three, 1875.' don. In 1737 appeared his Complete Concordance As a water-colourist he left work marked by conof the Holy Scriptures, a really admirable work. siderable skill and delicacy. In his late years he It was dedicated to Queen Caroline, who graciously devoted himself to oil-painting, and in this province promised to remember him, but unfortunately showed perhaps more humour, fervour, and invendied a few days later. Cruden now relapsed into tive ability than artistic power. His most importinsanity, and for ten weeks was kept in a mad. ant picture was ‘Worship of Bacchus '(1862), which house, as again for a fortnight in 1753. Earning has been engraved partly by his own hand, a meanwhile his livelihood as a press-reader, he vigorous and earnest protest against the evils of assumed the title of • Alexander the Corrector,' drunkenness; and to the cause of temperance he and in 1755 began to go through the country, also devoted many of his designs, especially the reproving by voice and pen the nation's sins of tragic and powerful series of The Bottle (1847), which, Sabbath-breaking and profanity. But many a reproduced by glyptography, attained an immense good and kindly action was interwoven with his circulation. He died 1st February 1878. There crack-brained courtships, his dreams of knighthood are excellent collections of his works in the printand a seat in parliament. He was just back from room, British Museum; the Royal Aquarium, a visit to his native city, when he died at his Westminster; and the South Kensington Museum. prayers in his Islington lodgings, 1st November The last named, presented in 1884 by the artist's 1770. See the Life by A. Chalmers, prefixed since widow, numbers 3481 items. See G. W. Reid's 1824 to many of the numerous editions of the Con. Catalogue (3 vols. 1871), and Lives by Bates (2d ed. cordance. See CONCORDANCE.
1879), Jerrold (2d ed. 1883), and Stephens (1891); Cruelty. See ANIMALS (CRUELTY TO), CHIL
and Marchmont's The Three Cruikshanks (1897). DREN (CRUELTY TO).
Cruiser, formerly an armed ship employed to of English pictorial satirists, was born in London, called 1st and 2d class cruisers, see Navy. Cruikshank, GEORGE, one of the most gifted protect commerce or capture enemies' ships. See
PRIVATEER, FRIGATE ; and for what are now September 27, 1792, the son of Isaac Cruikshank, who, as well as his eldest son, Isaac Robert Cruik. Crusades is the name given to the religious shank, was also known as a caricaturist. Cruik. wars carried on during the middle ages between shank at first thought of the stage as a profession; the Christian nations of the West and the Mohambut some of his sketches having come under the medans. In time, however, the name came to be notice of a publisher, he was induced to engage in applied to any military expedition against heretics the illustration of children's books and songs. or enemies of the pope. The first of the regular A publicaticn, The Scourge (1811-16), afforded crusades was undertaken simply to vindicate the scope for the display of his satiric genius, and from right of Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy that time forth' he continued to pursue with re- Sepulchre. On the conquest of Palestine, how. markable success this his true vein. His illustra- ever, the object of the crusades changed, or at least tions for Hone's political squibs and pamphlets, enlarged, and the efforts of the subsequent crusaders and especially those dealing with the Queen Caro- were directed to the recovery of the whole land from line trial, attracted much attention, and sent some the Saracens, who had repossessed themselves of it. of them through no less than fifty editions. But From an early period in the history of the church, in the exquisite series of coloured etchings con. it was considered a pious act to make a pilgrimage tributed to the Humorist (1819-21), and in the to the Holy Sepulchre, and to visit the various etchings to the Points of Humour (1823–24), did spots which the Saviour had consecrated by his his true artistic power begin to be visible. This presence. When Palestine was conquered by the second, and in many ways finest, period of his Arabs in the 7th century, that fierce but generous art, represented by these works, culminated in people respected the religious spirit of the pilgrims, the etchings to Peter Schlemihl (1823), and to and allowed them to build a church and a hospital Grimm's German Popular Stories (1824-26), which in Jerusalem. Under the Fatimides of Egypt, who in the simple directness and effectiveness of their conquered Syria about 980 A.D., the position both execution, and in their fertile and unencunibered of the native Christian residents and of the pilgrims fancy, rank as the artist's masterpieces. The became less favourable; but the subjugation of latter series, now extremely scarce, was repro- the country in 1065 by brutal hordes of Seljuk duced in 1868, with a laudatory preface from the Turks from the Caucasus rendered it intolerable. pen of Mr Ruskin. Similar in artistic aims and These barbarians, but recently converted to Mohammethod are the spirited little woodcuts contributed medanism, were nearly as ignorant of the Koran to the Italian Tales (1824), Mornings at Bow Street as of the Scriptures. They hardly knew their (1824-27), and Clark's Three Courses and a Dessert fellow-religionists, and are said to have wreaked (1830); and the plates to Scott's Demonology and their vengeance on the Mussulmans of Syria as Witchcraft (1830) may be regarded as the last well as on the Christians. The news of their examples of his earlier and simpler method as an atrocities produced a deep sensation over the whole etcher. His numerous plates in Bentley's Miscellany of Christendom. The first to take alarm were, mark a third period of his art, in which he aimed at naturally enough, the Byzantine monarchs. In greater elaboration and completeness, introducing 1073 the Greek emperor, Manuel VII., sent to more complex effects of chiar oscuro, and frequently supplicate the assistance of the great Pope Gregory attaining great power of tragic design. The finest VII. against the Turks, accompanying his petition of these are the great series to Dickens's Oliver with many expressions of profound respect for His Twist, and to Ainsworth's
, Jack Sheppard in Holiness and the Latin Church. Gregory-who Bentley's Miscellany, and The Tower of London, beheld in the supplication of Mannel a grand opporand in the same class are to be ranked the plates to tunity for realising the Catholic unity of ChristenWindsor Castle, and The Miser's Daughter, of dom-cordially responded ; but circumstances prewhich, as of Oliver Twist, he thirty years after vented him from ever carrying the vast designs wards claimed the chief authorship. Among the which he entertained into execution, and the idea best productions of his later years are the large of a crusade died gradually away. It was, however,