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Association. Addington Park, 34 miles ESE., has familiar or more widely represented ; the Mustard, since 1807 been the summer seat of the archbishops. Shepherd's Purse, &c., are among the commonest Addiscombe House, at one time the residence of the weeds of cultivation, while the Turnip and Cab. first Earl of Liverpool, was converted in 1812 into the bage, the Radish and Cress, &c., are no less East India Military College, but was pulled down familiar and widespread in usefulness. As wild in 1863. The fine old Perpendicular parish church towers, they are mostly inconspicuous, but the was destroyed by fire in January 1867, with the pretty Cuckoo-flower or Lady's Smock (Carda. exception of the tower, but was rebuilt by Sir mine pratensis), and hot a few others, might be Gilbert Scott, and retains the monument of Arch mentioned as contributing some characteristic bishop Sheldon, with fragments of that of Arch | feature to marsh or cliff or copse; while a large bishop Grindal. That of Archbishop Whitgift was number of genera are of the greatest value to the restored in 1888 at a cost of £600. Whitgift's Aorist, for whom the exuberant masses of Iberis, Hospital ( 1596 ) is a red brick pile, restored in 1860; ) Alyssum, Arabis, and Aubrietia are among the his grammar-school now occupies buildings of 1871, 1 most admired resources of the rock-garden. Besides besides a large Whitgift middle school. A new the Stocks and Wallflowers, &c., the old-fashioned town hall, with law-courts and free library, was Honesty and Gillyflower are among the most opened by the Prince of Wales in May 1896. Croy. | familiar inmates of every cottage.garden. The don was one of the first towns to grapple effectually , general character of the order is antiscorbutic and with the economical disposal of town-sewage. A stimulating, with more or less acridity; the familiar system of disposing of sewage by irrigation was in favour being due to the presence of a characteristic augurated in 1858, and the corporation now possess ethereal oil. Striking examples of these properties two sewage farms, comprising 680 acres. In 1868 new | are given by the Scurvy-grass of our shores, so water-works were completed, the water, which is of important to mariners in the days of long voyages great purity, being obtained from an artesian well, and salt provisions; or more familiarly by the yielding nearly 3,000,000 gallons per diem ; and a Common Water-cress; while a wide range of varia. further supply of 2,000,000 gallons per diem was tion of flavour is presented by the flesh, rind, and introduced in 1888 at a cost of £50,000. The death.. leaves of the Common Turnip, especially in different rate in 1848, the year before the adoption of the varieties, soils, and seasons. A fixed oil is largely Public Health Act, was 28:16; in 1887 it was 14.71. present in the seeds (see RAPE, COLZA), and the There are thirteen railway stations. Till the 18th Woad Plant (Isatis, see WoAD) has been used from century Croydon was famous for its colliers' or the earliest times as a source of indigo. The order charcoal-burners ; now its chief specialty is the was conveniently subdivided by Linnæus by the manufacture of church clocks and carillons. It nature of its fruit as long and short podded (Sili. was made a municipal borough in 1883, a parlia- quosæ and Siliculosæ ), while later systematists mentary one in 1885, and a county borongh in 1888. have derived important characters from the mode Pop. (1851) 10,260 ; (1881) 78,953 ; ( 1891 ) 102,697. | of folding of the cotyledons within the seed. See See J. C. Anderson's Short Chronicle (1882). Engler's Pflanzen familien, or other systematic
Crozet Islands, a group to the south of the work, and separate articlesme.g. CABBAGE, &c. Indian Ocean, almost on a line between the Cape Crucifix (Lat. crux, the cross,' and figo, of Good Hope and Kerguelen's Land, in lat. 46° S., | fix'), a cross with the effigy of Christ fixed to it.
I and long. 52 E. Except four or five, they are mere The principal crucifix in Catholic churches stands rocks, and are all uninhabited, though shipwrecked in the centre of sailors have lived for a time on them. They were
the high-altar. visited by the Challenger expedition in 1873-74.
It overtops the Crozier. See CROSIER.
tapers, and is only Crucian (Carassius vulgaris), a fresh water removed to make fish, nearly related to the carp, from which it place for the host differs in the absence of barbules, in the single. in the service of rowed arrangement of the pharyngeal teeth, and in Benediction. In a few other minor points. It is found in numerous well-appointed varieties in rivers, ponds, and lakes in Europe and
in riveraponde and lakes in Europe and churches, the altar Asia; and is sometimes, though rarely, caught in crucifix is gener. the Thames. The food chietly consists of dead ally either of gold vegetable and animal matter. The flesh is less or silver. Cruci. esteemned than that of carp. The fish spawn in fixes are used May or June, and then assemble in great numbers. in Lutheran See CarP.
churches, and in Crucibles (Low Lat. crucibulum ; from the
Prussia they are root of Old Fr. cruche, 'a pot') are vessels made of
often made of Bermaterials capable of being exposed
lin iron. The cruto high temperatures without altera. 1 ci
cifix first began to tion, and used for fusing substances
take the place of
the time of Con.
stantine, but it was never publicly acknowledged metals they vield. Crucibles should by the Greek Church, and did not come into general resist the corrosive action of the use in the East till towards the end of the 8th
substances brought into contact century. It was not till the Carlovingian age that Crucible with them, and are generally made ) it became general in the Latin Church. On the of fireclay, porcelain, graphite, iron, |
earlier crucifixes, Christ is represented as alive, platinum, and. for some special operations, of with open eves, and generally clad, and fastened silver. See ASSAYING.
with four nails. On later ones he is represented Cruciferæ (Lat., 'cross-bearing,' from the X
as dead, naked, except for a cloth round the loins, wise position of the four petals), an important order
and fastened with three nails-i.e. the two feet oi thalamifloral dicotyledons, including about 1200 percen by a sing
pierced by a single nail. See CROSS. known species, mostly palæarctic, and specially Cruden, ALEXANDER, born at Aberdeen. 31st abundant in Europe. No order is indeed more | May 1701, from the grammar school passed to 592
Marisehal College, where he took his M. A., but, and elaborate etchings to Brough's Life of Sir having shown symptoms of insanity, was for a short John Falstaff, published in 1858. His last illustime placed in continement. On his release he left tration was the frontispiece to Mrs Blewitt's The Aberdeen, and, after spending ten years as a tutor, | Rose and the Lily (1877), "Designed and etched in 1732 established himself as a bookseller in Lon: | by George Cruikshank, aged eighty-three, 1875.' don. In 1737 appeared his Complete Concordance As a water-colourist he left work marked by conof the Holy Scriptures, a really admirable work. siderable skill and delicacy. In his late years he It was dedicated to Qucen Caroline, who graciously devoted himself to oil painting, and in this province promised to remember him,' but unfortunately showed perhaps more humour, fervour, and inven. died a few days later. Cruden now relapsed into tive ability than artistic power. His most importinsanity, and for ten weeks was kept in a mad. ant picture was Worship of Bacchus '(1862), which house, as again for a fortnight in 1753. Earning has been engraved partly by his own hand, a meanwhile his livelihood as a press-reader, he vigorous and earnest protest against the evils of assumed the title of “Alexander the Corrector,'||
| drunkenness; and to the cause of temperance he and in 1755 began to go through the country, also devoted many of his designs, especially the reproving by voice and pen the nation's sins of tragic and powerful series of The Bottle ( 1847), which, Sabbath-breaking and profanity. But many a reproduced by glyptography, attained an immense good and kindly action was interwoven with his circulation. He died Ist February 1878. There crack-brained courtships, his dreams of knighthood are excellent collections of his works in the printand a seat in parliament. He was just back from room, British Museum; the Royal Aquarium, a visit to his native city, when he died at his Westminster; and the South Kensington Museum. prayers in his Islington lodgings, Ist November | The last named, presented in 1884 by the artist's 1770. See the Life by A. Chalmers, prefixed since widow, numbers 3481 items. See G. W. Reid's 1824 to many of the numerous editions of the Con- | Catalogue (3 vols. 1871), and Lives by Bates (2d ed. cordance. See CONCORDANCE.
1879), Jerrold (2d ed. 1883), and Stephens (1891); Cruelty. See ANIMALS (CRUELTY TO), Chil
and Marchmont's The Three Cruikshanks (1897). DREN (CRUELTY TO).
Cruiser, formerly an armed ship employed to Cruikshank, GEORGE, one of the most gifted
protect commerce or capture enemies' ships. See of English pictorial satirists, was born in London,
PRIVATEER, FRIGATE; and for what are now September 27, 1792, the son of Isaac Cruikshank,
called 1st and 2d class cruisers, see NAVY. who, as well as his eldest son, Isaac Robert Cruik: Crusades is the name given to the religious shank, was also known as a caricaturist Cruik. wars carried on during the middle ages between shank at first thought of the stage as a profession ; the Christian nations of the West and the Mohambut some of his sketches having come under the medans. In time, however, the name came to be notice of a publisher, he was induced to engage in applied to any military expedition against heretics the illustration of children's books and songs. or enemies of the pope. The first of the regular A publication, The Scourge (1811-16), afforded crusades was undertaken simply to vindicate the scope for the display of his satiric genius, and from right of Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy that time forth he continued to pursue with re Sepulchre. On the conquest of Palestine, howmarkable success this his true vein. His illustra ever, the object of the crusades changed, or at least tions for Hone's political squibs and pamphlets, enlarged, and the efforts of the subsequent crusaders and especially those dealing with the Queen Caro- were directed to the recovery of the whole land from line trial, attracted much attention, and sent some the Saracens, who had repossessed themselves of it. of them through no less than fifty editions. But From an early period in the history of the church, in the exquisite series of coloured etchings con. it was considered a pious act to make a pilgrimage tributed to the Humorist (1819-21), and in the to the Holy Sepulchre, and to visit the various etchings to the Points of Humour (1823-24), did | apots which the Saviour had consecrated by his his true artistic power begin to be visible. This presence. When Palestine was conquered by the second, and in many ways finest, period of his Arabs in the 7th century, that fierce but generous art, represented by these works, culminated in people respected the religious spirit of the pilgrims, the etchings to Peter Schlemihl (1823), and to and allowed them to build a church and a hospital Grimm's German Popular Stories (1824-26), which in Jerusalem. Under the Fatimides of Egypt, who in the simple directness and effectiveness of their conquered Syria about 980 A.D., the position both execution, and in their fertile and unencumbered of the native Christian residents and of the pilgrims fancy, rank as the artist's masterpieces. The became less favourable; but the subjugation of latter series, now extremely scarce, was repro. the country in 1065 by brutal hordes of Seljuk duced in 1868, with a laudatory preface from the | Turks from the Caucasus rendered it intolerable. pen of Mr Ruskin. Similar in artistic aims and These barbarians, but recently converted to Mohammethod are the spirited little woodcuts contributed medanism, were nearly as ignorant of the Koran to the Italian Tales (1824), Mornings at Bow Street as of the Scriptures. They hardly knew their (1824-27), and Clark's Three Courses and a Dessert | fellow-religionists, and are said to have wreaked (1830); and the plates to Scott's Demonology and their vengeance on the Mussulmans of Syria as Witchcraft (1830) may be regarded as the last well as on the Christians. The news of their examples of his earlier and simpler method as an atrocities produced a deep sensation over the whole etcher. His numerous plates in Bentley's Miscellany of Christendom. The first to take alarm were, mark a third period of his art, in which he aimed at naturally enough, the Byzantine monarchs. In
elaboration and completeness, introducing | 1073 the Greek emperor, Manuel VII., sent to more complex effects of chiar oscuro, and frequently supplicate the assistance of the great Pope Gregory attaining great power of tragic design. The finest VII. against the Turks, accompanying his petition of these are the great series to Dickens's Oliver with many expressions of profound respect for His Twist, and to Ainsworthi's Jack Sheppard in Holiness and the Latin Church. Gregory-who Bentley's Miscellany, and The Tower of London, beheld in the supplication of Manuel a grand opporand in the same class are to be ranked the plates to tunity for realising the Catholic unity of ChristenWindsor Castle, and The Viser's Daughter, of dom-cordially responded; but circumstances prewhich, as of Oliver Twist, he thirty years after. | vented him from ever carrying the vast designs wards claimed the chief authorship. Among the which he entertained into execution, and the idea best productions of his later years are the large l of a crusade died gradually away. It was, however,
revived by his successor, Urban II., an able and intervals of time. Their respective leaders were humane man, whose sympathies were kindled by Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine; Hugh the burning zeal of Peter the Hermit, a native the Great, Count of Vermandois, and brother of of Amiens, in France, who had made a pilgrimage Philippe, king of France ; Robert Curthose, Duke to the Holy Land, and witnessed the cruelties perpe. of Normandy, the son of William the Conqueror ; trated by the Turks. He was now traversing Europe, Count Robert of Flanders ; Bohemond, Prince of preaching everywhere to crowds in the open air, Tarentum, son of the famous Guiscard, under and producing the most extraordinary enthusiasm whom was Tancred, the favourite hero of all the by his impassioned descriptions of how pilgrims historians of the crusade; and lastly, Count Raywere murdered, robbed, or beaten; how shrines mond of Toulouse. The place of rendezvous was and holy places were desecrated ; and how nothing Constantinople. The Greek emperor, Alexius, but greed restrained the ruffian Turks (who made afraid that so magnificent a host—there were in the Christians pay heavy taxes for their visits to all not less than 600,000 men, exclusive of women Jerusalem) from destroying the Holy Sepulchre, and priests—might be induced to conquer lands and extirpating every vestige of Christianity in the for themselves, cajoled all the leaders, excepting land. As soon as the feelings of Europe had been Tancred and Count Raymond, into solemnly acsufficiently heated, Urban openly took up the ques. | knowledging themselves his liegemen as long as tion. Two councils were held in 1095. At the they remained in his territory. After some time second, held at Clermont, in France, a crusade was spent in feasting, the crusaders crossed into Asia definitely resolved on. The pope himself delivered | Minor accompanied by the unfortunate Peter the a stirring address to a vast multitude of clergy and Hermit. Here their first step was the siege and laymen, and as he proceeded, the pent-up emotions capture of Nicæa, the capital of Sultan Soliman, of the crowd burst forth, and cries of Deus vult 24th June 1097. This monarch was also defeated ('God wills it') rose simultaneously from the whole by Bohemond, Tancred, and Godfrey, at Dory. audience. This tumultuous cry,' says Hallam, læum. Baldwin, brother of Godfrey, now crossed ' which broke from the heart and lips of the assembly | into Mesopotamia, where he obtained the princi. at Clermont, affords at once the most obvious and pality of Edessa. After some time, the crusaders most certain explanation of the leading principle of reached Syria, and laid siege to Antioch. For the crusades.' These words, Deus vult, by the seven months the city held out, and the ranks of injunction of Urban, were made the war-cry of the the besiegers were fearfully thinned by famine and enterprise, and every one that embarked in it wore, disease. Many even brave warriors lost heart, as a badge, the sign of the cross; hence the name and began to desert. Melancholy to relate, among Crusade (Fr. croisade, from Lat. crur, 'a cross ’). the deserters was the poor enthusiast who had
First Crusade.-From all parts of Europe thou- inspired the enterprise. Peter was actually several sands upon thousands hurried at the summons of miles on his way home when he was overtaken the pope to engage in the holy war. The most by the soldiers of Tancred, and brought back distant islands and savage countries,' says William to undergo a public reprimand. At length, on of Malmesbury, were inspired with this ardent the 3d of June 1098, Antioch was taken, and passion. The Welshman left his hunting, the the inhabitants were massacred by the infuriated Scotchman his fellowship with vermin, the Dane crusaders, who were in their turn besieged by an his drinking-party, the Norwegian his raw fish.' | army of 200,000 Mohammedans sent by the Persian It is said that in the spring of 1096 not less than sultan. Once more famine and pestilence did their 6,000,000 souls were in motion towards Palestine. deadly work. Multitudes also deserted, and escapThis, however, must be a huge exaggeration. | ing over the walls, carried the news of the sad What we do know positively is, that previous to condition of the Christians back to Europe. But the setting out of the great hosts of European again victory crowned the efforts of the besieged. chivalry, four armies — if disorderly multitudes On the 28th June 1098 the Mohammedans were deserve that name—amounting in all to 275,000 utterly routed, and the way to Jerusalem opened. persons, had departed for Palestine. The first con It was on a bright summer morning (1099) that sisted of 20,000 foot, and was commanded by a 40,000 crusaders, the miserable remnant of that Burgundian gentleman, Walter the Penniless. It | vast array which two years before had laid siege marched through Hungary, but was cut to pieces by to Nicæa, obtained their first glimpse of Jerusalem. the natives of Bulgaria, only a few, among whom On the 15th of July, after a siege of rather more was Walter himself, escaping to Constantinople. than five weeks, the grand object of the expe. The second, consisting of 40,000 men, women, and dition was realised. Jerusalem was delivered from children, was led by Peter the Hermit. It followed the hands of the infidel. As on the occasion of the same route as its predecessor, and reached all the triumphs of these first crusaders, a horrible Constantinople greatly reduced in numbers. Here | massacre ensued. Religious enthusiasm, evoking the two united, crossed the Bosporus, and were the intensest and most strangely mingled passions, utterly defeated by the Turks at Nicæa, the naturally led to these excesses on the part of men capital of Bithynia. A third expedition of a reared in the fiercest times of feudalism. Eight similar kind, composed of 15,000 Germans, led by a days after the capture of the city, Godfrey of priest named Gottschalk, was dispersed with ter- | Bouillon was unanimously elected king of Jerurible slaughter in Hungary; which also proved the salem. His kingdom, at first comprising little grave of the fourth, a horde consisting of about more than the mere city of Jerusalem, was gradu. 200,000 wretches from France, England, Flanders, ally extended by conquest until it included the and Lorraine, who had swept along through Ger: whole of Palestine. A language resembling Normany, committing horrible ravages, especially man French was established, a code of feudal against the Jews, whom they murdered without laws drawn up-Jerusalem was erected into a mercy. Now, however, the real crusaders made patriarchate, and Bethlehem into a bishopric. their appearance : the gentry, the yeomanry, and The best part of Asia Minor was restored to the seris of feudal Europe, under chiefs of the first the Greek empire, while Bohemond became Prince rank and renown. In this, the most successful of Antioch. For nearly fifty years, the three of the crusades, neither the emperor nor any of Latin principalities or kingdoms of the Eastthe kings of the West participated ; and to this Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem-not only maincircumstance was doubtless due its more fortun- | tained themselves against the attacks of the ate termination. Six armies appeared in the Mohammedans of Egypt and Syria, but greatly field, marching separately, and at considerable | increased in size, power, and wealth. At Jeru.