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revived by his successor, Urban II., an able and intervals of time. Their respective leaders were humane man, whose sympathies were kindled by Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine ; Hugh the burning zeal of Peter the Hermit, a native the Great, Count of Vermandois, and brother of of Amiens, in France, who had made a pilgrimage Philippe, king of France ; Robert Curthose, Duke to the Holy Land, and witnessed the cruelties perpe. of Normandy, the son of William the Conqueror ; trated by the Turks. He was now traversing Europe, Count Robert of Flanders ; Bohemond, Prince of preaching everywhere to crowds in the open air, Tarentum, son of the famous Guiscard, under and producing the most extraordinary enthusiasm whom was Tancred, the favourite hero of all the by his impassioned descriptions of how pilgrims historians of the crusade; and lastly, Count Raywere murdered, robbed, or beaten; how shrines mond of Toulouse. The place of rendezvous was and holy places were desecrated ; and how nothing Constantinople. The Greek emperor, Alexius, but greed restrained the ruffian Turks (who made afraid that so magnificent a host—there were in the Christians pay heavy taxes for their visits to all not less than 600,000 men, exclusive of women Jerusalem) from destroying the Holy Sepulchre, and priests—might be induced to conquer lands and extirpating every vestige of Christianity in the for themselves, cajoled all the leaders, excepting land. As soon as the feelings of Europe had been Tancred and Count Raymond, into solemnly acsufficiently heated, Urban openly took up the ques. knowledging themselves his liegemen as long as tion. Two councils were held in 1095. At the they remained in his territory. After some time second, held at Clermont, in France, a crusade was spent in feasting, the crusaders crossed into Asia definitely resolved on. The pope himself delivered Minor accompanied by the unfortunate Peter the a stirring address to a vast multitude of clergy and Hermit. Here their first step was the siege and laymen, and as he proceeded, the pent-up emotions capture of Nicæa, the capital of Sultan Soliman, of the crowd burst forth, and cries of Deus vult 24th June 1097. This monarch was also defeated (“God wills it') rose simultaneously from the whole by Bohemond, Tancred, and Godfrey, at Dory, audience. This tumultuous cry,' says Hallam, læum. Baldwin, brother of Godfrey, now crossed

which broke from the heart and lips of the assembly into Mesopotamia, where he obtained the princi. at Clermont, affords at once the most obvious and pality of Edessa. After some time, the crusaders most certain explanation of the leading principle of reached Syria, and laid siege to Antioch. For the crusades.' These words, Deus vult, by the seven months the city held out, and the ranks of injunction of Urban, were made the war-cry of the the besiegers were fearfully thinned by famine and enterprise, and every one that embarked in it wore, disease. Many even brave warriors lost heart, as a badge, the sign of the cross ; hence the name and began to desert. Melancholy to relate, among Crusade ( Fr. croisade, from Lat. crux, 'a cross ’). the deserters was the poor enthusiast who had

First Crusade.-From all parts of Europe thou: inspired the enterprise. Peter was actually several sands upon thousands hurried at the summons of miles on his way home when he was overtaken the pope to engage in the holy war. *The most by the soldiers of Tancred, and brought back distant islands and savage countries,' says William to undergo a public reprimand. At length, on of Malmesbury, were inspired with this ardent the 3d of June 1098, Antioch was taken, and passion. The Welshman left his hunting, the the inhabitants were massacred by the infuriated Scotchman his fellowship with vermin, the Dane crusaders, who were in their turn besieged by an his drinking-party, the Norwegian his raw fish.' army of 200,000 Mohammedans sent by the Persian It is said that in the spring of 1096 not less than sultan. Once more famine and pestilence did their 6,000,000 souls were in motion towards Palestine. deadly work. Multitudes also deserted, and escapThis, however, must be a huge exaggeration. ing over the walls, carried the news of the sad What we do know positively is, that previous to condition of the Christians back to Europe. But the setting out of the great hosts of European again victory crowned the efforts of the besieged. chivalry, four armies— if disorderly, multitudes On the 28th June 1098 the Mohammedans were deserve that name—amounting in all to 275,000 utterly routed, and the way to Jerusalem opened. persons, had departed for Palestine. The first con- It was on a bright summer morning (1099) that sisted of 20,000 foot, and was commanded by a 40,000 crusaders, the miserable remnant of that Burgundian gentleman, Walter the Penniless. It vast array which two years before had laid siege marched through Hungary, but was cut to pieces by to Nicæa, obtained their first glimpse of Jerusalem. the natives of Bulgaria, only a few, among whom On the 15th of July, after a siege of rather more was Walter himself, escaping to Constantinople. than five weeks, the grand object of the expe. The second, consisting of 40,000 men, women, and dition was realised. Jerusalem was delivered from children, was led by Peter the Hermit. It followed the hands of the infidel. As on the occasion of the same route as its predecessor, and reached all the triumphs of these first crusaders, a horrible Constantinople greatly reduced in numbers. Here massacre ensued. Religious enthusiasm, evoking the two united, crossed the Bosporus, and were the intensest and most strangely mingled passions, utterly defeated by the Turks at Nicæa, the naturally led to these excesses on the part of men capital of Bithynia. A third expedition of a reared in the fiercest times of feudalism. Eight similar kind, composed of 15,000 Germans, led by a days after the capture of the city, Godfrey of priest named Gottschalk, was dispersed with ter. Bouillon was unanimously elected 'king of Jeru. rible slaughter in Hungary ; which also proved the salem. His kingdom, at first comprising little grave of the fourth, a horde consisting of about more than the mere city of Jerusalem, was gradu. 200,000 wretches from France, England, Flanders, ally extended by conquest until it included the and Lorraine, who had swept along through Ger- whole of Palestine. À language resembling Nor. many, committing horrible ravages, especially man French was established, a code of feudal against the Jews, whom they murdered without laws drawn up-Jerusalem was erected into a mercy. Now, however, the real crusaders made patriarchate, and Bethlehem into a bishopric. their appearance : the gentry, the yeomanry, and The best part of Asia Minor was restored to the serfs of feudal Europe, under chiefs of the first the Greek empire, while Bohemond became Prince rank and renown. In this, the most successful of Antioch. For nearly fifty years, the three of the crusades, neither the emperor nor any of Latin principalities or kingdoms of the Eastthe kings of the West participated ; and to this Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem-not only maincircumstance was doubtless due its more fortun tained themselves against the attacks of the ate termination. Six armies appeared in the Mohammedans of Egypt and Syria, but greatly field, marching separately, and at considerable I increased in size, power, and wealth. Ať Jeru.

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ransom.

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salem were founded the two famous orders of the the exception of the Mosque of Omar), Jaffa, Beth. Knights Hospitallers of St John and the Knights lehem, and Nazareth were ceded to Frederick, who, Templars.

after being crowned king of Jerusalem, returned Second Crusade.-In 1144 the principality of to Europe, leaving his new possessions in a state of Edessa was conquered by the Emir of Mosul, and tranquillity. Frederick, however, who had been the Christians slaughtered. His son, Noureddin, excommunicated by Gregory IX. for his tardiness advanced to destroy the Latin kingdoms of Syria in embarking in this crusade, was denounced in the and Palestine. Europe once more trembled with most violent language by the same pope for having ellei fameots , , , driven

A second crusade was preached by thus made terms with the infidel. Champagne; and early in 1147 two enormous from Tartary by Genghis Khan, burst into Syria, armies, under the command of Louis VII., king and made themselves masters of Jerusalem. This of France, and Conrad III., emperor of Germany, was made, by Pope Innocent IV., the occasion for marched for the Holy Land. Their united another crusade ; and in 1249 Louis IX. (St Louis) numbers were estimated at 1,200,000 fighting of France headed an expedition against Egypt, men. The expedition, nevertheless, proved a which was now regarded as the key of the Holy total failure. The Greek emperor, Manuel Com. Land. The expedition was an utter failure. Louis nenus, was hostile; and through the treachery was defeated and taken prisoner by the sultan, and of his emissaries, the army of Conrad was all but obtained his liberty only on the payment of a heavy destroyed by the Turks near Iconium, while that of Louis was wrecked in the defiles of the Pisidian Seventh Crusade. This also was primarily under. Mountains. After a vain attempt to reduce taken by St Louis, but he having died at Tunis Damascus, the relics of this mighty host returned (where he had gone in the hope of baptising its to Europe.

king) in 1270, on his way to Palestine, Prince Third Crusade. —The death-blow, however, to Edward of England, afterwards Edward I., who the kingdom of Jerusalem, and the power of the had originally intended to place himself under the crusaders, was given, not by Noureddin, but by command of St Louis, marched direct for Palestine, Salah-Eddin, commonly called Saladin, a young where his rank and reputation in arms gathered Kurdish chief, who had made himself sultan of round him all who were willing to fight for the Egypt, and who aspired to the suzerainty of the

Nothing of consequence, however, was Mohammedan world. He invaded Palestine, took accomplished ; and Edward soon returned to Eng. town after_town, and finally, in October 1187, land, the last of the crusaders. Acre, Antioch, compelled Jerusalem itself to capitulate, after a and Tripoli still continued in the possession of the siege of fourteen days. The news of this led to Christians, and were defended for some time by the a third crusade, the chiefs of which were Frederick Templars and other military knights ; but in 1291 1. (Barbarossa), emperor of Germany; Philippe Acre capitulated, the other towns soon followed its Auguste, king of France, and Richard Cæur-de- example, and the knights were glad to quit the Lion, king of England. Barbarossa took the country, and disperse themselves over Europe in field first in the spring of 1189, but lost his life by quest of new employment, leaving Palestine in the fever caught from bathing in the Orontes. His undisturbed possession of the Saracens. army, much reduced, joined the forces of the other Besides the great expeditions above enumerated, two monarchs before Acre, which important city there were many others on a lesser scale. These, was immediately besieged. In vain did Saladin however, from the unimportance of their results, attempt to relieve the defenders; and after a be- and the limited numbers engaged in them, do not leaguerment of twenty-three months, the place call for special mention. of the pseudo-crusades, surrendered. But the crusaders were not united three deserve notice for the important results that among themselves. Philippe soon after returned to followed from them. Firstly, in 1209, there was France; and Richard, after accomplishing prodigies that against the Albigenses (9.v.). Secondly, on of valour, which excited the admiration of the the principle that it was binding on the servants Saracens, concluded a treaty with Saladin, by which of the church to do battle with all ontside its pale, 'the people of the West were to be at liberty to in 1230 the Teutonic knights were called on hy make pilgrimages to Jerusalem, exempt from the Gregory IX. to undertake a crusade against the taxes which the Saracen princes had in former heathen Prussians on the shores of the Baltic. times imposed.' This, as has been previously The result was the complete subjugation of the noticed, was all that had been claimed by the first Prussians, and the establishment in their country crusaders. On the 25th of October 1192, Richard of the Teutonic military order till its extinction at set sail for Europe.

the battle of Tannenberg in 1410. Thirdly, in 1262 Fourth Crusaule.-Crusading unfortunately now Urban IV., jealous of the growing power of Man. became a constituent of the papal policy; and in fred, king of Sicily, son of the Emperor Frederick 1203 a fourth expedition was determined upon by 11., offered Manfred's crown to Charles of Anjou, Pope Innocent III., although the condition of the brother of St Louis of France, and gave to this disChristians was by no means such as to call for it. possession the name of a crusade. A protracted It assembled at Venice; but how entirely secular war ensued, which resulted in the House of Anjou crusading had become, will be seen from the fact gaining the kingdom of Naples, and the House of that the army never went to Palestine at all, but Aragon the kingdom of Sicily. The terrible wars preferred to take possession of the Byzantine of the 16th century between France and Spain for empire. The leader of this host of pseudo-crusaders, supremacy in Italy were the direct consequence of Baldwin, Count of Flanders, was seated on the this pseudo-crusade. throne of the East in 1204, and thus founded the Effects of the Crusades.—While we cannot help Latin empire of Constantinople, which lasted for deploring the enormous expenditure of human life fifty-six years. Nothing was achieved in this which the crusades occasioned, it is impossible to crusade for the recovery of Jerusalem, but Inno. overlook the fact that they indirectly exercised a cent had his reward in the temporary supremacy most beneficial influence on modern society. They of the papal see over the Eastern Church.

secured for humanity certain advantages which it Fifth Crusade.-- This was commanded by Frede. is difficult to see could have been otherwise rick’II., emperor of Germany. It began in 1228, obtained. Guizot, in his Lectures on European and terminated in a treaty between that monarch Civilisation, endeavoured to show their design and and the sultan of Egypt, by which Jerusalem (with i function in the destinies of Christendom. •To the CRUSCA

CRUSTACEA

595

first chroniclers,' he says, 'and consequently to the limbs, are very generally distinguishable. The first crusaders, of whom they are but the expres. segmentation is never developed in the Ostracod sion, Mohammedans are objects only of hatred : it water-fleas, and is often lost in degenerate forms. is evident that those who speak of them do not By the development of shields (Apus), bivalve know them. The historians of the later crusades shells (water-fleas), and mantles (Cirripedes), the speak quite differently : it is clear that they look eal form is often obscured. As to appendages, the upon them no longer as monsters ; that they have head usually bears two pairs of 'antennæ, a pair of to a certain extent entered into their ideas ; that mandibles, and two pairs of maxillæ; the thorax is they have lived with them; and that relations, always limb-bearing except in utter degeneracy; and even a sort of sympathy, have been established and the abdomen of the majority also carries between them.' Thus the minds of both, but par: appendages. The typical form of limb, on which ticularly of the crusaders, were partly delivered so many changes are rung, consists of a basal piece from those prejudices which are the offspring of and two more or less jointed forks. The cuticle ignorance. A step was taken towards the enfran. | varies greatly in degree of firmness, but is always chisement of the human mind.' Secondly, the chitinous (see Chitin) and often much calcified, crusaders were brought into contact with two Glands open on various parts of the surface, and civilisations, richer and more advanced than their may be of use for preliminary digestion, for egg. own-the Greek and the Saracenic; and it is attachment, for mooring the animal, &c. The beyond all question that they were mightily struck colouring of the body is often very brilliant and with the wealth and comparative retinement of beautiful (see PIGMENTS). It is sometimes like that the East. Thirdly, the close relationship between of the surroundings, and is occasionally associated the chief laymen of the West and the church, with sexuality. The power of colour change is also occasioned by the crusades, enabled the former 'to not uncommon. Sapphirina is said to rival the inspect more narrowly the policy and motives of humming-bird in its splendour. While the nervous the papal court.' The result was very disastrous system in general retains the Arthropod charac: to that spirit of veneration and belief on which the teristics, the ventral gangļia are often concentrated church lives, and in many cases an extraordinary (as in crabs): The majority possess compound freedom of judgment and hardihood of opinion eyes, which in one large division are stalked. were induced—such as Europe had never before Eyes are absent in some subterranean forms, and dreamed of. The immediate results of the are lost during the development of Cirripedia (q.v.) crusades, however, went altogether to strengthen and many parasites. In the Euphausidæ there are the power of the church. Through their means very numerous eye-like structures or luminous the popes found an easy method of ridding them. organs over the body. Smelling hairs usually occur selves of refractory monarchs; and by the exor. on the first antennæ, and auditory hairs have been bitant taxes levied in the name of the cross they frequently observed, usually more or less inclosed practically rendered all the kingdoms of the West | in sacs. The alimentary system, which consists of their tributaries. Fourthly, great social changes fore, mid, and hind gut, is usually simple, except as were brought about. A commerce between the regards the hard masticating parts often developed East and West sprang up, and towns—the early on the cuticle of the anterior portion. In some para. homes of liberty in Europe-began to grow great sitic forms the entire system degenerates. The and powerful. The crusades, indeed, 'gave mari. body-cavity is usually a good deal filled up by the time commerce the strongest impulse it had ever muscles and viscera; it contains the blood-fluid, received.'

which is occasionally faintly coloured with hæmo. See Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the globin, tetronerythrin, and other pigments, and Roman Empire; Milman's Latin Christianity; Hal includes amboid elements. A heart is usually lam's History of the Middle Ages ; Mill's History of the present in the thoracic region, and is often in. Crurades ; Cox's History of the Crusades ; Heeren's Essay closed in a special part of the body cavity-the on the Influence of the Crusades; the great Recueil des Historiens des Croisades , issued by the Académie des In: by distinct arteries to the bodies, is gathered up, in

In higher forms the blood passes

pericardium. scriptions; and Archer and Kingsford, The Crusades (Nations Series,' 1894); and the articles BALDWIN, and returns to the pericardial sac and heart,

venous spaces and sinuses, is purified in the gills, GODFREY, JERUSALEM, RICHARD I., SALADIN, WILLIAM OF TYRE, &c.

The respiratory system is typically represented Crusca, ACCADEMIA DELLA. See ACADEMY,

by distinct gills variously attached ; in many cases DELLA CRUSCAN SCHOOL.

water flows in and out at the anus, and probably

effects an anal respiration; in many lower forms Crusenstolpe, MAGNUS JAKOR, Swedish the blood is simply purified by being exposed under political writer, was born at Jönköping, 11th the skin. The excretory, system is never very March 1795. He wrote novels, elaborate historical marked. The green glands of higher forms, the works, pamphlets, and contributed to the news, shell-glands of Phyllopods and Copepods, and papers.His Stallningar och Forhollenden, oarried certain other structures, are excretory. The reproon from 1838 till 1865, applied vigorous and unspar. ductive system presents many variations. The ing criticism to the questions and persons of the sexes are usually separate, but most Cirripedes are day. His bitter opposition to government cost him hermaphrodite. In the Cymothoida (Isopoda) three years' imprisonment (1838–41). He died 18th the sexual organ of the young animal is male-of January 1865.

the old, female-in function.' The glands are Crustacea, a large and important class of usually thoracic, and the duets double. Some of Arthropod animals, including crabs, lobsters, the appendages are often modified for copulation or shrimps, sand-hoppers, wood-lice, water-fleas, bar. egg-retaining. The spermatozoa are peculiar in nacles, acorn-shells, &c. The class contains such being usually non-motile. The eggs are in most variety of structure that general characters are cases carried about by the female, but are occa. hard to find. They are almost all aquatic, but a sionally laid on water plants, &c., or in the water. few (e.g. wood-lice and land-crabs) are terrestrial. According to Bates, Podocerus capillatus builds a The majority are marine, but great numbers in nest of interlaced seaweed. Parthenogenesis (q.v.) habit fresh water. The form of the body is very has been observed in some of the lower forms. variable, as may be seen by contrasting crab and ‘Complemental' males occur among the hermaph. barnacle. A head with five pairs of appendages, a rodite Barnacles and Acorn-shells (9.v.). limb-bearing thorax more or less united to the Life-history. The development of Crustaceans former, and a segmented abdomen with or without is usually indirect—that is to say, the newly.

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