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hatched young is unlike, often very unlike, its start at the Zoæa point; lobsters abbreviate still parent. Even when there is no metamorphosis further, and begin as Mysis forms; the crayfish has after hatching, traces of transformation, as opposed found the shortest cut of all. Some of the lower to continuous development, are sometimes to be Crustaceans never get far past the Nauplius stage, detected in the earlier history while the embryo while others remain practically on the Zoæa grade. is still within the egg.case, (a) The crayfish The life-histories of Crustaceans vividly illustrate (Astacus) has a very much abbreviated life-history, how the individual life-history is a rehearsal of the for the newly-hatched form is almost quite like historic evolution of the kind, or more technically, the adult. (B) The newly-hatched lobster (Hom. how ontogeny recapitulates phytogeny. arus ), however, begins life a little further back, Habit of life. The acorn-shells fastened to the in what is known as the Mysis stage, in which rocks, wafting in their food by their curled feet; the thorax bears two-branched swimming append the barnacles moored to floating, logs and shipages. (c) Most other higher Crustaceans (e.g: bottoms; such extremes of parasitism as are illuscrabs ) begin at a still lower level, in what is called trated by Sacculina on hermit crabs; the hermitthe Zoca stage, with a short unjointed thorax and crabs themselves, stealing the shells of Gasteropods, a segmented abdomen without limbs. (d) The or entering into partnership with sea-anemones;

the thousand minute and active water-fleas; the wood-lice, quite terrestrial; the brine-shrimps in the salt-pools; the fresh-water crayfish ; the giant marine lobsters; the land-crabs, habituated to inland life, sufficiently suggest how varied are the habits of Crustaceans. Some Crustaceans form masking shelters for themselves out of Tunicates, or get covered over by a concealing growth of seaweed, sponge, hydroids, &c. A few forms are known to make a stridulating noise. The general intelligence of the class is probably considerable (see CRAB). On the whole the members of this class are active animals, but on each side of the medium activity of the majority there are extremes. Thus, not a few active marine forms are phosphorescent, while parasitism (to the extent of some 700 species) occurs in most of the subdivisions. Many of the parasites are very striking in the contrast between the free-swimming young and the ne plus ultra of degeneracy in the adults (see DEGENERATION, PARASITISM). Some of the interesting cases of Commensalism (9.v.) have been referred to under that title; while some

of the external parasites show in the castration, Development of a Prawn (Penous):

&c. which they effect on their hosts, how real in Q, Nauplius; b, Zoæa; c, Mysis; d, adult.

such cases is the direct influence of the animate

Environment (q.v.). The diet of Crustaceans is Decapod Penæus, a shrimp-like creature, has its very varied; the majority are carnivorous and life-history still more drawn out. It quits the egg aggressive; many feed on dead creatures and as a Nauplius, an unsegmented larva with three organic debris in the water ; others depend largely pairs of appendages, the first unforked, the other upon plants. They often lose limbs in fighting or two pairs double-branched. These correspond to otherwise, and have the power of replacing what the first three appendages of the adult. The median they have lost. eye is also a distinctive feature in the Nauplius Classification (after Claus).—(A) Entomostraca. larva. The Penæus Nauplius has with successive Lower forms, small, simple, with variable number moults first to become a Zova, and then a Mysis, of rings and appendages, with not more than three and then an adult. It is as a Nauplius that the appendages concerned in mastication, usually leav. majority of lower Crustaceans leave the egg, but ing the egg as a nauplius. (1) Phyllopoda : (a) then they do not climb so high. To understand Branchiopoda—e.g. Brine-shrimps (q.v.), Apus, the circuitous life-history of a form like Penæus, Estheria, &c. ; (6) Cladocera—the common 'waterwe have to note that it begins in the Nauplius flea' Daphnia, Moina, &c. (2) Ostracoda-comstage, at the level of the lowest Crustaceans, and mon Cypris (q.v.), Cypridina. (3) Copepodagradually climbs through a series of higher and common Cyclops (q.v.), Lernæa, &c. (4) Cirrihigher stages, each of which is represented per. pedia-Acorn-shells, Barnacles (q.v.), Sacculina, manently by some division of Crustaceans which &c.-(B) Malacostraca. Higher, larger forms, have not risen higher. If the various grades from with nineteen segments, with more than three Nauplius up to Decapod adult represent successive appendages concerned in mastication, usnally historic levels, now exemplified in the classification quitting the egg at a higher level than the Nau. of Crustaceans by those which were left behind at plius : (1) Leptostraca, Nebalia, a primitive form each lift, what the Penæus does is to recapitulate with bivalve shell; (2) Arthrostraca, with free in its individual life-history the historic evolution thorax, and no cephalothoracic shield, eyes ses. of the class. This idea has been beautifully applied sile: (a) Amphipoda-Sand-hoppers (9.v.), Capto Crustaceans in Fritz Müller's Facts for Darwin. rella, &c. ; (6) Isopoda—Wood-lice (q.v.), Asellus, The various grades of Nauplius, Zoæa, Mysis, and Tanais, &c. (3) Thoracostraca, with all or part of adult Penæus (overlooking intermediate ones) thorax fused to head, and with a cephalothoracic may be compared to stations which mark the shield, eyes mostly stalked : (a) Cumacea, sessile gradual extension of the Crustacean line of advance. eyed —Cuma; (6) Stomatopoda, with gills on abPenæus has to travel along the rails laid down by dominal feet-Squilla ; (c) Podophthalmata, with the ancestral history, and has to stop for variable stalked eyes and large shield: (i) Schizopoda, periods at the successive stations between the with eight pairs of double thoracic feet-Mysis; starting point and the terminus. Crabs skip over (ii) Decapoda, with thorax fused to head, and the Nauplius station, and like most other Decapods last five thoracic feet not double ; long-tailed CRYPTOGRAPHY

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

599

in British history, cryptography has at no time disguise of music, the notes, rests, expression. been in greater requisition than during the Civil marks, &c., standing for letters. War. Charles I.'s celebrated letter to the Earl of All the methods, however, of cryptography may Glamorgan (afterwards Marquis of Worcester), in thus be summarised : (1) By invisible ink; (2) which he made some compromising concessions to the by superfluous words ; (3) by misplaced words ; Catholics of Ireland, was composed in an alphabet () by vertical and diagonal reading ; (5) by arti(sometimes supposed to be Charles's own, but more | ficial word-grouping ; (6) by stencil-plates cut out probably Worcester's invention) of twenty-four so as to show certain words beneath ; (7) by using short strokes variously situated upon a line (see two letters (Lord Bacon's cipher); (8) by transOGAM). Other letters by the same monarch are posing the letters ; (9) by substitution of letters ; to appearance a mere series of numbers of two or (10) by counterpart tabulations; (11) by mixed three figures divided by semicolons. In such cases symbols ; (12) by a printed key and code-book, it was necessary that the two parties engaging in used chiefly in telegrams ; (13) by the employment the correspondence should have previously con- of numerals. certed what words each number was to represent. The present century has seen the decline of

In the reign of William III. the Jacobites in. cryptography for all practical purposes, and the art vented many curious ciphers to enable them to is now only regarded as a curious study, closely communicate with their exiled king. All the connected with the history of all nations. Jacobite clubs had distinct methods of their own

Cryptomeria, or JAPANESE CEDAR. This their great aim being to write in such a manner lofty and beautiful hardy coniferous tree (C. that the very ciphers themselves should pass japonica) is widely distributed in mountain dis, through their enemies' hands without suspicion. 'tricts of Japan and China, as well as cultivated This they accomplished by means of sympathetic | in many varieties. inks. A favourite Jacobite cipher was the use of Fortune in 1842, and has since passed into cultiva

It was introduced by Robert parables, conveying, by means of ordinary lan- tion. guage, à double meaning, which only the person cypresses, it is nearly allied to Sequoia and Taxo

Although originally confused with the acquainted with the writer's views would think of. dium. See CONIFERÆ. The use of cryptography for purposes of state in England ended, it may be said, with the Peace of Madagascar, forming a genus and species by itself.

Cryptoprocta, a fierce carnivorous animal of 1815. During the Peninsular war the government Semi-plantigrade, and with beautiful fur, it re; attached a cryptographer to the office of the Minister senibles a large polecat, three feet long, and for Foreign Affairs to read and write the ciphers attacks tlie largest animals with great ferocity. received and despatched. It is said that on more than one occasion the minister was unable to com having a crystalline

structure.

Crystalline Rocks, a name given to all rocks prehend his own cipher.

The crystalline The earliest elaborate treatise on writing in texture may either be original or superinduced. cipher is the Steganographia (Frankf. 1606) of the Thus some crystalline rocks, such as certain cal. abbot John Trithemius, a MS. copy of which was

careous masses, owe their origin to chemical prebought for a thousand crowns at Antwerp by Dr Dee çipitation from water, while others again, such as in 1563. Lord Bacon, who esteemed cryptography lavas, have consolidated from a state of igneous one of the most useful arts of his time, framed fusion. There is another large class of crystalline what he believed a not easily penetrable cipher- rocks, the crystalline granules of which present in which he employed only a and b, arranging each

a remarkable foliated character-that is, they are of these letters in groups of five, in such collocations arranged in more or less parallel layers (see as to represent all the twenty-four letters. Thus Schists). This peculiar schistose structure appears qabab, ababa, babba conveyed the word fly. In to have been superinduced-the original rocks his De Augmentis he styled this an omnia per omnia having been either fragmental or crystalline or cipher, believing that in this case preconcertment

both-and the result of great heat and pressure. would be necessary; but in reality any clever Such highly altered rocks occur in the neighbourmodern decipherer could have read any letter com

hood of masses of granite, and cover wide regions, posed in such a manner if it were of any length.

where there is abundant evidence to show that the Mr Donnelly, in his work The Great Cryptogram, siva, crashing, and crumpling-having been othed

strata have been subjected to enormous compres, in the Shakespearian plays -- which he claims is and fractured and pushed violently over each other

It the

work of the great philosopher-but the cipher for distances of sometimes 15 miles and more. is, of so elaborate a kind that nobody but Mr is therefore believed that pressure and the heat Donnelly has been able to follow its intricacies. engendered by great earth-movements, and the in. The unfortunate Earl of Argyll used a mode of trusion of plutonic igneous matter, are among the secret writing which consisted in setting down the most potent agencies in the production of schistose words at certain intervals, which he afterwards structure. filled up with other words, making of the whole Crystallites, minute non-polarising bodies (the something intelligible, but of no use to any one result of incipient crystallisation) occurring in the else reading the message. The Marquis of 'Wor- vitreous portions of igneous rocks. See IGNEOUS cester invented a cipher composed of dots and lines Rocks. variously ordered within a geometrical figure ; while

Crystallography (from the Greek krustallos, Dr Blair made one of three dots, placed over, under, ice, an idea anong the ancients being that or on the line, by which he could represent no rock-crystal, which may be taken as a type of fewer than eighty-one letters, figures, or words. crystalline minerals, resulted from the subjection The Doctor, in his able article in Rees's Cyclopedin, of water to intense cold). Minerals, salts, and in. declares this cipher to be as nearly as possible organic bodies generally (examples, rock-crystal, undecipherable by strangers ; but two years after. Huor-spar, alum, and sugar) exist in the crystalline warıls, Mr Gage, of Norwich, published a pamphlet state ; and when we examine all crystals, whether on purpose to solve Dr Blair's riddle. devoted fourteen closely printed octavo pages to laws have been discovered, and phenomena observed,

As he occurring naturally or obtained artificially, certain the explanation, any description of the cipher is and these laws and phenomena constitute the

The following are the a well-known expert of the 15th century, also more important laws and principles of the science : derised a plan of conveying information in the (1) Law of Constancy of Angles.-Crystals of the

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hatched young is unlike, often very unlike, its start at the Zoæa point ; lobsters abbreviate still parent. Even when there is no metamorphosis further, and begin as Mysis forms; the crayfish has after hatching, traces of transformation, as opposed found the shortest cut of all. Some of the lower to continuous development, are sometimes to be Crustaceans never get far past the Nauplius stage, detected in the earlier history while the embryo while others remain practically on the Zoæa grade. is still within the egg case. (a) The crayfish The life-histories of Crustaceans vividly illustrate (Astacus) has a very much abbreviated life-history, how the individual life-history is a rehearsal of the for the newly-hatched form is almost quite like historic evolution of the kind, or more technically, the adult. (8) The newly-hatched lobster (Hom. how ontogeny recapitulates phytogeny arus ), however, begins life a little further back, Habit of Life. The acorn-shells fastened to the in what is known as the Mysis stage, in which rocks, wafting in their food by their curled feet ; the thorax bears two-branched swimming append the barnacles moored to floating, logs and shipages. (c) Most other higher Crustaceans (e.g. bottoms; such extremes of parasitism as are illus. crabs) begin at a still lower level, in what is called trated by Sacculina on hermit-crabs; the hermitthe Zova stage, with a short unjointed thorax and crabs themselves, stealing the shells of Gasteropods, a segmented abdomen without limbs. (d) The or entering into partnership with sea-anemones;

the thousand minute and active water-fleas; the wood-lice, quite terrestrial; the brine-shrimps in the salt-pools; the fresh-water crayfish ; the giant marine lobsters; the land-crabs, habituated to inland life, sufficiently suggest how varied are the habits of Crustaceans. Some Crustaceans form masking shelters for themselves out of Tunicates, or get covered over by a concealing growth of seaweed, sponge, hydroids, &c. A few forms are known to make a stridulating noise. The general intelligence of the class is probably considerable (see CRAB). On the whole the members of this class are active animals, but on each side of the medium activity of the majority there are extremes. Thus, not a few active marine forms are phosphorescent, while parasitism (to the extent of some 700 species) occurs in most of the subdivisions. Many of the parasites are very striking in the contrast between the free-swimming young and the ne plus ultra of degeneracy in the adults (see DEGENERATION, PARASITISM). Some of the interesting cases of Commensalism (9.v.) have been referred to under that title; while some

of the external parasites show in the castration, Development of a Prawn (Penæus):

&c. which they effect on their hosts, how real in a, Nauplius; 6, Zoxa; c, Mysis ; d, adult.

such cases is the direct influence of the animate

Environment (q.v.). The diet of Crustaceans is Decapod Penæus, a shrimp-like creature, has its very varied; the majority are carnivorous and life-history still more drawn out. It quits the egg aggressive; many feed on dead creatures and as a Nauplius, an unsegmented larva with three organic debris in the water; others depend largely pairs of appendages, the first unforked, the other upon plants. They often lose limbs in fighting or two pairs double-branched. These correspond to otherwise, and have the power of replacing what the first three appendages of the adult. The median they have lost. eye is also a distinctive feature in the Nauplius Classification (after Claus).—(A) Entomostraca. lárva. The Penæus Nauplius has with successive Lower forms, small, simple, with variable number moults first to become a Zoæa, and then a Mysis, of rings and appendages, with not more than three and then an adult. It is as a Nauplius that the appendages concerned in mastication, usually leav: majority of lower Crustaceans leave the egg, but ing the egg as a nauplius. (1) Phyllopoda : (a) then they do not climb so high. To understand Branchiopodae. g. Brine-shrimps (q.v.), Apus

, the circuitous life-history of a form like Penæus, Estheria, &c. ; (b) Cladocera—the common 'water. we have to note that it begins in the Nauplius Alea' Daphnia, Moina, &c. (2) Ostracoda-comstage, at the level of the lowest Crustaceans, and mon Cypris (q.v.), Cypridina. (3) Copepodagradually climbs through a series of higher and common Cyclops (q.v.), Lernæa, &c. (4) Cirrihigher stages, each of which is represented per. pedia-Acorn-shells, Barnacles (q.v.), Sacculina, manently by some division of Crustaceans which &c.-(B) Malacostraca. Higher, larger forms, have not risen higher. If the various grades from with nineteen segments, with more than three Nauplius up to Decapod adult represent successive appendages concerned in mastication, usually historic levels, now exemplified in the classification quitting the egg at a higher level than the Nauof Crustaceans by those which were left behind at plius : (1) Leptostraca, Nebalia, a primitive form each lift, what the Penæus does is to recapitulate with bivalve shell; (2) Arthrostraca, with free in its individual life-history the historic evolution thorax, and no cephalothoracic shield, eyes sesof the class. This idea has been beautifully applied sile: (a) Amphipoda-Sand-hoppers (9.v.), Capto Crustaceans in Fritz Müller's Facts for Darwin. rella, &c. ; (6) Isopoda—Wood-lice (9.v.), Asellus, The various grades of Nauplius, Zoæa, Mysis, and Tanais, &c. (3) Thoracostraca, with all or part of adult Penæus (overlooking intermediate ones) thorax fused to head, and with a cephalothoracic may be compared to stations which mark the shield, eyes mostly stalked : (a) Cumacea, sessilegradual extension of the Crustacean line of advance. eyed-Cuma ; (6) Stomatopoda, with gills on abPenæus has to travel along the rails laid down by dominal feet-Squilla ; (c) Podophthalmata, with the ancestral history, and has to stop for variable stalked eyes and large shield: (i) Schizopoda, periods at the successive stations between the with eight pairs of double thoracic feet-Mysis; starting point and the terminus. Crabs skip over (ii) Decapoda, with thorax fused to head, and the Nauplius station, and like most other Decapods last five thoracic feet not double ; long-tailed

CRUTCHED FRIARS

CRYPT

597

Craveilhier, Jean, physician Pathology

Macrura)-e.g. Crayfish (q.v.), Lobster; short. Friars. They came to England in the 13th century, tailed (Brachyura), Crabs.

and had monasteries in London (which still gives Distribution in Space and Time.—a) Deep- name to a street), Oxford, and Reigate. sea forms are very abundant, and often remarkable

JEAN

, *for their colossal size, their bizarre forms, and Limoges in 1791, became professor of Pathology brilliant red colouring.' Blind species are known at Montpellier in 1824, and of Pathological Ana. to occur in the depths, and others are brilliantly tomy in Paris in 1836. Besides his great work, phosphorescent: 16) Pelagic surface Crustaceans Anatomie Pathologique du Corps Humain (2 vols. (especially Schizopods and Entomostraca) are very | 1828-42), he published several other works on abundant, and often form a large part of the food anatomy, which were for many years the most of fishes. They are often beautifully transpar. valuable French contributions to their subject, ent, and hardly to be seen in the water. Less and also a Life of Dupuytren (1840). He died 6th frequently they are brilliantly coloured (as in March 1874. Sapphirina) or phosphorescent. Some of them are remarkable for their large eyes. One Amphipod Welsh stringed instrument. Four of its six strings

Crwth (pronounce the w as French u), an old Crustacean presents a curious mimicry of a Medusoid form. Decapods are most abundant in the twitched by the thumb.

were played with a bow, the other two being warmer waters. (c) Crustaceans form an important part of the relatively sparse and uniform fauna of

Cryolite, a mineral which exists in great abund. lakes. They occur both on the surface and at the of a fuoride of aluminium in combination with

ance on the coast of Greenland. It consists mainly bottom, the latter being generally more sluggish. Fluoride of Sodium, 6NaF, A1,F. The surface forms, at anyrate, are usually per

The metal fectly transparent, with the exception of the eye.

Aluminium (q.v.) was formerly largely obtained (d) The catalogue of terrestrial Crustaceans, which from it, but it is now most important as a source includes species of Amphipods, Isopods, and Deca- of alum and of soda bicarbonate ; much of it, also, pods, is relatively a very short one.

is melted and made into a kind of glass, The Crustacea date back to Canıbrian times, but Cryophorus (Gr. kryos, cold,' and phero, 'I the highest forms (Decapods) were not firmly carry') is an instrument consisting of a glass tube established till the Tertiary period.

Some 800 with a bulb at both ends, used for showing the fossil species, as against over 5000 living forms, are

diminution of temperature in water by evapora. known. Some of the genera-e.g. Estheria—from tion. In constructing it the whole of the air is the Devonian, are marvellously persistent, and extracted, leaving practically a vacuum inside. survive from ancient epochs as still very successful little water is present in one of the bulbs, and and widely distributed forms. The Trilobites when the second bulb, containing only water(q.v.) are not now regarded as true Crustaceans. vapour, is placed in a freezing mixture, the vapour (For distribution, see Heilprin, Inter. Sc. Series, condenses, which causes more vapour to rise from 1887.)

the water in the first bulb. The result of this Pedigree. It is usually believed that Crustacea vaporation from the first bulb is the abstraction of are descended from a 'primitive Phyllopod-like much heat, and ultimately the remaining water ancestor, and this from a segmented worm-type. passes into a frozen state. The very constant occurrence of a Nauplius larva Crypt (Gr. krypto, 'I hide'). In the early days bas led zoologists to regard it as representing a of persecution the Christians were accustomed for remote ancestor. The lines of differentiation chiefly security to worship in the catacombs or crypts where consisted in the development and manifold modifi. they buried their dead (see CATACOMBS). When cation of the fundamentally similar appendages, persecution ceased, this custom led to the erection and in the perfecting of the exoskeleton as a base of churches over the graves of martyrs and saints; for muscular attachment. (See Herdman's Classi- but at a later date the bodies of the saints were fication of Animals, Lond. 1885.)

transferred to chambers, constructed to resemble Economic Importance. -Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, the catacombs, under the sanctuary or altar of the shrimps, prawns, &c. form part of our food-supply: new churches, in order to add to their sanctity. Others are indirectly useful as important parts of These crypts and their sacred shrines were visited the food of herrings and other fishes. Many are by numerous pilgrims, and were frequently condoubtless useful in purifying the water from structed for the accommodation of the devotees, of organic debris, while others are the hosts of im- sufficient size to admit a number at a time, who portant parasites-e.g. the Cyclops species, which descended by one stair, and ascended by another. contains Dracunculus medinenis.

In other cases the crypts were so placed that the See ACORN-SHELLS, BARNACLE, BRINE-SHRIMP, CIRRI: shrine of the saint could be seen from the aisles of PEDIA, COPEPODA, CRAB, CRAYFISH, CYPRIS, CYCLOPS, the choir, the floor of which was necessarily raised LOBSTER, PRAWN, SHRIMP, WATER-FLEA, &c. ; also Com considerably above the level of the nave. Crypts MENSALISM, PARASITISM, PARTHENOGENESIS, &c., and of these kinds were usual in the early centuries, references under above articles. For further details, and many examples of them have been preserved in consult general text-books of Brooks (Boston, 1882), Italy and France, even where the churches over Claus, Gegenbaur, Huxley, Rolleston and Hatchett them have been rebuilt. The crypt of the Circular Jackson ; also Baird, British Entomostraca (Ray Soc. 1850); Balfour's Embryology; Bell, British Stalk-eyed largest. There a great circular aperture in the

church of St Bénigne at Dijon was one of the Crustacea (Lond. 1856); Challenger Reports (several); Claus, Genealogy of Crustacea (1876); Dana, Crustacea

centre of the floor of the upper church enabled a of U.S. Exploring Expedition (Phila. 1852); Gerstäcker very large congregation of pilgrims, including those in Bronn's Thierreich, Huxley's Crayfish (1881); Milne

in the crypt, to see the shrine of the saint, and Edwards, Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés (Paris, 183+ witness any ceremony taking place there. 40); the Monographs of the Naples Station ( several); After the 13th century crypts were not so much F. Müller, Facts for Darwin (1869); Sars, Fresh-water | in use. The great cathedrals were regarded as Crustacea of Norway (Christiania, 1867); Spence Bate much in the light of civil as of ecclesiastical edifices, and Westwood, British Sessile-cycd Crustacea (1863–68) and the floor of the choir was brought down to the Stebbing, A History of Crustacea (1893).

level of the rest of the building. It sometimes Crutched Friars, an order of friars, carry: happened that owing to the slope of the site con. ing in their hand a staff, on the top of which siderable underbuilding was required under the was a cross, received the name of Croisiers (Fr. choir, in which case an under church was concroix, cross'), corrupted into Crouched or Crutched I structed, which was called by the old name of the

598

CRYPTOGAMIA

CRYPTOGRAPHY

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crypt, and was generally used for sepulchral pur. key to decipher letters so written, to what purposes. The crypt of Canterbury is one of the finest pose would they be intercepted by such a deed ? of this kind. The crypt of Glasgow Cathedral is in these modern times, however, there has been so

great an improvement in the morals of governments that the custom of killing foreign-office messengers for the sake of their despatch-bags is entirely obsolete in diplomacy, and statesmen have ceased to pillage post offices or rifle portmanteaus for cryptographic messages.

Most of the odd knacks, contrivances, decoys, blinds, nowemployed by cryptographers were to some extent known to and employed by the ancients. Substituting points for vowels; arranging threads, knots, or ink-spots at determinate distances; substituting one letter for another; inventing new arbitrary characters for whole words or even sentences-now made use of extensively in telegraph codes ; abbreviating words in their prefixes and affixes; writing a long sentence of nonsense, with a clue to find the words which gave the proper sense—all were brought into requisition, Perhaps the most amusing of all cryptographs was the one mentioned by Herodotus. Histiæus, a Greek at

the Persian court, being desirous of sending a secret Crypt, Canterbury Cathedral

message to Aristagoras at Miletus, selected a slave who was afflicted with bad eyes, and shaved his head,

pretending that it was necessary for his recovery, also a very beautiful example, the vaulting over the shrine of St Mungo being pointed out by Sir intention in legible characters on the man's head,

In performing this, Histiæus inprinted his secret Gilbert Scott in his lectures as one of the best and kept him in close confinement till his hair grew specimens of its class.

again, when he sent him to Aristagoras for a perfect Cryptogamia. This term was introduced by cure. Aristagoras repeated the shaving, read the Linnæus as the twenty-fourth and last class of his writing underneath, and thus obtained the desired system of classification, and broadly with its information by means of the unconscious mespresent contents. The name, however (Gr. kryp. senger. tos, concealed,' and gamos, ‘marriage'), in opposi. One of the simplest methods of cryptography is tion to flowering plants (Phanerogamia, q.v.)to use instead of each letter of the alphabet a records its donor's well-founded expectation that certain other letter at a regular interval in advance. sexual reproduction would one day be discovered. Such was a mode of secret writing adopted by Jussieu proposed to distinguish them as Acotyle. Julius Cæsar. As a variety of this plan, the alphadones from monocotyledons and dicotyledons; but bet is used invertedly, 2 for a, y for b, r for e, the term has necessarily lapsed for many reasons. and so on ; or, while the first seven letters are De Candolle distinguished" them into two great represented by the second seven, the next six may groups, Cellulares and Vasculares, while End. be represented by the last six. And many other licher's separation of the vegetable kingdom into variations may be adopted. But the deciplierment Thallophytes and Cormophytes still further re

of such messages is naturally not difficult, and with cognised their vast morphological range. Armed a little consideration of the peculiarities of the with the microscope more recent investigators English language, all the ups and downs of many have determined the life-history and mode of an interesting love story related in cipher in the reproduction of all the leading types, so not only columns of the Times can be followed from start to amply confirming the hypothesis of Linnæus, or finish with comparative ease. It is known that e is even still further increasing their morphological the most frequent letter ; that the is the commonest importance as compared with Phanerogams, but word; that ea and ou are the double vowels which entirely revolutionising our interpretation of the most frequently occur ; that the consonants most flowering plants themselves, since leading us to common at the ends of words are r, s, and t, &e. view them as more profoundly cryptogamic than We also know that a word of a single letter must the cryptogams. The separate groups of crypto- be either the pronoun I, or the vowels a or 0; that gamic plants are outlined in the articles ALGÆ,

an, at, on, to, of, and in are the most common words SEAWEEDS, BACTERIA, FUNGI, LICHENS, MOSSES, of two letters; that the and and are the most freFERNS, RhizocaRPS, HORSE-TAIL, LYCOPODIUM, quent words in three letters, that the most usual SELAGINELLA ; while their relation to higher plants doubled letters are ee, oo, 11, 88, f ; that double is explained under PHANEROGAMIA, FLOWER, vowels are mostly followed by l, m, n, r; that the GYMNOSPERMS.

letter a begins three two-letter words in very ex. Cryptography, the art of secret writing, also tensive use-an, as, at; that the letter o begins or called Writing in Cipher, Hieroglyphic Writing, ends eight two-letter words in very common useSecret Writing, Steganography, Polygraphy, has do, go, no, so, to, of, on, or ; that more words in a been in use from an early date in correspondence sentence of average English begin with t than with between diplomatists and others engaged in import. any other letter; that in about three-fourths of ant affairs requiring secrecy. Every government all the words in a sentence, either the first or the used to employ its staff of decipherers, who availed second letter is a vowel; that among consonants, themselves of extraordinary means for interpreting d and h are most largely used, after which come despatches which (fairly or unfairly) came into their n, s, r, t; that the letter q is always followed by possession. The cipherers and the decipherers u; that no English word of two letters or more waged a constant struggle to outwit each other; ends with i. All these considerations will guide us the one by constructing new difficulties; the other to the solution of any simple cipher, enabling a by conquering the difficulties as soon as constructed. skilful decipherer to read almost any ordinary How often we hear of a courier being murdered piece of cryptographic writing in a very short and his despatches carried off! And without the time.

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